The purpose of this study is to confirm aspects of violence at school athletics clubs related to the use of corporal punishment, and to clarify the significance of corporal punishment in terms of how it is perceived by teachers and students. Recently, there has been a large volume of research on corporal punishment, under the premise that its use is questionable. Such a premise tends to encourage reasons for denying it occurs, or turning a blind eye to how it affects relationships between teachers and students at school athletics clubs. However, in order to clarify the significance of corporal punishment in school athletics clubs, it is essential to understand interpersonal relationships in this type of setting. The ethos of school athletics clubs is to impose the desirable norm on students (i.e., to make them good players). This means that students need to develop self-discipline in order to succeed at their sport, and corporal punishment is used to impose normalization of self-discipline in students. This leads to an association between pain and the perceived pleasure of success in the mind of the students. According to Butler, conscience is the means by which a subject can reflecting on oneself, and conversion of pain into the pleasure is a method by which this can be achieved. In other words, a panacea for preempting existential negation. On the other hand, for teachers, corporal punishment is deeply related to their existence and desire for self-protection. Adorno and Horkheimer's arguments on the reasons for the relation between reason and violence in Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments teach us that the desire for self-protection is expressed by using violence, for example corporal punishments, on others. Teachers regard students as a means for their self-protection to secure their role as a teacher, which is based on a pre-existing relationship with students. However, the role of teachers is threatened when a school athletics club achieves poor results. Thus, teachers employ corporal punishment as a means of maintaining their authoritative role. The findings of this study argue that corporal punishment in school athletics clubs deeply reflects the relationship between students and teachers. It is necessary to discuss this issue rather than ignoring it.
This paper outlines a new educational framework for the Judo curriculum established through development of a scale designed to evaluate a pattern of tactical thinking, “the principle of Ju”, inherited from Jujitsu and Judo through a study of Japanese traditional culture in schools. First, we developed a hypothetical concept for evaluating “the principle of Ju”, which is based on the basic movements and tactics whereby “softness overcomes hardness” (ju yoku go wo seisu), as outlined in “the principle of Ju”. We devised a 35-item evaluation scale and investigated it in detail using the Delphi method. We then formulated a questionnaire comprising 28 items. Next, we subjected Jujitsu practitioners and Judo athletes to exploratory factor analysis and verified the adaptability of a factor analysis model and the reliability of the scale. This research approach yielded 2 findings: 1) There are 2 principle elements of ancient Japanese martial arts, kisoku wo hazusu ugoki (lit. A fluid shift between anticipatory restraint and counter-movements.) and in to yo no tsukaiwake (lit. A yin and yang approach of selecting actions which harmoniously counter-balance those of the opponent). 2) “The principle of Ju” is able to provide a realistic Judo class and curriculum for learning practical movements and tactical decision-making in schools. Then, through a comparison between wrestling athletes and the general concept of “the principle of Ju” in modern society, it has been clearly confirmed that this is inherited by Jujitsu practitioners, whereas Judo athletes exhibit this on the same level as wrestling athletes. These results indicate that Judo has been influenced by athletic sports, and that this has now become an essential part of Judo principles. Accordingly, “athletic Judo” appears to have a limiting influence on the Judo curriculum when studying traditional culture in schools.
In recent years, finger joints and laminated panels (FJLP) have been used for non-coated flooring in kendo-jyo (kendo practicing facilities). The aims of the present study were to comparatively evaluate 3 types of flooring—FJLP, pure panels (PP), and polyurethane coating (PC)—in terms of functionality and conduciveness to kendo. The research participants were 886 students from 16 university kendo clubs (N: FJLP=561, PP=148, PC=177). Principal factor analysis (normal varimax method) was applied, and factors relevant to FJLP were extracted in order to evaluate functionality in terms of “movement of fumikomi-ashi and suri-ashi and bearing on the body” (F1), “movement of fumikiri” (F2), and “bearing on the feet” (F3). The 2 other types of flooring (PP and PC) were found to be similar to FJLP in terms of F1 and F3. With regard to F2, however, FJLP was found to be dissimilar to PP but similar to PC, despite the fact that both FJLP and PP are non-coated. Multiple regression analysis of the results revealed the following kendo-conducive combinations: cedar, long direction and F1; cedar, non-regrinding, springs, oil finishing and F2; short direction, non-regrinding, springs, oil finishing and F3. Cedar, non-regrinding and oil finishing were found to be particularly kendo-conducive in FJLP kendo-jyo. FJLP therefore has its own unique characteristics, just as it also requires its own unique maintenance procedures.
