The Industry Scale of Physical Education Classes in Elementary Schools (ISPE) was developed. Then, ISPE was used to clarify differences in Industry, which is one stage of Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development, in relation to grade, gender, and flow experiences in physical education classes, as well as efforts made in other subjects. A questionnaire consisting of 43 items related to Industry was developed in a pilot study by qualitatively analyzing a unit of physical development exercise in third and fourth grades of elementary school. In the main study, elementary school students (N = 1,276, 646 boys and 630 girls) responded to this questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the ISPE consisted of four factors and 22 items: (1) Empathy for peers, (2) Discovery of challenges, (3) Initial remarks and (4) Conscientiousness. Each ISPE factor had satisfactory internal consistency, and each ISPE factor score was positively correlated with the results of fitness and physical competence tests, which confirmed its concurrent validity. Moreover, each ISPE factor score had a weak correlation with efforts made in other subjects including Japanese language and arithmetic. These results are suggestive of a common industry trait in all subjects. Moreover, a moderate correlation was indicated between ISPE score and flow experiences in physical education, suggesting flow experience of students is based on Industry. Furthermore, a two-way ANNOVA indicated that ISPE score and physical competence had similar gender differences and changing trends caused by increasing school year. Keywords: self-determination, intrinsic motivation, effort process
In this study, I indicate that compared to a normal basketball game, “line port ball” and “basketball with postman and side zones” can increase the decision making capacity for sixth grade students. The results showed two findings. First, compared with the students playing a normal basketball game, those playing “line port ball” and “basketball with postman and side zones” showed an increased decision making capacity. Second, the latter games urge the students to make more effective offensive strategies and they showed higher cognitive capacities while playing these games. Therefore, the study showed that “basketball with postman and side zones” is effective, as it enhances decision making capacities, because it was developed to solve the problem of offensive strategy.