Forests and forestry education has attracted attention regarding how to consider human resources training. We analyzed forest and forestry education in high schools from the viewpoint of human resources training about the present situation based on a questionnaire by the Forestry Agency. The questionnaire was conducted by asking forestry-related schools, and the response rate was 100%. The number of schools was 72, the number of students was 4,978 (0.15% of all high school students), of which 20% were female. There were 267 forestry-related teachers, but only 42% of them graduated from forestry courses. There were experimental forests in 70 schools, and 64 schools used for education. The educational subject of "Forest science" and "Usage of Forest Products" were taught in about 90% of these schools, and "Forest Management" was taught in about 60% of them. Those three subjects were taught in 42 schools, and in 13 schools one subject was taught mainly as optional subjects. Fifteen percents of graduates of these schools took a forestry-related job or went to forestry-related higher education in an average from 2011 to 2013: 195 students took jobs, 75 students went to higher schools. These results showed that forest and forestry education was diversified. There were three problems: contents to be matched with educational purposes, coordination with forestry-related educational organizations, and teacher's training.
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of rooting medium, which is one of the environmental factors, on the rooting of C. japonica cuttings. The relationship between the physical characteristics of 12 media types and the rooting traits of cuttings of three different clones was analyzed under mist irrigation. Using principal component analysis of the data on physical characteristics of the media, we observed that the media could be classified according to two axes: permeability and retentivity of water. The rooting percentages and root lengths differed for the different media. Besides, using generalized linear mix modeling, a model including the air : water content ratio and its quadratic term as explanatory variables was determined to be the best, based on the deviance information criterion values. The model predicted that the rooting percentage peaked at an approximate air : water content ratio of 1.0. On matching the small particle size kanuma-soil and coconut fiber to the best air : water content ratio, the root length in kanuma-soil was observed to be longer than in coconut fiber. These findings suggest that the air : water content ratio is a good indicator of the rooting percentage and small particle size kanuma-soil is suitable for the propagation of C. japonica cuttings and for evaluating the rooting traits of the cuttings under mist irrigation.
To determine the effect of difference in tree species composition on the stand shift after damage by Japanese oak wilt, we monitored forest dynamics for seven years at three secondary-forest plots in the Kaisho forest, Aichi Prefecture. Mass mortality was observed within five years after the spread of the oak wilt. Approximately 60% of stems in Quercus serrata and Quercus variabilis died, while we found no interspecific differences in mortality. Although total basal area of the stands decreased by approximately 20%, recruitment and/or growth rates increased in Gamblea innovans, Eurya japonica, Quercus glauca, Ilex pedunculosa, and Clethra barbinervis at the upper layer, and in G. innovans, E. japonica, Q. glauca, Ligustrum japonicum, and Camellia japonica at the lower layer. Thus, according to the stand type, damaged stands are expected to shift to a Q. serrata dominated stand with several deciduous broadleaved species at the sub-canopy layer, an evergreen-broadleaved-trees dominated stand with sparse canopy trees, or a Q. glauca dominated stand.
We investigated species number, number of individuals and height of regenerated trees inside and outside of deer-exclosure fences 5 or 6 years after construction following accretion cutting in three riparian conifer plantations, to examine the possibility of restoring riparian forests of the Tanzawa Mountains in Kanagawa Prefecture. Eighteen to 36 species of regenerated trees emerged in three study sites, Shiraishisawa (SH), Youkisawa (YO), and Hontanigawa (HT). Regenerated trees such as Euptelea polyandra, Zelkova serrata, Acer pictum subsp. pictum f. ambiguum, Carpinus tschonoskii, Carpinus japonica and 8 other species emerged in all three study sites. Anemochory comprised the largest number of species and individuals of regenerated trees, and more than half of regenerated tree species and 80% individuals of regenerated trees were accordant with riparian tree species within 30 m from the study sites. The individual number of regenerated trees over 150 cm in height inside the fences was 27,500/ha in SH, 2,083/ha in YO and 7,500/ha in HT. Regenerated pioneer trees such as Euptelea polyandra ranked relatively high in height. There were fewer species and individuals of regenerated trees outside the fences than inside them, and Pterostyrax hispida alone was over 30 cm in height. These results indicate that three riparian plantations hold the possibility of shifting to mixed forests with coniferous and riparian broadleaved species after construction of deer-exclosure fences following accretion cutting.
We examined the effect of canopy structure on the distribution of mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. coloratum Kom), an arboreal hemiparasite, in deciduous forests. We recorded the existence of V. album on every tree (diameter at breast height >= 20cm) in a deciduous forest (170 × 190 m plot). We used tree position, crown projection area, tree height, treetop elevation (tree height + elevation above sea level), and number of trees within a given radius as indices of isolation and protrusion for each tree. We performed a logistic regression analysis based on a generalized linear mixed model to elucidate the relation between the number of trees in the vicinity of each tree and the distribution of V. album. A greater number of trees surrounding a tree had a significantly negative effect on the likelihood of finding V. album on that tree. When counting the number of a tree in the vicinity of a tree, counting only trees with higher treetop elevations than the tree being analyzed led to a more valid model than including all trees around it. The isolation and protrusion of tree crown must be important factors determining the distribution of V. album in a deciduous forest, suggesting that presence of V. album is related to the canopy dynamics.
In China, farmhouse tourism is attracting attention today as part of a solution to the so-called three agricultural issues of low agricultural productivity, deterioration of rural villages, and impoverishment of farmers. However, our previous research suggests that even in places where the level of urbanization is high, there is in fact little consciousness in regards to the pleasures of nature and the unspoiled scenery of rural areas. In order to clarify this point, an opinion survey of college students on rural villages and farmhouse tourism in ZheJiang Province China was conducted. The results of our survey showed that while many Chinese young people in ZheJiang Province had a positive general image of farm villages and farmhouse tourism, they did not think much in terms of actually going out to remote rural areas and enjoying farm life for themselves. Furthermore, we found that even students specializing in tourism had only a rudimentary awareness of "green tourism." Finally, it became clear that potential "farm tourists" to remote areas are seeking experiences to get in touch with nature, as well as looking for long-term stays with low prices.
Edited and published by : The Japanese Forest Society Produced and listed by : Center for Academic Publications Japan/Shobi printing Co., Ltd. (Vol.96 No.2-) Center for Academic Publications Japan/Fukasawa Ltd. (Vol.91 No.3-Vol.96 No.1) Center for Academic Publications Japan/Daishowa Printing Co., Ltd(Vol.88 No.1-Vol.91 No.2)