The purpose of this study was (1) to quantify the contribution of the adductors and iliopsoas to the hip joint torque, and (2) to clarify the function of the adductors and iliopsoas for terminal support until early recovery in maximal velocity sprinting. Eight male track and field athletes volunteered for the present study, and sprinted 60 m from a standing start position. Ground reaction force to the right leg was measured using a force platform (1000 Hz) placed at the 50-m mark from the start position. Simultaneously, 3-dimensional coordinates of body landmarks were recorded by a motion capture system (250 Hz) with 20 cameras. The right hip joint torque was calculated using inverse dynamics. To estimate the muscle forces of the right lower limb, we created a musculoskeletal model. The contribution of the muscle forces to the right hip joint force was calculated based on both equations of motion for each segment and equations of constraint conditions for adjacent segments connected by a joint. The main results for terminal support until early recovery were: (1) The adductor muscles generated less torque during hip joint flexion. (2) These muscles were involved in forward acceleration of the leg on the same side. (3) The iliopsoas was involved in the forward swing of the thigh on the same side. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the hip adductors do not function as hip flexors, but as forward accelerators of the leg on the same side, based on the hip joint adductor torque. In contrast, the iliopsoas does not function as a forward accelerators of the leg on the same side, but delivers forward swing to the thigh on the same side for hip joint flexion torque.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the game process on perception of “streaks” in volleyball games. The study was conducted using video experiments and a questionnaire. The study subjects were 121 university volleyball players, who watched a video of a volleyball game and were asked in the questionnaire to estimate the degree of “streaks” at the end of every rally. They rated the degree of “streaks” on an 11-point Likert scale ranging from −5=extremely poor, to 0=even, to +5= extremely good. The subjects were split into 2 groups, one of which watched VTR-A and the other VTR-B. In addition, the group that watched VTR-A was separated according to the time spent watching. One group watched all of the VTR (called VTR-A-1), and the other group watched an A team 11 vs a B team 11 (VTR-A-2, the score being indicated as A11-11B hereafter). ANOVA was used to test the likelihood that the group watched VTR-B (VTR-B-1, VTR-B-2) from A11-11B to the end of the game with the aim of revealing differences between every rally in detail. T-test was used to reveal differences between the effects of the game process. The results indicated that the VTR-A group was strongly influenced by the game process, whereas the VTR-B was affected only slightly. In giving advice for volleyball practice, our findings suggest that if players perceive they are in a bad situation, adoption of a positive way of thinking may improve the game situation.
A wide range of topspin rotation of a bat around the long-axis, referred to as “rolling”, has been observed in baseball batting, but the mechanical reasons for the large variability among individual batters has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors determining this variability in rolling velocity among professional baseball players. Twenty-nine professional batters each performed 8 “free-batting” trials. An electromagnetic tracking device was used to measure the 3-dimensional rotational motion of the bat in each trial. The rolling velocity was 678±376°/s, comprised a negative contribution attributable to the batter's effort of exerting torque (Mechanism 1: −1144±488°/s) and a positive contribution attributable to the gyroscopic effect (Mechanism 2: 1808±339°/s). A significant positive correlation (r=0.67, p<0.05) was found between the rolling velocity and the negative contribution of Mechanism 1. These results indicate that (a) the torque exerted by the batter resists the rolling and that (b) a higher rolling velocity is attained by batters who exert a smaller resistive torque on the bat than those who exert a larger torque. On the other hand, no correlation (r=0.09) was found between the rolling velocity and positive contribution of mechanism 2. These findings suggest that the batter makes an active effort to resist rolling, and that the amount of resistive torque exerted by the batter is the primary reason for the inter-individual difference in rolling velocity attained at the instant of ball impact. As the resistive torque is likely to be exerted by the nobside hand in the form of pronation torque (Ae et al. 2014) and the pronation causes lowering of the bat-head (increasing nutation angle), a reduction of the pronation torque should decrease the resistive torque acting on the bat, helping to attain a high rolling velocity. In fact, we observed a greater deceleration of nutation velocity in the fast-rolling group than in the slowrolling group (p<0.05). To attain the high rolling velocity, therefore, we suggest that batters should aim to build up the nutation velocity of the bat until about 50 ms before ball impact, and then vigorously decelerate it immediately before ball impact.