In the present study, we aimed to (1) clarify the relationship between stiffness and take-off leg motion during bounding and (2) append the information gathered from the study to a hierarchical training model (Kariyama and Zushi 2013, 2015). Seventeen male track and field athletes (sprinters, jumpers, and decathletes) performed bounding. Jumping motions in the sagittal plane (300 Hz) and ground reaction force data (1,000 Hz) were recorded. Stiffness was calculated using the spring-mass model, and the kinematic and kinetic variables of both the take-off leg and swing leg were calculated. We found correlations between stiffness and the following parameters: vertical ground reaction force impulse during the late phase (r=−0.488), distance between the center of gravity of the body (CG) and the toe at touch down (r=−0.760), hip-toe distance at touch down and at toe off (r=−0.568 and −0.472, respectively), range of flexion at the hip joint angle (r=−0.517), range of extension at the knee joint angle (r=−0.484), negative joint work and relative work at the hip joint (r=−0.462 and −0.511, respectively), positive joint work and relative work at the knee joint (r=−0.619 and −0.534, respectively), swing-leg angle at touch down (r=−0.755), and swing-leg vertical impulse during the late phase (r=−0.535). The results we obtained suggest that take-off motion in bounding is affected by stiffness characteristics, although jump distance is not affected by stiffness (Kariyama and Zushi 2013, 2015). Previous studies (Kariyama and Zushi 2013, 2015) indicated that stiffness in bounding is affected by stiffness in rebound jumping. On the basis of our results and those of previous studies, take-off motion correlated with stiffness in bounding could be affected by rebound jump stiffness. Therefore, an understanding of the characteristics of stiffness in rebound jumping is important for training that changes the above-mentioned take-off motion in bounding.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of manager competency on the intrinsic motivation of players in kokoyakyu (high school baseball in Japan). Self-determination theory was used as a framework. We distributed questionnaires to 365 kokoyakyu players to assess their intrinsic motivation, and also their perception of manager competency, in terms of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. We employed a competency scale designed to measure 6 factors consisting of 24 items (Takamatsu and Yamaguchi, 2015). The 6 factors included trust relationship, educational guidance, powers of observation, autonomy support, relationships with supporters, skill and tactics instruction. Structural equation modeling revealed that powers of observation, autonomy support, and skill and tactics instruction had significant indirect effects on perceptions of psychological needs. However, trust relationship, educational guidance, and relationship with supporters were not significant predictors of perception of the 3 psychological needs. Furthermore, perceptions of autonomy and relatedness had significant indirect effects on intrinsic motivation. The indices of the model data fit were χ2/df=2.07, GFI=.98, AGFI=.94, NFI=.95, CFI=.97, and RMSEA=.054. These results showed that the kokoyakyu players' perceptions of powers of observation, autonomy support, and skill and tactics instruction from managers were indirectly associated with their intrinsic motivation through their perceptions of autonomy and relatedness.
Helping behavior is one of the key factors related to psychological and social adaptation. It has been shown that social skills promote helping behavior. In recent years, social skills education has been widely adopted in schools. Social skills are one of the target factors that are enhanced through physical education classes. The main purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical and hypothetical model to enhance helping behavior by social skills developed through experience in physical education classes. The participants were university students (759 men and 345 women) who completed questionnaires on helping behavior, social skills, and sport experiences in physical education classes. Path analysis indicated that experiences in physical education classes were able to enhance social skills that engender helping behavior. Theoretical structuring of the model was supported (GFI=1.00, AGFI=.97, CFI=1.00, and RMSEA=.05). In addition, direct and indirect interactions between helping behavior and experiences in physical education were analyzed, and the standardized coefficients indicated that there was a direct effect of challenge/achievement on helping behavior. We make some suggestions about strategies that teachers can adopt in physical education classes and discuss future directions for research.
In this study, we investigated the effects of differing control processes on the duration of zero-velocity in force control and force level control accuracy and quickness using isometric leg contraction tasks. Eleven participants were instructed to adjust the target force from 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC: 20% task) or from 60%MVC (60% task) to 20%, 40%, or 60%MVC after relaxing completely. The participants were instructed to control their force as quickly and as accurately as possible on receiving a visual stimulus, and the force produced by the participants was recorded. We investigated the differences in the task (20% or 60%MVC) and target (20%, 40%, or 60%MVC) force levels. We found that the target force level in the 20% task was higher than during the other target force levels for both tasks. The duration of zero-velocity was longer during the 60% task than in the 20% task for all target force levels. Before and after the period of zero-velocity, relaxation and re-adjustment time were longer during the 60% task than during the 20% task for all target force levels. Furthermore, the re-adjustment time was longer in the 60% task than in the 20% task for all target force levels; re-adjustment time was also found increase successively for the 20%, 40% and 60% MVC target force levels. Therefore, our findings suggest that during control the slight magnitude, accurate control of the force was difficult, irrespective of the magnitude of the force before relaxing completely. Moreover, the duration of zero-velocity became longer with greater magnitudes of force before relaxing completely, which affected the quickness at which force control was achieved after switching the control direction.
