This review described the definition of pro-and prebiotics, and their functions and problems to be solved. Probiotics and prebiotics are functional Foods, which adjust the function and balance of intestinal microflora to be more beneficial and less risky to health. Probiotics in a viable form suppress the metabolism or population of harmful bacteria. Prebiotics are indigestible and fermentable oligosaccharides and polysaccharides including dietary fibers that are stimulators to growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria and consequently suppress the growth or metabolism of harmful bacteria. Probiotics sometimes supply with themselves the deficient or abnormal intestinal microflora that appear during and after the chemotherapeutic treatment, and correct an abnormal balance of the microflora in premature infants and elderly persons. The intestinal microflora may be hypothesized to consist of different bacteraial networks, which are not always in intact form. Probiotic bacteria supplement or activate the intestinal bacterial network with defects in respect of population level or metabolic activity. In this context intestinal bacteria other than bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria may be also candidates for probiotic bacteria. Prebiotics activate the bacterial metabolism and increase the population of the specific bacterial species to result in the satisfaction of the bacterial network beneficial to health. Pro-and prebiotics will be furthermore anticipated in future in maintenance or improvement of the human life without risk or with risk to health, respectively.
We conducted a clinical trial in order to evaluate the effects of continual ingestion of indigestible dextrin on both glucose and lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation and its distribution in human subjects. There were twelve male subjects with either serum total-cholesterol level more than 220 mg/dl or triacylglycerol level more than 150 mg/dl. Subjects were concurrently ingested l0g of indigestible dextrin with meal (3 times/day) for three month. Each was subjected to a glucose tolerance test and CT scan at umbilical level, and also taken blood sample to measure the clinical laboratory data before and after the test period. Compared to the starting levels, percent body fat in all the subjects and the area of visceral fat in subjects with obesity were significantly decreased. Although the average peak level of serum glucose was more than 200 mg/dl at 60 min after 75 g glucose administration, glucose tolerance was improved and the average levels of serum glucose at 30, 60, and 120 min were significantly reduced after the test period. Likewise, serum total-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced. No adverse event such as diarrhea was observed through the test period. In conclusion, continual ingestion of indigestible dextrin is useful for reducing the body fat accumulation, especially visceral fat.
Hyaluronic acids (HAs) weighing 720, 440, 90 and 5.3K were added to walleye Pollack surimi, which was washed using 15mM Tris-maleate buffer, pH 7.0, in the amounts of 2, 8, 8 and 8%, respectively. All washed surimis were stored at -20°C for 40 days and the changes in the Ca2+ - ATPase activities were followed. Then it was clarified that HA with a lower MW was more effective on the deterioration of muscle proteins during storage at -20°C. Moreover, HA weighing 3.8K was added to the washed surimi to comprise 2, 4, 6 or 8% and stored at -20°C for 20 days. The Ca2+ -ATPase activities of the washed surimi with 2 and 4% HA weighing 3.8K were high after 20 days of storage, and did not significantly differ from the levels before storage.
Joint ICC/AOAC International Conference Dietary Fiber-2000, Processing, Milling and Nutritional Effects, was held at Dublin, Ireland on May 13th -18th, 2000. Out of 32 countries, more than three hundreds (319) peoples joined the Conference, at the Berkeley Court Hotel and Jurys Hotel, to present and discuss the results studied on the physiological and clinical effects as well as the properties of dietary fibers, together with their historical and manufacturing aspects.