Most junior and senior high school students dislike long-distance race in physical education classes, even though many adults enjoy running marathons or spectating at middle- or long-distance races at track and field meetings. The purpose of this study was to develop a new approach to teaching long-distance races in physical education classes, enabling students to enjoy learning tactics for long-distance races in track and field athletics. Tactics for long-distance races were first characterized by analyzing the pace of the women's world record 1,500 m race (3′50″07) and the winning race in the 2015 world championship (4′08″09), won by Genzebe Dibaba, the women's 1,500 m world record holder. This analysis showed that the tactics of a long distance race can be classified into two types: 1) to maintain a pace for improving upon one's record (“tactics for record”) and 2) to compete making use of a slow start, pace changing, and a final sprint to win without any thought of records (“tactics for winning”). Secondly, previous reports on physical education practices for long-distance races were collected and analyzed. This analysis suggested that most practices focused on learning “tactics for record,” which would inevitably exhaust learners, and that the positive learning outcomes of these classes might not make up for the negative experience of “exhaustion,” and thus most learners took an instinctive dislike to long-distance races in physical education classes. Thirdly, a new loop course was created, which included a number of “non-passing zones.” This race condition was designed in order for learners to enjoy learning the “tactics for winning.” A learning experiment, for which 20 university students volunteered, was then conducted to test the efficiency of the race condition created. Video analysis of racing by the subjects and a questionnaire investigation showed that most subjects enjoyed learning the “tactics for winning” and competing with other subjects under the race conditions created. From these results, it is concluded that physical education classes for long-distance races enable students to enjoy long-distance races by focusing on “tactics for winning” using the race conditions created.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sharing exercise classes with spouses on marital relationship satisfaction in older adults. Methods: Thirty-six older married couples and 39 older individuals participated in this study as couple and non-couple groups (CG and NCG, respectively). All participants attended an 8-week exercise class once a week and a home-based exercise program comprising walking and strength exercises. Marital relationship satisfaction was measured using questionnaires (quality marriage index (QMI) and satisfaction in marriage (SM)). We also assessed conversation time and frequency of self-disclosure and collective action with the spouse. Analysis of covariance adjusted for sex was conducted to compare the patterns of change in QMI and SM over the 8-week period between the 2 groups. Chi-squared test was also conducted to compare the proportion of participants who showed an increase in conversation time and frequency of self-disclosure and collective action with their spouse over the 8-week period between the 2 groups. Results: The CG and NCG revealed no significant change in the QMI and SM after the intervention. Analysis of covariance showed that there were no significant interactions (time×groups) in QMI and SM (QMI: P=0.220, SM: P=0.110). The proportion of participants who showed an increased frequency of collective action related to hobby and exercise with their spouse was significantly higher in the CG than in the NCG (hobby: P=0.027, exercise: P=0.004), but there was no significant inter-group difference in the proportion of participants who showed an increase in conversation time and the frequency of self-disclosure. Conclusion: These results suggest that sharing of exercise classes by older married couples can increase the degree of collective action in terms of exercise and hobby participation, but that its influence on marital relationship satisfaction, conversation and self-disclosure is limited. In order to re-examine the present findings, a better designed trial as well as an education program to learn communication skills for enjoyable exercise as a couple will be required.