The TPSR model is a method for teaching students about fulfillment of personal and social responsibilities through physical activities. A characteristic of this model is that it aims to transfer and maintain behavior acquired through physical activities. Past studies have revealed a number of challenges related to transfer and maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model. First, physical education classes in schools were not targeted. Second, the effects of the TPSR model were not examined using quantitative data. Third, maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model were not examined. One effective experimental design for examining maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model would probably be a case study in which changes in one group were measured for a certain period of time. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine whether the TPSR model would promote acquisition and maintenance of social skills in daily life using an experimental design and quantitative data targeting physical education in junior high schools in Japan. The results were as follows: First, the TPSR model promoted the acquisition of social skills that students could use outside of physical education classes, although it did not facilitate the maintenance of these social skills. Second, the TPSR model appeared to promote the acquisition of social skills by encouraging students to imagine scenes in their daily lives that were similar to scenarios in physical education classes, where they were encouraged to behave responsibly. Third, the TPSR model did not facilitate the maintenance of social skills because it did not incorporate methods for acquiring structural knowledge based on fundamental and procedural disciplines or allow students to gain structural understanding that would allow them to apply this knowledge to new scenarios.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the profiles of lower limb and trunk motion during baseball pitching in relation to differences between the mound and the flat ground, and to determine the motion characteristics while pitching from the 2 locations. The subjects were 12 baseball pitchers (age 18.6±2.5 yr, height 173.4±6.5 cm, weight 74.7±11.0 kg) who belonged to high school or university baseball teams. Three-dimensional positions of 36 reflective markers attached to each subject were tracked by an optical motion capture system (Mac3D System) with 12 cameras. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using 2 multicomponent force plates. Pitching motion was divided into two phases: phase 1 was defined as the period from when the knee of the stride leg reached maximal height (MKH: 0%time) until the point when the stride foot made contact with the ground (SFC: 100%time), while phase 2 was defined as the period from the SFC until the point when the ball was released (REL: 200%time). Ball velocity was measured using a radar gun. The results were as follows: 1) The maximum and average ball velocities were significantly higher when pitching was performed from the mound than from the flat ground (p<0.05). 2) Hip/knee flexion angles and hip abduction/extension angular velocities on the pivot leg were significantly greater for mound pitching than for flat ground pitching, and the hip/knee extension angle and hip adduction/internal rotation/flexion angular velocities on the stride leg were significantly greater for the former (p<0.05). 3) The GRF of the stride leg was significantly greater for mound pitching than for flat ground pitching (p<0.01). 4) Upper torso and pelvis angle/angular velocities at SFC and the maximum pelvis, upper torso and trunk tilt angular velocities were significantly greater for mound pitching than for flat ground pitching (p<0.05). The present results indicate that baseball pitchers show biomechanical differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs when pitching from the mound in comparison with the flat ground, and that high school or collegiate baseball pitchers can increase their pitched ball velocity by using the height of the mound.
Maladaptation to university life by undergraduates has often been reported in recent years. Therefore, improvements in the provision of support for students is urgently required. Previous studies have indicated that physical education (PE) classes might provide effective opportunities for improving students' adjustment to university. The purposes of this study were to develop a scale for quantitatively evaluating the perceived benefits of PE in university students and to verify its reliability and validity. The effects of perceived benefits of PE on adjustment to university life were then examined using this scale. A questionnaire survey was conducted with university freshmen (n=2,412) who were enrolled in four-year universities and were taking PE classes. The survey questions consisted of items for developing the assessment scale, and a school adjustment scale. The “Perceived Benefits Scale in university First-Year PE classes (PBS-FYPE)” were developed resulted in exploratory factor analysis. The scale consisted of the following sub-scales: “Acquisition of exercise skills and training methods,” “Understanding the importance of cooperative play and improvement in communication skills,” “Stress coping and arousal of positive feelings,” “Improvements in physical strength and physical activities,” and “Establishment of regular lifestyles.” Subsequent analyses confirmed the adequate internal consistency and criterion-related validity of the scale, as well as its reliability and validity. Next, the effects of the perceived benefits of PE on adjustment to university life were examined by multiple group structural equation modeling for students taking part in individual and team sporting events. The results indicated that “sense of comfort” was relatively well explained in both groups by the value of the explanatory variables. Moreover, higher scores for “Understanding the importance of cooperative play and improvement in communication skills” were associated with a higher scores for “sense of comfort”. This effect was stronger for team events than for individual events. Finally, the limits of this study and future issues including the investigation of factors related to the scale and the necessity for longitudinal research were discussed.
This article aims to elucidate the activities of an intermediary network NPO for community sport clubs (CSC) based on the theory of civil society. The activities of this intermediary network NPO occur in the intermediary sphere between the public and the private realm, creating a public sphere. This article discusses the implications of this public sphere created by the intermediary network NPO. This NPO started with the publication of a newsletter in 1998. Later it obtained corporate status and built an internet community. In 2007, it selected promoters for the nationwide organization. The target of analysis was the activity fields from 1998 to 2007. This article refers to the theory of new social movements by Albert Melucci and the theory of radical democracy by Ernesto Laclau. These 2 theories provide an approach for understanding and interpreting the process whereby individuals challenging the limitations of a social structure develop into citizens with public intentions, as a public sphere. While the newsletter community was a public sphere, where public intentions could be expressed through the representatives of the network NPO, the internet community was a free discourse space, where individuals could express their personal intentions. These 2 communities corresponded to a process of individualization from individuals engaging mainly in private acts to citizens with public intentions. Melucci explained this process as the potential for individualization. These communities (discourse spaces) promoted awareness of structural undecidability and non-recovery of a unique hegemony in the field of sport administration. Many sport practitioners were equivalently aware of it. Laclau explained the situation with the phrase, “chain of equivalence”. The intermediary network NPO selected the promoters of community sport clubs from among people with public intentions and created a mechanism that enabled the mobilization of these people from the intermediary realm. This mechanism was achieved by leveraging information and human resources in a field independent of politics and economy. This is how a new political hegemony was generated against the sport administration. This article discussed the creation of a public sphere that promoted awareness of structural undecidability and non-recovery of a unique hegemony through the potential for individualization, which has led to the next political stage of sports.
