This study elucidated the spatio-temporal characteristics of harvesting edible wild plants/mushrooms in snowy communities in Tadami town, western Fukushima prefecture in northeastern Japan. Questionnaire surveys for each household and family member and two-year daily records of harvesting by a total of 17 dwellers were conducted to elucidate their harvesting activities in detail. Mosaic vegetation in the snowy mountains such as snow avalanche scrub and meadow, riparian forest, beech, oak and pine forests were seasonally used at different frequencies after snowmelt in spring (late April) until snowfall in late autumn (early November) to harvest nearly 40 different species by changing sites. The amount of species harvested was estimated by multiplying the average harvesting frequency and harvested weight per species each month. An economic valuation was further conducted by multiplying the retail price of each species, both in the local market and via Internet shopping. We found that the economic value of a few to several tens of million yen was generated annually in the local market, which would be increased two or three times via Internet shopping. Since most harvesters consider the importance for both food and fun, this indicates that the value with cultural services would be higher. Although harvesting activities have been consistently declining over the past half century, they still have large potential in snowy mountains.
We propose a new method of extracting plantation boundary through multi-temporal image analysis using past aerial photos which have been taken by the Forestry Agency and the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan. The seven aerial photo images from 1963 to 2002 were ortho-rectified, the succeeding two-year images were combined, and image classification of this two-year composite data was carried out. Clear cut and planted sites were extracted with the second principal component of the principal component analysis of a two-year composite image of brightness or DSM data This proposed method presented the possibility to delineate the boundary of the planation. Comparing the final map with existing GIS data, the unconformity of boundary information and the inconsistency of stand age were pointed out, consequently the validity of this new method was confirmed.
Forest zoning based on the result of spatial analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS) provides the basic and useful information for establishing Municipal forest improvement plan, which is important as a master plan of forest planning. However, forest zoning in Japan mostly has not been conducted based on spatial analysis. This study aims to create a guide map of forestry operation of Tango region in Kyoto Prefecture based on existing administration date such as forest resource database and slope angle derived from the 10m DEM by using GIS. In order to understand the relation between forestry operation system and forest road network, we followed the forest road network standards proposed by the Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plan. As a result, we successfully visualized the distribution pattern of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in conjunction with the distances from forest road, slope angle and age classes. Therefore, it could be said that the obtained guide map of forestry operation is useful not only for forestry administration but also for forestry companies. In addition, the method to create the map is easy to apply to other areas. Although the created guide map is a provisional map until detailed map based on specific local data developed, this kind of provisional map is necessary for realizing the Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plan.
Forest management for educational use was analyzed based on a case study of Tama Forest Science Garden, which has been open to the public, and which includes botanical gardens and a pavilion. In this study, "forests for educational use" were defined as "forest areas open to the public for learning about forest and engaging in forest activities", based on conceptually examination. Consequently, the purpose of open forests in this garden was mainly propagation and publicity activities of the research institute. The operational scope was found to encompass five major aspects, namely 1) maintaining forests, 2) maintaining facilities for users' convenience, 3) maintaining exhibitions, 4) maintaining safety for users, and 5) managing educational and service activities. Each work of these five contents was characterized into three categories, i.e. planning and establishment, maintenance, and improvement. We concluded that the scope of managing forests for educational use open to the public would include establishing and maintaining forest areas, with facilities including exhibitions, user control, and moreover, improvement activities based on the management cycle. A future research topic would involve systematizing forest management for educational use, by examining other case studies and comparing with the management of social education facilities.
The merchantable ratio for bamboo, Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc, was calculated with the data from 200 felled culms collected at Mt. Toshima, in the eastern part of Kumamoto City, by assuming the merchantable diameter being 4-7 cm. Because of the difference in culm form, the merchantable ratio for P. bambusoides was higher than that for Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz. The combination of the determined ratio and the one-way volume table constructed in a previous study enabled us to develop a one-way merchantable volume table for P. bambusoides. The volume table allowed to estimating the merchantable apparent culm volume, and will be effective when conducting the effective utilization of bamboo resources.
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