Today, there are regional variations in the types of traditional Japanese tugs-of-war. Clarifying the significance and issues of traditional Japanese tugs-of-war passed down from generation to generation through children who perform them is meaningful in understanding how traditional sport and game culture can contribute to regional development. The purpose of this study was to examine the actual condition and cultural features of a traditional tug-of-war event known as Inaba no shobu-tsunahiki (literally means a tug-of-war performed in Inaba Province that uses tugs made of iris) held in the Mizushiri district of Ketaka town as a traditional ceremony of tango-no-sekku (the boys' festival on May 5th according to the lunar calendar), and to clarify the cultural significance of this event from the standpoint of regional development through traditional sports. The materials used in this study were collected mainly through fieldwork and interviews with the tug-of-war participants and investigations of historical materials. With regard to the significance of traditional sports culture, it has been considered that traditional Japanese stick games have played an important part in regional development. Similarly, the present findings indicate that this traditional tug-of-war has important significance for the modern community. Inaba no shobu-tsunahiki in the Mizushiri district evolved from the region's nature and history and reflects the identity of the local residents. As the tug-of-war is performed by children and supported by the adults, it plays an important role in community continuation and development, enhancing the local sense of togetherness and revitalizing the link between generations. In the aforementioned aspects, we can find the modern significance of traditional sports and games.
This study examined for the first time the correlation between the spike jump (SPJ), an action specific to volleyball, and other jumps among 202 top-level male volleyball players from domestic leagues (84 from the V. League and 118 from the first division of the Kanto University Volleyball Association). We then categorized the ability of the players during stretch-shortening cycle exercise (SSC) to examine the characteristics of SPJ performance and other positions. The results indicated that, on the one hand, ability in both the counter movement jump (CMJ) and rebound jump (RJ) is required for the SPJ, RJ showing more prominence among elite players. On the other hand, for SSC ability, exercise requiring a longer duration, such as the CMJ, was found to be more critical for the SPJ with a one-step run-up. In terms of different player positions, the results suggested that a middle blocker (MB) with a shorter run-up required a jump that exerts force through longer-duration SSC exercise, whereas a wing spiker (WS) with a full run-up demonstrated more ballistic SSC exercise in his jump. On the basis of these findings, this study has shown the importance of evaluating the characteristics of jump performance according to each player position when designing or choosing the most appropriate physical training exercises for volleyball players.
Global recognition of traditional and indigenous sports as assets of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) has been growing in the last decade. Pelota Mixteca is one example of a traditional and indigenous sport played in Oaxaca, Mexico. Designated as an intangible cultural heritage by the Oaxaca local government in 2011, Pelota Mixteca has been developed in California by Oaxacan migrants. Moreover, an annual Pelota Mixteca tournament has been held in Fresno County since 1998. This paper examines the process of diffusion of Pelota Mixteca into the United States and highlights specific cultural aspects that showcase traditional and indigenous sports as ICH. The methodology of this study involved an ethnographic investigation of Pelota Mixteca in both the United States and Mexico, highlighting 2 annual tournaments held in Fresno County in 2015 and 2016. Now, these tournaments serve as a symbol of the cultural diffusion of Pelota Mixteca into the United States. Based on fieldwork from tournaments, this paper discusses 3 cultural aspects of Pelota Mixteca as follows. First, the tournament participants, including organizers, players and spectators, came from diversified backgrounds, comprising immigrants and non-immigrants from Oaxaca, first-generation and second-generation Mexican-Americans, and Pelota Mixteca players from the center and periphery of Oaxaca. All of the participants symbolized the complex Oaxacan society. Second, the tournament is an arena for cultural politics representing Mexican or Oaxacan images. Mexican government agencies and university migrant services have recognized the Pelota Mixteca tournament as a cultural device by which Mexican immigrants can express their identities. In addition, the tournament has also raised consciousness of cultural roots among the participants from Mexico. Finally, the tournament, or location where Oaxacans play Pelota Mixteca, is a meta-home. No matter who participates, where the participants come from, or when the tournament takes place, Oaxacans feel they have found a home when Pelota Mixteca is played. Oaxacans have built Pelota Mixteca courts in their various migration sites, such as Mexico City and California, since the 1930s. It can be argued that if Oaxacans did not have Pelota Mixteca, they would not have had the motivation to migrate to the various areas they now inhabit. From what has been said above, it can be concluded that acknowledging traditional and indigenous sports as ICH allows an understanding of the ambiguity and polysemy of that sport in relation to other cultures. For this purpose, a sports anthropology approach may prove valuable in the future.