The purpose of this study was to identify the ground reaction force and joint kinetics in the lower extremity during the catch phase of the clean exercise through comparison with the pull phase. Eleven male track and field athletes performed the power clean from the floor with loads of 30%, 60%, and 90% of 1RM (One Repetition Maximum). Kinetic data were collected from data recorded using a Vicon motion system (250 Hz) and force platforms (1,000 Hz). The results of the analyses were as follows: 1) In the catch phase, force development was similar to that of the pull phase because the peak ground reaction force was not significant during the 2 phases. 2) The joint kinetics in the ankle and knee joints were larger during the catch phase than during the pull phase. 3) During the power clean, force development was achieved mainly by concentric muscle contraction during the pull phase and by eccentric muscle contraction during the catch phase. 4) The ground reaction force and joint kinetics were significantly different during the catch phase. These results show the differences in load characteristics in the lower extremity between the pull and catch phases during clean exercise. Therefore, not only the pull phase but also the catch phase should be considered when performing the clean exercise in weight training.
In this study, we analyzed the kinematic characteristics of various types of baseball pitches by elite baseball pitchers, and tested a null hypothesis that “no type of pitch has the same kinematic characteristics as another.” A high-speed video camera was used to record the initial trajectory of the pitched ball thrown by 84 skilled baseball pitchers. Each pitcher was asked to throw all the different types of pitch he would use in competition and practice, and to self-declare the type of pitch used for each throw. The kinematic characteristics of each pitched ball were analyzed as ball speed, the direction of the spin axis, and the spin rate. A custom-made device was used to analyze the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate, and the ball speed was measured with a radar gun. One-way ANOVA with the Games-Howell post hoc test was used to test the hypothesis. The total of 364 pitches were categorized into 11 self-declared pitch types. Four of 10 pitch types thrown by more than one pitcher - the four-seam fastball, slider, curveball and cutter - had unique kinematic characteristic distinct from all of the other pitch types. No significant differences were found in any of the kinematic parameters between 1) changeup and sinker, 2) forkball and split-fingered fastball, and 3) two-seam fastball and shoot ball. Therefore, the hypothesis was retained for these 3 pairs of pitch types: although they were kinematically similar, the pitchers categorized them as different types. When the breaking ball was compared with the four-seam fastball, they were classifiable into 3 types: 1) pitches with a slower ball speed and lower spin rate with a different direction of spin axis (changeup, sinker, forkball and split-fingered fastball), 2) pitches with a slower ball speed, different direction of the spin axis and a spin rate comparable to the four-seam fastball (slider, curveball and cutter), and 3) pitches with a comparable ball speed, similar spin axis direction, and lower spin rate (two-seam fastball and shoot ball). These data revealed that the kinematic characteristics of some pitch types are quite different from those described in baseball coaching handbooks.
We examined the effects of different fluid temperatures of 5, 15, 25, and 35℃ on thermoregulatory responses during prolonged exercise in the heat because it is speculated that fluid at temperatures of between 5 and 15℃, as recommended by the Japan Sports Association, would have different effects on thermoregulatory parameters. Six men from an university track and field team performed 4 sets of cycling exercise (one set=15-min exercise with a 5-min rest period) at 50%VO2max under conditions of 32℃ and 60% relative humidity. The volume of water provided was 80% of the total sweat rate in the non-drinking (control) trial divided by 4 equal aliquots. The increase in rectal temperature, mean skin temperature and mean body temperature during exercise showed no significant differences across all the fluid temperatures. Similarly, local sweat rate, skin blood flow and cutaneous vascular conductance were similar among the conditions. These results suggest that iso-volumetric fluids with varying temperatures (5-35℃) have no effect on rectal temperature and heat loss responses during prolonged exercise in a hot environment.
The present paper attempts to clarify the meaning of the term ‘tai-iku’ (physical education) in the “principles of physical education” proposed by Heizaburo Takashima (1865-1946), who was a prominent advocate of physical education (P.E.) in the latter part of the Meiji era of Japan. Takashima wrote many books on P.E., which included many examples of the term ‘tai-iku’. Subjects related to P.E. were discussed meaningfully from various angles, but the meaning of the term ‘tai-iku’ (P.E.) itself was not self-evident. ‘Tai-iku’ in Japanese has had many meanings throughout history. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify previous references to ‘tai-iku’ using an empirical approach when reading books on P.E. written in past times, as there is a risk that Takashima's term ‘tai-iku’ may unconsciously conform to our concept of P.E.. The present paper represents the first attempt to define the term. Our first conclusion was that Takashima's own concept of ‘tai-iku’ should be defined in terms of his “principles of physical education” (1904). Our second was that the definition was a methodological one, by which intellectual and moral education can be brought to perfection, while retaining the previous meaning in the context of the human body. The term ‘tai-iku’ in Takashima's book has these two different meanings. Some other issues remain to be addressed, such as whether alternative meanings exist in Takashima's books, or whether his books (“principles of physical education” and so on) can be read consistently and coherently.
