This study examined strategies and methods of support for the homeless for maintaining effective continuity and preventing dissolution of relationships between the homeless and their supporters, approaching the matter through action research. A crucial issue surrounding the homelessness is the wide array of societal problems, such as inequality and desertion by supporters. We put our focus on a rehabilitation center that provides temporary housing for the homeless, with the aim to create a contingency plan for maintaining the relationship between the homeless and their supporters, while averting inequality. Our findings showed that contingency factors mediate the effect of strategic practices in building lasting relationships. We concluded that those who have high standards of work ethics were not likely to be recipients of continuous support.
Recent cross-cultural research shows that North Americans feel greater intimacy toward their relationship partner than East Asians. The purpose of the current study was to: 1) attempt to replicate this difference; and 2) investigate whether the difference could be explained by a socio-ecological factor, namely relational mobility. In particular, we assumed societies high in relational mobility, where competition abounds in interpersonal relationships, intimacy should be adaptive, acting as a commitment device to strengthen relationships. To examine this hypothesis, we asked Japanese and Canadian participants about the level of intimacy they feel toward their best friend, romantic partner, and closest family member. We also asked them to rate the level of relational mobility in their surrounding social environment. The results indicated that, consistent with previous studies, Canadians reported feeling greater intimacy toward their best friend and romantic partner than Japanese. Moreover, this cultural difference in the level of intimacy toward a best friend was mediated by relational mobility.
This study tested the hypothesis that paradoxical effects of ease of retrieval can be attributed to changes in retrieval strategy prompted by difficulty experienced. Participants in the expectancy condition were presented expectations about personality traits of others. Subsequently, all participants were presented with a list of others’ behaviors, which included items congruent and incongruent with expectations. Associative memory links were assumed to form between items in the expectancy condition. Participants in Experiment 1 were requested to recall one (easy) or four (difficult) congruent items. Participants in Experiment 2 recalled two congruent items and inputted them with fluently (easy) or disfluently (difficult) perceived color fonts. Results indicated that, when participants experienced difficulty in recall in the expectancy condition, their judgments were opposite to the recalled contents. These effects were mediated by spontaneous recall of incongruent items. This mediational pattern was not observed in the no-expectancy condition. The results suggest that difficulty facilitates an exhaustive item search in associative memory and judgments are based on spontaneously recalled information during this search process.
This study tested the effect of gender category label on likability ratings of people who engage in gender-stereotyped behaviors (male-stereotyped behaviors or female-stereotyped behaviors), focusing on the negative aspects of stereotyped behaviors. In the experiment, participants’ sex (male or female) and category label (male, femaleor unlabeled) were the independent variables. Participants were asked to read sentences describing gender stereotyped behaviors, then. evaluate the likability of the target (male, female, or unknown). Results indicated that when the gender category label consistent with negatively stereotyped behavior was associated, negative impressions of the target (i.e., a stereotype-consistent person) were moderated only when evaluators were outgroup. Furthermore, when the opposite gender category label was associated with negatively gender-stereotyped behavior, the target (i.e., a stereotype-inconsistent person) was evaluated negatively. Also, this negative evaluation was most prominent when a male label was associated with female-stereotyped behavior.
This study investigated the relationship among body outcome expectancies of others’ evaluation, and the level of closeness and target sex. Two hundred thirty-five females responded to a questionnaire measuring positive/negative outcome expectancies pertaining to one’s body regarding six targets based on closeness (friend, acquaintance and stranger) × sex (male and female) in two situations (shopping and swimming). The results indicated that the level of body outcome expectancies of others’ evaluation for swimming was greater than that for shopping. Furthermore, the level of body outcome expectancies of others’ evaluation differed by closeness and target sex. It was suggested that consciousness about one’s body affects body outcome expectancies of others’ evaluation.
Previous studies indicate that communal norms are ideal for close relationships. The present study investigated whether we flexibly regulate communal norms corresponding to our partner’s responsiveness, rather than adhering to them as an expectation of any close relationship. This study also investigated whether attachment anxiety moderates the regulation of communal norms. The results of two surveys (150 participants in Survey 1; 188 participants in Survey 2) revealed that those who recollected their partner’s (romantic, or close friend’s) past unresponsive behavior, compared to those who did not, showed weaker adherence to communal norms. Such recollections, however, led those with high attachment anxiety to stronger adherence to communal norms, especially in romantic relationships. These results were discussed from the perspective of risk regulation in close relationships.
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