In a competitive swimming race event, the back plate can be placed on the starting block. Although the back plate has different setting positions, the effect of the plate position on start performance has not yet been clarified. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the back plate position on the kick-start performance of competitive swimmers. Six male swimmers dived from an instrumented starting block that contained 2 force plates and force sensors to measure the reaction forces exerted by the hands and front and rear feet. Four high-speed cameras were used to obtain kinematic data on the swimmers. The horizontal take-off velocity of the front plate position resulted in a better outcome than the back plate position (p<0.05). In the front plate position, a longer rear foot contact time generated a large impulse, and swimmers were able to achieve a higher take-off velocity. To generate a larger impulse, the contact time on the starting block needed to be longer. However, swimmers were able to achieve a higher take-off velocity using the front plate position without extending the block time. In this manner, the front plate position did not affect the time on the block. Moreover, different setting positions of the back plate influenced the joint angle of the postural set before the starting signal. Differences in the joint angle led to an increase in the horizontal component of the force impulse of the rear leg. Therefore, revealing the relationship between the joint angle of the postural set and start performance would provide detailed information on the optimum start posture for swimmers, including the plate position.
Background & Aim: Manual resistance training (MRT) is one form of resistance training (RT). MRT has some unique merits, such as the ability to apply a sufficient load in both the concentric and eccentric muscle activity phases. On the other hand, there is a possibility that sufficient muscle force cannot be exerted in some cases because muscle force exertion depends on the trainee's effort. It would be difficult for trainees without prior RT experience to exert sufficient force during MRT. In this study, we investigated the effect of RT experience on muscle force exertion patterns during MRT. Methods: Six healthy men with more than 2 years of RT experience (trained group) and 6 healthy men who had no RT experience (untrained group) performed dominant arm cable elbow flexion exercise. They performed 8 repetitions of manual resistance exercise (MR) with maximum voluntary force exertion throughout all repetitions and 8RM isotonic resistance exercise (ISO), which is a popular RT method. Their elbow flexion muscle exertion force and biceps brachii electromyogram (EMG) signals were measured during exercise. Results: In the trained group, the muscle exertion force during MR in the first 2 repetitions was significantly higher (142±11%: vs ISO), and that in the last 2 repetitions tended to be higher (109±13%) than that in ISO. In the untrained group, the muscle exertion force during MR in the first 2 repetitions was significantly higher (119±19%), and that in the last 2 repetitions was significantly lower (87%±14%) than that in ISO. Compared to those in ISO, the muscle exertion forces during MR in both the first 2 and the last 2 repetitions were significantly higher in the trained group than in the untrained group. There were no significant differences in electromyographic activity levels between the trained and untrained groups, or between MR and ISO, although some trends similar to those for the muscle exertion force were evident. Conclusion: Subjects with no prior RT experience exert a lower muscle force in MR than subjects with RT experience. Prior RT experience is suggested to affect the degree of muscle exertion force in MR.
The present study was conducted to clarify the extent to which observers are able to understand objective movement processes after observing slow-motion or repeated video clips of gymnastics movements on a horizontal bar. The movements were shown to third-year elementary and first-year junior high school students using original video clips, repeated video clips, and slow-motion video clips, and the students were asked to reproduce the movements using paper dolls. The results showed that the mean scores for the reproduced processes did not differ significantly between the 2 groups of students, suggesting that observation of repeated video and slow-motion video does not strengthen understanding of the movement process. Mean task scores were significantly higher for students who were shown slow-motion video clips than for those shown original video clips of a “glide kip”, suggesting that slow-motion video is a more effective means of presenting more complex kinematic structures of movement. Experience of sports participation at elementary school, and having skills such as “hip pullover from takeoff” did not affect the mean task scores.