The purpose of this study was to analyze problems related to the mechanism whereby students can accept corporal punishment during extracurricular sports activities with reference to the books Escape from Freedom and Man for Himself that were central to Erich Fromm's authority theory. Specifically, the author focused on the concepts of “authoritarian character,” “authoritarian ethics,” and “authoritarian conscience.” Fromm pointed out that anxiety prompted Germany's citizens to give up their freedom in order to obey authoritarian powers such as Hitler and the Nazis. Students taking part in extracurricular sports activities were considered from the viewpoint of Fromm's authority theory. It was revealed that students comply with a leader's authority in order to relieve anxiety, and have positive thoughts about corporal punishment. Furthermore, it was found that such acceptance of corporal punishment succeeded in eliminating conspicuous suffering, but not in removing any underlying conflicts. Fromm pointed that fear of anxiety was relieved by spontaneous activity. To achieve spontaneous activity by students, it was suggested that some form of measure that does not create the type of partnership that occurred between Germany's citizens and Hitler would be desirable for any relationship between the leader of extracurricular sports activities and the students.
One of the most frequent injuries in Kendo athletes is Achilles tendinopathy in the left leg, for example Achilles tendon rupture. However, preventive approaches for Achilles tendinopathy in Kendo athletes have not been well considered. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine differences in the architectures of the gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles tendon in relation to kendo training experience, and to examine the mechanical properties of the Achilles tendinous tissues (AT) in Kendo athletes in order to clarify why Achilles tendinopathy occurs in the left leg. Sixty-five Kendo male athletes with different periods of kendo training experience and 20 healthy male control subjects participated in this study. The architectural properties of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) and Achilles tendon in both legs were measured using ultrasonography. In addition, 20 expert Kendo male athletes and healthy male controls pair-matched with the kendo athletes for body height and body mass were examined for their AT mechanical properties during passive dorsiflexion of both legs. The differences in the cross–sectional areas of the Achilles tendon and MG muscle between the left and right legs were greater in Kendo athletes with longer experience. Especially, the expert kendo athletes had lower AT stiffness and Young's modulus in the left leg than did the control subjects. These results suggest that kendo leads to specific Achilles tendon and muscle adaptation. These specific adaptations of the MG fascicles and AT may be one of the risk factors for Achilles tendon rupture in Kendo athletes.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the vaulting motion of world-class female pole vaulters in comparison with male pole vaulters at the same vaulting performance level. The vaulting motions of 11 world-class female pole vaulters (FW group, records: 4.50—4.80 m) and 8 male pole vaulters who had records similar to the FW group (MV group, records: 4.40—4.80 m) were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis. The phase from one step before take-off to vaulting over the crossbar was analyzed. The FW group had the following characteristics. (1) Body weight was lower than that of the MV group. (2) The run-up and take-off velocities were slower than those of the MV group. (3) The distance between the top grip (right hand) and the lower tip of the pole was shorter than that of the MV group. (4) At take-off, the center of gravity was higher, and the pole angle relative to the ground was larger, than in the MV group. (5) In the pole bending phase after take-off, the shoulder flexion angle and the knee extension angle of the take-off leg were larger than in the MV group, thus increasing the moment of inertia of the body. Therefore, early backward tilting of the trunk was restricted. (6) In the pole straightening phase, the pole was extended earlier than in the MV group owing to the rapid extension of the shoulder joint and the rapid swing of the trunk. (7) At pole release, the body was in a more vertical position than in the MV group. These findings suggest that whereas the vaulting motions of the FW group were superior to those of the MV group, run-up velocity and pole length of the former were inferior.
We investigated the factorial concept and features of Japanese elementary and junior high school students' inferiority complexes in relation to physical education. Fifth and sixth graders (n=341) and junior high school students (n=336) completed 3 questionnaires: one created for this study and consisting of questions regarding inferiority complexes in relation to physical education; another made up of stress cognitive appraisal questions (Suzuki and Sakano, 1998); and a third relating to perceived competence in school life and self-esteem (Sakurai, 1992; Sakurai and Matsui, 2007). Factor analysis revealed 2 inferiority complex concepts, namely “complex focused on motor skills” (C-MS) and “complex focused on psychosocial and physical factors causing feelings of inferiority to develop into an inferiority complex” (C-PPF). Two-way analysis of variance revealed that female elementary and junior high school students were more likely than males to have a C-MS, and that male junior high school students were more likely than male elementary students to have a C-PPF. Correlation analysis revealed that hating to participate in physical activities, play sports, and attend physical education classes was strongly correlated with having an inferiority complex in relation to physical education. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychosocial development around the time of puberty influenced the relationship between self-competence and the presence of an inferiority complex. It also influenced the relationship between cognitive appraisal of the perceived threat or impact of inability to fulfill physical education assignments and the presence of an inferiority complex. These results suggest that in order to recognize inferiority complexes in relation to physical education, it is important to consider the diversity of students' focuses on their inferiority complexes and to make allowances for their states of psychosocial development.
