This study examined the emergence of the post-explanation effect. Explanations have a recursive effect on perceptions of the explained object, focusing on the perception of reality of things whose existence is ambiguous. This study also tested the hypothesis that the higher the self-evaluation of the explanation, the higher the perception of reality of existence for the explained object to clarify variables related to the effect’s magnitude. In two experiments, participants imagined and explained the purpose of use and background of developing a novel product and rated the product’s reality of existence before and after the explanation. The analysis revealed that participants in Experiment 1 who explained the cubic soccer ball rated its reality of existence higher after than before the explanation. Experiment 2 showed that among the self-evaluations, the plausibility of the explanation’s contents is related to an increase in the perception of the reality of existence. We discussed the cognitive processes that are assumed to underlie explanation bias.
In their study, Nishimura et al. (2022) examined the relationships between parental self-esteem and the levels of depression, autonomy, and career consciousness among children. They specifically focused on the mediating effect of parenting behaviors using triad data involving junior high school students and their parents. They proposed that these associations are mediated through parents’ and children’s perceptions of respecting their children’s thoughts, as well as fathers’ and children’s perceptions of positive responsiveness. However, the models developed by Nishimura et al. (2022) include several paths that have been explored during their investigation. This study examined the external validity of these models using a triad of data (N=642). This study did not replicate the models of Nishimura et al. (2022). However, the relationship between fathers’ self-esteem and children’s career consciousness was mediated by fathers’ and children’s perceptions of respecting children’s thoughts, and fathers’ and children’s perceptions of positive responsiveness. These results support the assertion of Nishimura et al. (2022) that parenting behaviors are essential for career consciousness among children.
A field intervention study was conducted to examine whether goal prompting is effective in improving organizational behaviors in the workplace. Employees in Japanese companies participated in the study (N=82). At the beginning of each working day throughout the study period of one month, a behavioral goal (i.e., description of a desirable organizational behavior) was presented to the employees through a smartphone app. At the end of their working hours, the employees self-evaluated the levels of implementation for two different behaviors, one of which was presented to them earlier that day (i.e., prompted behavior), and another which was not (i.e., non-prompted behavior). Results of the multilevel analysis revealed that the prompted goals were implemented to a greater extent, in comparison to the non-prompted goals. Based on the results, theoretical and practical implications of goal prompting intervention to improve organizational behaviors are discussed.
Scholars have explained political orientation and morality as a consequence of epistemic needs and empathic motivation. In this study, we replicate previous research on the influence of psychological states on moral foundations, system justification, and political orientation among Japanese participants. Consistent with previous findings, empathy is positively associated with care and fairness (called individualizing foundations) whereas epistemic needs to manage certainty (e.g., need for closure) are positively associated with ingroup loyalty, respect for authority, and purity (called binding foundations). Empathy and the need for closure indirectly affect political orientation and system justification through their influence on moral foundations. Contrary to previous findings, we find empathy to be positively associated with binding foundations whereas the need for closure is positively associated with individualizing foundations. We discuss the implications of these findings to show that moral foundations are a result of motivated social cognition.