In soccer, passing has a decisive influence on the match, and can be said to be one of the game's most important elements. Regardless of playing style, in order to win, soccer players must master the ability to deliver the ball accurately to teammates. Therefore, the training menu of coaches must ensure precise passing of the ball. Even if coaches teach this, the outcome depends on the skills of individual players. If it is possible to reduce the number of failed passes as far as possible, then a better strategy than the opposing team can be achieved. For this purpose, it is necessary to refine the “passing wisdom” of soccer players. As the importance of passing in soccer is widely recognized, a number of studies have addressed this aspect. For example, an attempt has been made to clarify the mechanical structure of the kick from a biomechanics perspective, and to clarify the structure of cognitive perception from a sports psychology perspective. However, to our knowledge, there has been no phenomenological analysis of “passing wisdom” in soccer players to date. In order to analyze this, a phenomenology (Bewegungslehre des Sport) perspective needs to be adopted, and this was done in the present study. This revealed the following 7 abilities: 1) The ability to sense other players' intention. 2) The ability to sense whether the criteria for successful action meet other players' intention. 3) The ability to construct a situation based on one's own analysis. 4) The ability to recognize the criteria for effective passing. 5) The ability to sense the receiver of the pass. 6) The ability to visualize the course of the pass. 7) The ability to apply the technique to a constructed situation based on one's own analysis.
Strength and Conditioning (S&C) coaches are responsible for improving athletes' performance, which is achieved through various types of training. For athletes who are learning to improve their performance, it is important for the coach to guide their development by asking meaningful questions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the process by which questioning skills can be improved using Action Research (AR) methodology. In this study, 4 cycles of AR were conducted to improve the author's questioning skills, which were both lower-(complex) and higher-order (simple) questions, with avoidance of leading questions. The author of this paper was working as a S&C coach with a collegiate men's volleyball team. Fifteen players voluntarily participated in this study. As part of the AR methodology, the author selected an academic supervisor and a critical friend to observe and provide feedback based on coaching practices. An action plan was formulated through discussions based on the videotaped practices. A systematic observation approach was selected to elucidate behavioral differences in coaches over a 6-week period. A modified version of the Arizona State University Observation Instrument was also used. Interviews were conducted to reveal athletes' feelings about the coach's use of questioning. Strength and vertical jump performance were assessed before and after the AR intervention. As a result of the AR, the author's questioning skills were improved. There were 3 processes through which questioning skills were improved: 1) increased familiarity with higher-order questioning, which made the athletes think rather than being told, 2) increased time for planning explicit higher and lower-order questions, and 3) challenging the thinking of athletes through the use of questioning to create a better interaction between coach and athletes. This study challenged the author's use and understanding of S&C coach questioning skills for the first time. From this research, the AR procedure was considered to be a very useful tool for improving the coaching skills of S&C coaches. Further research to seek ways of improving the pedagogical skills of S&C coaches will be necessary.