The present study aimed to clarify the inception and development of Kenji Tomiki's technical theory of budo during the pre-war Showa era, focusing particularly on the succession of Jigoro Kano's concept of judo as a martial art. The main points are summarized as follows: A letter written by Tomiki in 1928 reveals that he was interested in the comprehensive combat techniques of Ueshiba's aikijujutsu including the use of bare hands and weapons. Tomiki considered that devotees of budo should practice a comprehensive range of techniques from bare-handed combat to the use of weapons. While he mainly succeeded to shobu (martial arts) under the systematic judo theory of Kano, he also thought it possible to overcome the problems inherent to taiiku (physical education), shushin (development of the spirit), and ishinho (methods to ease the spirit) by studying aikijujutsu. The starting point of Tomiki's theory was to emphasize the kata training that simulated various situations in actual combat. During the prewar period, Tomiki tried to ascertain the fundamental principles of ken-no-ki (ki of the Japanese sword) and ju-no-ri (the principle of flexibility). These principles made it possible to complement the principle of judo as seiryoku-zenyo (most efficient use of energy) that Kano had proposed technically. In 1942, Tomiki published a research article entitled “The systematic study of techniques while maintaining distance in judo: The principles of judo and the techniques of Aiki-Budo”. In the article, he tried to present consistency between randori and these techniques while maintaining distance in judo, then established 6 fundamental laws of martial arts, including kendo, a system for education in these techniques, and the 12 basic kata. The consistent points of Tomiki's theory of budo in the pre-war era were to understand the strong and weak points of each competitive budo and kata, and the importance of kata. Although the emphasis on atemi-waza in Tomiki's theory had points in common with the combative techniques of school budo during the interwar period, Tomiki was really interested in overcoming the disadvantages of judo for sport based on Kano's concept of judo as a martial art. Tomiki mainly inherited the latter, and criticized competitive judo.
The Young Men's Association (YMA) was an education institute that provided business programs and further education for young men. Although previous research has thoroughly investigated the ideas and aims of the Department of the Army for encouraging physical education in the YMA, almost no investigation has focused on the ideas and aims of the Department of Home Affairs, which managed the YMA. Therefore, the present study focused on the hotokukai, which was an auxiliary organization of the Department of Home Affairs, to clarify the concepts behind the encouragement of physical education in the YMA hotokukai. As a result, the following points were clarified: 1) The hotokukai placed particular importance on cultivating a spirit of diligent service, in other words, vocational training, which is the root of the doctrine of moral requital, when educating young people. 2) The hotokukai sought to encourage physical education for young people to cultivate physical strength for manual labor. This viewpoint of the hotokukai regarding physical education for youth can be perceived as an attempt to improve the lives of individuals through labor. 3) In order to investigate the methods used for encouraging physical education, the hotokukai held conferences on policy matters. These conferences were attended by not only hotokukai councilors but also invited external experts on physical education, education and medicine. 4) The hotokukai compiled the results of these conferences and published recommendations for encouraging physical education in shimin. These recommendations included details of concepts relating to physical education for national citizens and in schools as well as concepts for encouraging physical education in the YMA. Among these, it is possible to perceive independent hotokukai concepts in the sense that encouragement of physical education for young people should not be biased towards military preparation, but with a stated emphasis on adaptation to labor.
The present study was conducted to establish an Athlete Version of the Burnout Process Questionnaire (ABPQ) in order to evaluate the adaptation of “enthusiasm”, “stagnation”, “clinging to sport”, and “exhaustion” to the clinical psychology model (study 1), and to examine the validity of the resulting model in terms of the relationship between each state and burnout (study 2). In study 1, 432 university athletes (males=303, females=129) participated. A face sheet and the draft ABPQ were used. The results of factor analysis related 4 factors —“enthusiasm”, “stagnation”, “clinging to sport”, and “exhaustion”— with 20 items in the clinical psychology model. In addition, the reliability and validity of this ABPQ scale were confirmed. In study 2, 303 university male athletes participated. A face sheet, the ABPQ and the Athletic Burnout Inventory (ABI) were used. Firstly, we established a verification model based on the clinical psychology model. Set “enthusiasm” as an independent variable, which was evaluated by the ABPQ, “stagnation”, “clinging to sport”, and “exhaustion” as mediators, and burnout as a dependent variable, evaluated by the ABI. Moreover, path analysis was used to examine the validity of the model and the relationship between each state and burnout. The validity of the clinical psychology model was confirmed (GFI=1.000, AGFI=.996, CFI=1.000, RMSEA=.000). In addition, the relationship between each state and burnout in the process of burnout onset was elucidated.
