Japanese Journal of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Online ISSN : 2434-0499
Print ISSN : 0914-9457
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REVIEWS
  • Takamichi MURAKAMI
    Type: REVIEW
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 72-75
    Published: August 15, 2019
    Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (EOB-MRI) is recommended to detect hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), most cases of which are well differentiated HCC or early HCC. The detection sensitivity of hypovascular HCC is superior on EOB-MRI than on dynamic computed tomography (CT), superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-MRI, or contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CE-US), although EOB-MRI shows similar diagnostic accuracy as CT arterial portography (CTAP) and CT hepatic arteriography (CTHA). Thus, EOB-MRI is the ideal imaging modality to detect early HCC.

     Small hypovascular nodules are sometimes detected only in the hepatocyte phase on EOB-MRI. A high-intensity area on a T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted image and the high growth rate of 1.8×10−3/day are the predictive factors for arterial hypervascularization of the hypovascular nodules.

     EOB-MRI has a high impact on the diagnostic algorithm of HCC.

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  • Satoshi GOSHIMA
    Type: REVIEW
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 76-80
    Published: August 15, 2019
    Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI has been widely spread out. It becomes a fundamental and indispensable imaging modality in the daily clinics. For the detection and characterization of liver metastasis, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI demonstrates excellent diagnostic performance as compared with CT and MRI using extracellular contrast agents. Especially for the detection of tiny metastasis measuring less than 1 cm, it is not too much to say that Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI is a single modality which now achieved a diagnostic level. This method was selected as the first modality for the detection of liver metastasis in the Japanese Imaging Guideline 2016 and is contributing to the improvement of diagnostic confidence and therapeutic decisions.

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  • Katsumi HAYAKAWA, Koichi TANDA, Akira NISHIMURA, Zenro KIZAKI, Koji OH ...
    Type: REVIEW
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 81-89
    Published: August 15, 2019
    Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy can cause significant and life-long neurological disability. MR imaging is considered an excellent tool for visualizing permanent brain damage and also predicting clinical and neurological long-term outcomes. MR imaging is increasingly used as an indicator of long term outcomes for asphyxiated newborns. In this review, we discuss the indication, scan techniques and timing, and interpretation of MRI at the very early period of newborns with neonatal asphyxia.

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  • Tetsuro SEKINE
    Type: REVIEW
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 90-95
    Published: August 15, 2019
    Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     In this paper, we provide an overview of the neurovascular 4D Flow MRI technique with a focus on [1] scan acceleration, [2] dual VENC scan, [3] clinical application, and [4] turbulent kinetic energy assessment for carotid artery stenosis.

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  • Mamoru TAKAHASHI
    Type: REVIEW
    2019 Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 96-105
    Published: August 15, 2019
    Released: September 20, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

     The Philips MR system uses 3D cine phase contrast angiography for 4D Flow imaging. The Hadamard method is used for the bipolar gradient and it is possible to reduce the load on the gradient system and the influence of the eddy current, as well as shorten the imaging time. Compressed SENSE can be used for 4D Flow and the imaging time can be significantly reduced while the image quality and SNR is maintained. The k-t PCA provided by GyroTools is also available and can make use of a high acceleration factor.

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