The present study examined the impact of comprehensive support with the addition of an objective application condition for assertive responding on the formation and maintenance of school attendance behavior in an eighth grader intermittently absent from school. His non-attendance to school was considered the pre-condition of physical symptoms resulting from negative anticipation of specific classes due to lack of assertive behavior, expression condition of his parents’ response to his physical symptoms complaints by only giving him time off from school, and maintaining condition of stress reduction by staying at home. To shape school attendance behavior by reducing the pre-condition and removing the expression and maintaining conditions, assertive responding was applied after establishing the applicable conditions. After seven sessions (approximately three months) aimed at preparing for the application of assertive responding, 27 sessions of remote support and one mother-child interview were conducted to implement his assertion skill at school. After he completed his assertion skill development at school, he had no absences for three years of high school, approximately a year before he graduated from middle school. The conditions proposed in this study were demonstrated to be effective.
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between university students’ self-disclosure to their friends, receptive responses from their friends, and depression, based on the depth of the content of self-disclosure. We conducted a longitudinal survey of university students recruited through an internet survey service. Participants were surveyed for one month at two time points. Correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analyses was conducted using data from 350 participants who responded at both time points. The results showed that those who were more likely to receive a receptive response from their friends were more likely to engage in more profound levels of self-disclosure, such as talking about negative characteristics and abilities. Additionally, receiving a receptive response from friends after engaging in more profound levels of self-disclosure results in fewer depressive symptoms. However, there was a risk of depressive symptoms worsening when deep-level self-disclosure did not elicit a receptive response from friends. Therefore, deep-level self-disclosure should be encouraged and the appropriate skills to obtain receptive responses from others should be developed.
This study reviewed articles related to behavioral treatments for depression to summarize the process of target behavior selection and describe behavioral measurements in outpatient settings. Numerous international and domestic databases were used to select 11 articles. Of these, multiple target behaviors were reported in 10 articles, and continuous behavioral measurements were featured in seven articles. The selection processes were categorized based on 1) the program, 2) the client’s hopes, 3) the client’s values, and 4) the daily life assessment. The positioning of each targeted behavior was summarized as 1) increasing the targeted behavior as the main objective, and 2) increasing it to achieve other purposes. However, few descriptions have been related to the process of clinical decision-making to achieve target behavior selection in general. Therefore, it is recommended that related information be described in detail to improve treatment quality.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is known to have a high prevalence in childhood. However, empirical studies for ODD are scarce, especially case studies of multidisciplinary collaboration and behavioral intervention. In this case study, a behavioral intervention based on multidisciplinary collaboration was conducted with a boy with ODD who exhibited defiant behavior toward his mother, and its effectiveness was examined using a single-case experimental design. The intervention consisted of home and school visits in which antecedent control, the token economy, and the formation of leisure-time behaviors were introduced. Consequently, aggravating and destructive behaviors were reduced and the acquisition of leisure-time behaviors was confirmed. These effects were maintained at the one-year and two-year follow-up periods. These results suggest that behavioral interventions based on multidisciplinary collaboration may be effective for ODD.