This study attempted to identify initiatives regarding content and implementation of school physical education policies during March-August 1945, using data from Ministry of Education circulars. Its findings were as follows: 1. The historical development of school physical education administrative functions during the Asia-Pacific War was clarified. These functions were enhanced by establishing the Physical Education Bureau (January 1941). After 1942, these functions gradually diminished, and the Physical Education Bureau was absorbed into another department by July 1945. However, its functions did not become obsolete, and the policy planning and implementation initiatives were not suspended. 2. Regarding physical education policies after March 1945, the study first examined “Special Measures and Guidelines for Students' Physical Training” and “Special Measures and Guidelines for Students' Military Education” implemented in April 1945, and found that differences in content between the 2 reflected the degree of military involvement. The Course for Communication of Content to Local Regions as part of the former was also examined. Its characteristic features included nationwide implementation and dispatch of instructional officers to local regions to provide coaching and implement policy. The study also examined the “Ministry of War and Ministry of Education Discussion Memorandum Regarding Deployment of Active Military Officers in School and the Wartime Special Measures for Regulation of its Enforcement” issued in July. This was construed as an amendment of previously stipulated regulations in accordance with circumstances at the time. School training measures were being continuously negotiated between the Ministry of Education and the military until just before the defeat. The “Special Measures and Guidelines for the Implementation of Female Students' Naginata (Pole Swords) and Self-Defence Methods” implemented in August were also examined. This confirmed that these guidelines constituted the last school physical education policy during the Asia-Pacific War. 3. The study re-examined the “Guidelines for Training of People's Fighting Power” (Kokumin Toryoku Rensei Youkou) established in May 1945, which previous studies had deemed the last school physical education policy during the Asia-Pacific War. This was a private recommendation based on martial arts created by Muneo Shiotani, and not an official Ministry of Education policy. 4. The present study has revealed details about school physical education policies during March-August 1945, which have not been examined previously. The findings are significant because they reveal that school physical education policies developed continuously during this late period of the Asia-Pacific War.
Although sprint running has been studied by many investigators, the running techniques taught by a coach have not been researched in detail. The purpose of the present study was to clarify how sprint running is taught to male elementary school students by a coach, focusing on how the motion of the recovery leg affects that of the support leg and running velocity, and whether the forward swing of the thigh or flexion of the knee joint of the recovery leg is most important. Thirty-four 5th and 6th grade elementary school children performed 50-m sprints, and their motions were recorded using a video camera (60 fps). The step length, step frequency, running velocity, relative velocity of the center of mass, and the angles and angular velocity of the thigh, leg and knee were calculated. The main results were as follows: 1. We found a significant positive correlation between running velocity and the relative velocity of the recovery leg around the support phase. 2. Sabsequently to maximize the angular velocity of thigh recovery, a minimum angle of the recovery knee was obtained. These variables showed a significant positive correlation. 3. The time instant to reach the maximal forward swing velocity of the recovery leg was similar to the time instant to reach the maximal backward swing velocity of the support leg. When recovery leg and support leg velocity reached maximal, both leg were intersected. These results suggest that a coach should teach sprinters to swing the recovery leg forward prior to flexion of the recovery knee.
The present study was conducted to gain a better understanding of situations in which Japanese high school students are physically and verbally abused by coaches or senior students during school club activities. Individuals who had participated or were currently participating in sport clubs or culturally-oriented clubs at high school were questioned as to whether they had been abused by coaches or senior students. Relative risks were calculated in order to compare experiences between some kinds of groups. Data were collected in July, 2013, using an internet questionnaire. From among the roughly 38,000 persons contacted, all aged 16 to 19 years, a total of 1,438 responded, and 876 subjects were selected for statistical analysis. Subjects were questioned as to whether they had been “hit with a bare hand”, “hit by an object”, “kicked”, “had something thrown at them”, or “abused with violent language” by coaches or senior students during their high school clubs activities between July, 2012 and July, 2013. The main results were as follows: 1) Among sport clubs members, 16.1% of female and 17.7% of male students reported having suffered physical and/or verbal abuse from coaches, and 4.7% of female and 19.8% of male students from senior students. 2) The number of reported incidents of physical and/or verbal abuse in high school sport clubs decreased rapidly from the period July-September to October-December 2012, and continued to decrease until July 2013. This tendency was observed for physical and/or verbal abuse by coaches and senior students, and for female and male club members. 3) Students in sport clubs suffered much more physical and/or verbal abuse from both coaches and senior students than did those in culturally-oriented clubs. Here the relative risks for “abused with violent language” (1.599) by coaches and “hit with a bare hand” (5.492), “kicked” (6.865), and “abused with violent language” (2.354) by senior students were particularly high. These results indicate the need for careful monitoring of the possibility that students in sport clubs might be victims of physical and/or verbal abuse during their activities, not only from coaches but also from senior students. 4) Among sport club members, the relative risks for male students being “kicked” or “abused with violent language” by senior students was significantly higher than for female students. However, there were no differences in the relative risks for suffering other forms of physical and/or verbal abuse from either coaches or senior students. These results indicate that the levels of risk for experiencing physical and/or verbal abuse from both coaches and senior students are roughly the same for both female and male students in sport clubs. 5) With regard to overlap of physical and/or verbal abuse from both coaches and senior students, students who reported being physically and/or verbally abused by coaches had a high risk of suffering such abuse from senior students. This tendency was observed for both male and female students as a group in both sport clubs and culturally-oriented clubs, and also for only male students as a group in sports clubs.
