The objective of this study is to clarify the guidance behaviors of homeroom teachers who can manage to develop “inclusive classrooms,” defined as well-running classrooms particularly adapting children with suspected or diagnosed as developmental disabilities, in regular elementary school classrooms. A continuous interview survey was conducted with three teachers who developed inclusive classrooms, and the data were classified and organized using the KJ method. As a result, it was revealed that the guidance behaviors of homeroom teachers who can develop inclusive classrooms (hereafter referred to as [the inclusive guidance behaviors]) includes five functions: (1) Assessment; (2) Maintenance; (3) Performance; (4) Advocacy; and (5) Request. Moreover, as a distinctive and central function of the guidance behaviors for inclusive classrooms, the analysis identified a role of the teacher as an advocate and interpreter (advocacy function) in developing a relationship between children with special needs and their classmates with normal development.
This study 1) developed a university athletes’ psychological dependency scale on family relationships and 2)
examined these scores on family relationships differed according to entrance admissions based on special recommendation for sports. Participants included 311 Japanese university athletes (202 males, 108 females, 1 unknown; mean age: 19.59, SD: 0.76). They were requested to complete a set of questionnaires, such as data on demographic variables, questions about special admission recommendations for sports, family relationship dependency scale for university athletes (shown as FRDSUA hereafter), and a questionnaire about interpersonal dependence. The factor analysis results revealed a 4-factor solution of the FRDSUA. The reliability and validity of the scale were statistically satisfied. The results of T-tests found that scores of the sports recommendation group were significantly higher than those of the non-sports recommendation group on the cocooned, dominated, invaded, and emotionally unguided in the family relationship dependency scale. These results indicated that top athletes admitted to university based on a sports recommendation had high psychological dependency scores on family relationships. Top university athletes who had been competing in sports since childhood experienced psychological co-dependency and immature relationships with their parents or surrogates. This means that it is required to support university athletes rebuilding the relationships with their parents or surrogates to develop athletes’ independence.
This study is a case study of applying the successive approximation to a certain child who refused to participate in the whole school chorus in an elementary school. And this is a report to consider the effect of the technique. In the successive approximation, 13 levels of lower goal behavior were set and implemented. The final goal was to move to the stage by himself without being prompted by the teacher, and to stand in the correct position and sing loudly. As a result, the child gradually felt more confident by achieving each lower goal sequentially, and was able to adapt to the whole school chorus scene. This report shows that the intervention used in this study was an effective means to achieve the action target. In addition, the reason why the successive approximation was effective in this study was that (1) it was properly performed depending on the actual condition of the child, and (2) the teacher was involved in the child with a counseling mind. This study suggested that the successive approximation may be effective for other children who cannot participate in school events in the educational setting.
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of LTD (Learning Through Discussion) on University students who enrolled in the course of School Health Theory. At the end of the course, each student was requested to review the session in free writing style and the reports were scaled by the capacity level of improving discussion skill, and made into high and low level groups depending on the results. By the quality analysis on each group, how effective the LTD influenced on the students was pursued. The analysis method was proceeded following the procedure, expecting to find the effect of LTD on the students in the contents of their writing. The following four criteria were used to determine the categories: “progress and coping with the situation,” “positive participation and self-assertion,” “consideration and understanding of others,” and “creating the atmosphere.” The median of the scores was set as the base to determine the groups, “high” or “low,” and summarized data in each group were qualitatively analyzed. The results showed that each group of the criteria had wider discerning and understanding, the affirmative change towards self-mature, etc., and the notable effects on the university students were found from the sub-categories and codes of the various learning aspects.
The purpose of this study is to carry out peer support activities for the student who unwillingly enrolled in the
high school of a special needs school for intellectual disabilities, that number of enrollments has been increasing
in recent years, and clarify the results and issues. The targeted student repeatedly said and acted negatively to the
special needs school from the beginning and had low self-affirmation toward herself enrolled in the school. However, as she continued her peer support activities, her sense of belonging to the group, trust in others, and self-usefulness gradually changed, and she was able to make a career choice that took advantage of her strengths.
Peer support activities are often carried out in regular education at present, but I think these activities should be
actively utilized in the field of special needs education in the future.
In Japan, we aim at promoting the Inclusive Education. The purpose of this study was to examine the facilitative
means for building up the relationships in the class of a standard public school which includes some pupils with special needs. The target class was a class of third graders at an elementary school with special needs who exhibit aggressive behavior. We conducted SGE (Structured Group Encounter) based on an assessment of the class condition shared with the homeroom teacher. As a result, the examination of Satisfaction with School Life Scale showed the increase of “feeling of acceptance” score and the decrease of “feeling of victimization” score. Also, the examination of School Morale Scale showed the increase of “social motivation” score and “classroom climate” score. These results suggested that conducting SGE based on an assessment of the class condition shared with a homeroom teacher would improve the relationships of the children in a standard public school class having some pupils with special needs.
The school education in the year of 2020 had a severe circumstance under the restriction of so-called “San-Mitsu”, Three Cs: 1. Closed spaces with poor ventilation, 2. Crowded place with many people, and 3. Close-contact settings to avoid the New COVID-19, where the major method of the education counseling, Structured Group Encounter, as well as a pair Conversation, and/or Group Work could not be operated. It was especially important how to teach the new way of living style to the students in the Special Needs Class. On the other hand, practicing “the Independent and conversational deep learning,” avoiding the 3C’s, it was essential to lead a class where students can come without worry and to set up a study friendly environment. In order to achieve these objectives, 2 educational methods were operated: 1. Common understanding of the conversation with the classmates, and 2. Study construction to exchange ideas with the classmates through learning new information about COVID-19 from the electronic version of the newspaper, by means of the close connection with their parents. After three months of these 2 operation practices, individual interest, friendly atmosphere in the class and interactive friendships were observed.