This study examined changes in attitude toward endurance running in senior high school students with different levels of physical fitness, and this study assessed mood and calculation functions of students before and after endurance running. The participants were 250 senior high school students (119 boys and 131 girls). Endurance running was practiced at a slow pace (slow jogging pace; heart rate: 30-35 [15s]; rate of perceived exertion (RPE): 11-13). Attitudes toward endurance running were assessed before and after the unit using a questionnaire. Attitudes toward endurance running, more specifically positivity and importance, were calculated in terms of a positive feeling score and cognitive score. In addition, negative attitudes toward endurance running were expressed as a negative feeling score. Changes in mood and calculation function were investigated in the participants and a control group. In the control group, comprising 75 boys and 41 girls, the changes of mood and calculation function were assessed before and after a health class. After the unit, the positive feeling and cognitive score increased significantly and the negative feeling score decreased significantly in both the lower and higher fitness groups. After endurance running, although levels of arousal in the control group were not increased in both boys and girls, arousal levels were increased significantly in both sexes in both the lower and higher fitness groups. The degree of mood change and the degree of attitude change were related significantly to the degree of change in perceived pleasure and the change in the positive feeling score for boys in the higher fitness group. Moreover, the degree of change in perceived pleasure and the degree of change in the positive and negative feeling scores were related significantly for girls in the lower fitness group. These results suggest that slow jogging in a unit, involving how students experience mood and calculation functions, leads to an increase in positive attitude toward endurance running. However, further investigation is necessary to examine the influence of slow jogging on mood and calculation functions, and the influence on attitude toward endurance running in this type of unit.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of training with the heavier hammer (8.0 kg). Sixteen male hammer throwers were divided into a TR group (n=8) and a CT group (n=8). The TR group trained with the heavier hammer (8.0 kg) for 4 weeks. In order to investigate the effect of the training, tests were conducted before and after training. Utilizing 3 high-speed video cameras (300 fps), the 3-dimensional coordinates of the hammer head and 25 landmarks on the body were obtained by the direct linear transformation method. The results showed that in the TR group, the throwing record was increased and the release velocity increased due to an increase of velocity increment during the turn. The maximum centrifugal force was increased in the all double support phase after training in the TR group. With regard to the lower limb joint angles, bending motion of the hip and the knee joint was emphasized after training in the TR group. These results suggest that throwing with the heavier hammer is an effective training method for improving the throwing distance, and for throwing action against the increased load during the turn phase.
This study examined the influence of an intervention program designed to enhance self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy in a physical education class attended by university students. The study participants were divided into an intervention group (36 students: males 33, females 3) and a control group (25 students: males 22, females 3). For the intervention group, we introduced an intervention program using self-regulated learning notebooks that focused on self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy. Our analysis revealed the following: 1) Both the intervention and control groups showed a significant increase in the image and help-seeking to teachers of self-regulated learning strategies, and better adjustment to the physical education class, 2) the intervention group showed a significant increase in goal setting, self-talk, self-monitoring, effort, evaluation and reflection of self-regulated learning strategies, and self-efficacy, 3) no difference was found between the intervention and control groups in the level of satisfaction and pleasure obtained from the physical education class. These results suggest that this intervention program can contribute to enhancement of self-regulated learning strategies, self-efficacy, and adjustment to physical education classes. The limitations of the intervention program and future strategies to enhance its utility are also discussed.
This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of the games played by every world top-level women chopper by studying 8 players (A-H) using notational game performance analysis. The games sample comprised 6 games per player, 48 games in total, from the 2013-2015 world championship and International Table Tennis Federation World Tour. Analysis items were the number of shots played per rally, the utilization, the winning and the losing ratios according to the classification of techniques, the utilization ratios of each techniques belonging to the classification. It also considered utilization ratios of various attacking combinations and the techniques used before an attack. The data obtained were processed using statistical methods such as Fisher's exact test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results were as follows: 1) In terms of the average number of shots played per rally, more losing rallies than winning rallies were observed. Furthermore, winning ratios for 1-3 shots of the rally were high, except for H while they were low for 4-9 shots. Winning ratios after 10 shots of the rally were high in 3 players, who had higher world rankings while they were low in other players. 2) The utilization of an attack was 16% of maximums. In addition, losing ratios for attack for a high-ranking player were less than 25% while they were high for other players. 3) The total percentages for the chop and the push were 81% of maximums and 62% of minimums. Moreover, some players mainly utilized the chop while others mainly utilized the push. 4) The utilization ratios of the various attack different for each player, and these could be classified into 5 types: Forehand counter loop drive (Fhdr), Backhand smash (Bsm), Forehand speed drive (Fsdr), Forehand smash (Fsm), and Backhand speed drive (Bsdr). 5) The utilization ratios for all players had more backhand chop (Bc) than forehand chop (Fc) and more backhand push (Bt) than forehand push (Ft), except for one player. This was considered to be common for all world-class choppers. 6) The utilization ratios of the technique used before an attack were different for each player, and these techniques could be classified into 3 types: the chop, the push, and the service before the attack.