Focusing on the effects of exercise (external focus) is considered more effective for improving motor performance than focusing on one's own physical movements (internal focus). Furthermore, it has been confirmed that imaging the movement being performed is effective for mental training. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in performance ability among experienced athletes on the basis of their focus orientation and motor imagery of movements, with the aim of using the findings as basic data for sports coaching. The subjects comprised 16 males who had experience playing basketball. Each subject performed 30 free throws. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted regarding their focus orientation and motor imagery of movements (movement imagery questionnaire-revised Japanese version). The subjects were divided into a successful group, who achieved above the mean successful free-throw score, and an unsuccessful group, who achieved below the mean score. The results indicated that many subjects in the successful group used external focus, which demonstrated a correlation with the imaging ability of observed movements. These findings suggest that when coaching experienced athletes who are performing poorly, one may consider encouraging them to focus on the effects of each movement and motor imagery of observed movements to improve their performance.
The purpose of this study was to analyze consciousness with regard to team/individual goal-setting, desire to win, and individual opinion in relation to the satisfaction of students with athletic clubs. We conducted a questionnaire survey of athletic clubs to investigate 3 issues related to team goal-setting: a) whether the goals were set or not, b) who was responsible for deciding the goals, and c) whether the goals were shared or not. We also investigated 3 issues related to students' personal goal-setting: a) whether the goals were set or not, b) whether a concrete plan for goal achievement was formulated or not, and c) whether an effort was made to accomplish these aims. We also investigated students' desire to win, the degree of reflection of individual student opinion, and satisfaction gained from applying individual aims using a survey of athletic club activity devised by the Japanese Ministry of Education (1997). The study involved 4,104 students at 292 athletic clubs in 29 junior high schools, and 3,944 students at 249 athletic clubs in 23 high schools (8,048 students in total). The response rate was 69.9%. The main results were as follows: 1) Most of the students had their own personal goals, made concrete plans for achieving them, and made an effort to accomplish their aims. Also, team goals were set, and these were decided and shared by all students. 2) Most of the students recognized that their teams were victory-oriented. In addition, they considered that coaches were positively responsive to students' opinions during practice and games. 3) Therefore, most students had a high level of satisfaction with their athletic clubs.
This study aimed to clarify the composition of the phases (acceleration, full sprint, and velocity endurance) in the 50-m sprint as performed by elementary school students, focusing on changes in running velocity. The subjects were 169 boys and 178 girls in the first to sixth grades of elementary school, who performed a 50-m sprint from a standing start. Running velocity was measured using a laser distance meter, which was synchronized with a video camera that recorded the entire sprint. It was found that the running time of the total sprint was significantly shorter and that maximal velocity was significantly higher for higher-grade than for lower-grade students. The distances of the acceleration phase and full sprint phase were significantly longer for higher-grade than for lower-grade students, but there was no significant difference in the duration of these phases by grade. However, both the distance and duration of the velocity endurance phase were significantly shorter for higher-grade than for lower-grade students. Step length in the acceleration, full sprint, and velocity endurance phases was longer for higher-grade than for lower-grade students. However, step frequency at each phase tended to be almost equal or slightly lower for higher-grade than for lower-grade students. The SL index for higher-grade boys tended to be higher than for lower-grade boys. However, for girls, there was little difference in the SL index at each phase for second-grade students or above. Taken together, the results indicate that the velocity endurance phase comprises the majority of the 50-m sprint when performed by lower-grade students. However, for higher-grade students, the velocity endurance phase is shorter due to the relative increases in the acceleration and sprint phases. This suggests that the distance of the acceleration and full sprint phases affects the distance and duration of the velocity endurance phase.
In classical ballet, dancers must maintain a rigid, erect body posture (pull-up posture), which reduces the physiological curvature of the spine. Previous studies have revealed the critical role of the trunk muscles in the control of such posture. We studied 2 female professional ballet dancers (A,B), 2 female ordinary ballet practitioners (C,D), and 1 female who had no experience in ballet (E) (age 30.2±1.26 yr). Their spinal curvature and trunk muscles were evaluated using X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the CT scans, the cross-sectional areas of the trunk muscles were measured using computer software. X-ray images of the spinal column were taken in a relaxed posture (RP) and the required ballet posture (BP). Spinal alignment was evaluated by measuring the sacral inclination angle (SIA) and the lumbar lordosis angle (LLA). Changes in the SIA and LLA were measured when the subjects moved from the RP to the BP. Center of gravity (COG) agitation was measured using a Wii Balance Board for 15 s in the 6th and 5th ballet foot positions. Sway.velocity (cm/s), Sway. area (cm2) and RMS.area (cm2) were measured as parameters of the COG agitation. Subjects A, B, C and D, who had experience in ballet, tended to have larger trunk muscle cross-sectional areas, especially for the psoas major (PSA) and lateral abdominal (LAT) muscles, and showed a decrease of both SIA and LLA in the ballet posture. There was a tendency for the change in the LLA to be correlated with the cross-sectional areas of the PSA and the LAT. The cross-sectional areas of the LAT, PSA, and erector spinae muscles showed a marked negative correlation with COG agitation parameters in the 6th and 5th ballet foot positions. These findings suggest that these muscles contribute to the classical ballet-specific posture.
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