This paper quantitatively examines by simulation the extent to which plot exchange can consolidate fragmented farmland. We first show that individual, decentralized, one-to-one plot exchanges, which are currently conducted by some leading farmers, cannot accomplish sufficient consolidation. This is because occurrences of "double-coincidence-of-wants" necessary for voluntary exchange are too few. We then propose a collective, centralized approach, based on the top trading cycle algorithm by Shapley et al., in which many farmers simultaneously exchange plots. This approach mitigates the restriction of "double-coincidence-of-wants" and can raise the consolidation rate to more than twice that of the individual-decentralized exchange. We also find that the consolidation rate improves dramatically as more farmers participate in the exchange. Our results suggest that it is essential to attract as many farmers as possible and to conduct collective and centralized allocation of plots in order to attain better consolidation.
This study investigates the relationship between female labor participation and social customs in a rural area of Mediterranean Turkey, and examines how and to what extent existing social customs restricting female labor supply would constrain the effects on agricultural production and farm behavior of Turkey’s accession to the European Union (EU). Based on the results obtained in a field survey, a household model incorporating social customs is constructed that demonstrates the effects of divergence from standard female labor participation rates in crop production. Using this model, computable general equilibrium simulation analyses of Turkey’s accession to the EU are conducted. The results show that although social customs may restrain agricultural production by limiting female labor participation in crop production, their restraining effects are not as large as the effects of the changed production circumstances that would be caused by Turkey’s accession to the EU.
The objective of the study is to measure impacts of climate change on rice price and demand of rice in Cambodia under moderate emission scenario and high emission scenario, using supply and demand model of rice. The results show that yields of both wet and dry season rice and per capita consumption of rice under moderate emission scenario are higher than that under extreme climate change scenario, while rice price has the opposite trend. It can be concluded that climate change would affect marginalized groups of people in Cambodia. A well-established rice policy is necessary in Cambodia.
This study evaluates the effects of supportive policies on income formation by input factor in Thai rice farming, where the government support has surged in recent years. Our simulation analyses led us to conclude that (1) under the price support policy for rice, family labor is most benefited by major-crop rice production, and hired labor and suppliers of other purchased inputs by second-crop rice production, and (2) under the alternative policy to reduce the price of purchased inputs, the benefits accruing to farmers might be severely limited while rice production strongly increased as in price support for rice.
Previous studies use numerous measures to examine regional trade structures and describe comparative advantages or interdependence between regions. Recently, however, studies adopting social network analysis to trade have become a growing concern. This study analyzes structural changes in intra-regional trade of food market in East Asia by decomposing trade networks and creating consistency between reciprocity as measured by Squartini et al. (2013) and the Grubel-Lloyd index of intra-industry trade. We confirm East Asia's intra-industry trade in foods has deepened, however, its position in overall trade remains small in a comparison with each country's centrality in reciprocated and non-reciprocated networks.
This study proposes a new framework to include individual European countries, largely ignored in previous studies, to analyze the market margins of Southeast Asian exporters in world markets of sustainable energy trade. We find that the German and Dutch markets underestimate exporter margins compared with the whole EU market. Belgium and France have close and higher magnitudes of market margins, respectively. Another result of interest is that the United Kingdom (U.K.) is insignificant. Malaysian palm oil exporters are price takers in the U.K. where the sustainable energy share of energy production is one of lowest in EU-27.
Using a two-stage approach with an input-oriented DEA model, this study investigates technical efficiency in household pig production in Vietnam and seeks to determine which factors affect it. The results show that overall technical efficiency (TEcrs) was 80.40%. It is further found that households' poor management, rather than their operating scales, prevented technical efficiency from reaching its full potential. Factors affecting on TEcrs include live weight per fattening pig, breeding time, experience, education, family member joining in pig production, income from pig, access to credit and veterinary services. Thus, potential means of improving technical efficiency in pig production are suggested and thereby enhancing Vietnamese households' performance.
This paper assesses whether Japan's quest for food export disciplines in trade negotiations was successful, and concludes that it ended in failure. The export disciplines in Japan's economic partnership agreements (EPAs) are not necessarily stronger than those in regional trade agreements (RTAs) by third countries. The Food Supply chapter in Japan's EPA with Australia is far from 'WTO-plus' in comparison with its own WTO proposals and similar provisions in RTAs by European countries. Japan's real goals of demanding tighter disciplines were not to secure stable imports but to counter exporting countries and sell politicians unpopular trade agreements for successful ratification.