This case study investigated whether teachers might be able to improve cooperative learning in physical education classes through the development and trial use of a video annotation system. The study also sought to shed light on how this video annotation system was perceived by the target teachers. Use of the video annotation system was found to increase teacher awareness, leading to concrete improvements in their instruction. The results of this study suggest the possibility that teaching materials, objectives, content, students, and setting can be perceived as an integral whole. Video annotation also enabled teachers to grasp differences in difficulty between clarifying concrete teaching problems and actually solving these problems to achieve better results in daily classes.
With a focus on GHQ/SCAP, GS documents, the objective of this study was to clarify the basic facts of the purge to which Mitsuhashi Kikuo was subjected. The findings are as follows: 1. Circumstances in the lead-up to Mitsuhashi undergoing review for public office qualification and the outcome of the review were clarified. 1) After Japan's defeat in the Asia-Pacific War, Mitsuhashi made every effort to restart the field of sports and physical education. He also attempted to run for office in the first upper-house elections (March 10, 1947). He underwent a review by the Central Public Office Qualifications Examination Committee in an effort to qualify as a candidate. His intended “public office” was that of a Diet member. 2) The review concluded that Mitsuhashi should be subject to a purge under SCAPIN 550, as he had held the post of Director of the Great Japan Industrial Patriotic Association before the war. Although the Committee had initially declared him “passed” (March 17), GHQ did not recognize the Japanese decision and decided to subject Mitsuhashi to a purge under SCAPIN 550 (March 31). The apparent reason was that GHQ emphasized the formal criteria, and thus declared him a Memorandum Case. 2. The lead-up to Mitsuhashi's appeal for re-review and its outcome was also clarified, in addition to his arguments during the appeal process. 1) Working within the system, Mitsuhashi petitioned the Public Service Qualifications Appeal Board for a re-review (April 14). In the re-review process, he submitted 5 memoranda testifying that he had not been influential as a director. In addition, he also testified orally twice before the Board. 2) He argued that his role was unpaid and merely titular, and that he had not attended meetings or made any positive contributions. He added that his appointment had been a mere formality; he had not intended to utilize the organization, and his contribution merely involved gymnastic instruction. Furthermore, he claimed that he was a liberal who had consistently criticized prewar physical education policy as militaristic, and who had studied sports instruction abroad. 3) After the re-review, Mitsuhashi was delisted as a subject of the purge under SCAPIN 550 (Dec.22). However, GHQ only accepted this decision about 5 months later following appeals from the Japanese government (May 22, 1948). Though Mitsuhashi's arguments were accepted by the entire Japanese membership of the Committee, it took more than 13 months for GHQ to acknowledge the decision.
Baseball is a thriving sport in Japanese high schools. However, there have been demands to shorten the instructional time for school extracurricular activities, resulting in a need to increase the effectiveness of such instruction. The present study was designed to examine the effects of 3 elements of team strength in high school baseball—pitching strength, batting strength, and defensive strength—on the outcome of a game. The materials used for analysis were the records of all of the 390 games and 780 teams involved in the National High School Baseball Championship from 2008 to 2015. Pitching strength, batting strength, and defensive strength were calculated using Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP), On-base Plus Slugging (OPS), and Defensive Efficiency Rating (DER), respectively. Logistic regression analysis (forced entry method) was conducted on the game outcome as the dependent variable and team FIP, team OPS, and DER as the independent variables. This analysis showed that the team FIP (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.74—0.86), team OPS (odds ratio 8145, 95% confidence interval 1957—33898), and DER (odds ratio 5699019, 95% confidence interval 341274—95169408) were significantly associated with the outcome of the game. An assessment of the Wald statistic, which indicates the contribution rate of the dependent variables, showed that batting strength had the strongest effect on game outcome, followed by defensive strength. Compared to batting and defensive strength, pitching strength appeared to have only a small influence on game outcome. Therefore, for efficient improvement of team strength, it is considered that resources should be directed towards improving batting and defensive strength over pitching strength.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among perceived motivational climates, goal orientations, and satisfaction with physical education in senior high school students. Our basic study model was that the presence of 2 motivational climates in physical education classes would promote goal orientations, and that goal orientations would promote student satisfaction with physical education classes. The validity of this model was verified using simultaneous multi-population analysis. The sample comprised 687 senior high school students (mean age=16.4±0.6years). The measures used included a questionnaire on motivational climates in physical education (performance climates and mastery climates), a scale assessing goal orientations (student ego orientation and student task orientation), and a scale assessing satisfaction with physical education classes. The simultaneous multi-population analysis demonstrated the validity of the study model for both male students and female students. Furthermore, the results of the study suggested the following processes: (1) The performance climate had a negative influence on satisfaction with physical education classes. (2) The performance climate had a positive influence on student ego orientation, which in turn had a positive influence on satisfaction with physical education classes (male students only). (3) The mastery climate had a positive influence on satisfaction with physical education classes. (4) The mastery climate had a positive influence on student task orientation, which in turn had a positive influence on their satisfaction with physical education classes (female students only). (5) The mastery climate had a positive influence on student task orientation, and this had a positive influence on student ego orientation, which in turn had a positive influence on satisfaction with physical education classes (male students only). The analysis showed that in both groups, the presence of a mastery climate had a direct positive influence on satisfaction with physical education classes. In addition, the presence of a performance climate had a direct negative influence on satisfaction with physical education classes. In conclusion, to enhance satisfaction with physical education classes, it is important for teachers to cultivate a mastery climate.
Group-level collective efficacy can be represented by the degree of variability or consensus around the central belief of group members (Bandura, 1997, 2000). Previous studies have primarily utilized the group mean as the representation of group-level collective efficacy to examine its relationship with group effectiveness, while the predictive power of within-group variability of collective efficacy has been largely ignored (Zaccaro et al., 1995). The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive power of collective efficacy dispersion on group cohesion, which is a criterion used to assess group effectiveness. Seven-hundred twenty-four athletes from various sport teams (n=47) participated in the study. The Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sports (Short et al., 2005) was used to assess the group mean and dispersion of collective efficacy. In addition, we used the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985; Widmeyer et al., 1985) to assess the four dimensions of group cohesion. The results indicated that collective efficacy dispersion did not predict group cohesion beyond the predictive power of the group mean. These findings have significant implications for research on collective efficacy dispersion.
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for evaluating the psychosocial learning outcomes (PLO) of students in junior high school judo classes. In a preliminary study conducted in October 2014, 51 questionnaire items were developed based on an open-ended questionnaire about the PLO of 531 junior high school students (male: 252, female: 279, first-year: 173, second-year: 148, third-year: 210) who attended judo classes. In a main study conducted in March 2015, factor analysis was conducted the using collected from 622 junior high school students (male: 298, female: 324, first-year: 316, second-year: 306) who attended judo classes, using the 51 items developed in the preliminary survey. The results showed that this scale had 4 PLO subscales: judo correspondence behavior, cooperative learning, martial arts manners and compliance with class norms. Each of the subscales had generally satisfactory internal consistency and retest reliability. In addition, significant positive correlations were observed between the subscales and the items used to evaluate the receptive coaching of the teacher. Similarly, significant positive correlations were observed between the subscales and the scales (observing interpersonal norms scale, tactical thinking ability scale, and behavior for developing relations scale) used to confirm the construct validity. Covariance structure analysis revealed a moderate fit for the scale's factor analysis model (GFI=.95, AGFI=.93, CFI=.96, RMSEA=.05). Thus, each of subscales scores had moderate reliability and validity. In a future study, the developed scale should be examined for its influence on the personality development of students in judo classes.