The term "kenkyu-shien" ("research administration"), which came into use in Japan from the 1970's to 1980's, denotes a wide variety of phenomena and concepts; therefore, analysis and historical studies require specific subjects. Given MEXT's current definition of a university research administrator (URA), we need to cover the history of industry-academia collaboration, intellectual property management, and so on. To examine at what moments in history research administration required attention, this paper looks back at the social history of research administration in Japan over the past 30 years. Research administrators face a conflict between their own desires to contribute to science, as individuals who once loved science, and the university's demand on them to contribute to the university. Awareness of this gap is an important part of a research administrator's survival strategy.
The "consortia for the "multi-skilled worker" model for development of human resources in research administrator" has started since 2014 by the financial support provided by MEXT. This consortia attempts to develop the human resources in research administrators who will be able to commit the research project from the planning to generation of results through the originally developed education program. The number of the university which participates this consortia is increasing from 4 (2014) to 14 (2016). Also, this consortia tries to clarify the correlation between the ability and the actual performance of research administrator or university-industry cooperation coordinator in academia.
This paper overviews today's status of university research administrators (URAs) in Japan and provides functional analysis using URA skill standard. Firstly, I summarize about URA skill standard with 22 business categories and its construction process with its multifarious backgrounds and philosophy. Using skill standard, nation-wide questionnaire inquiry apparently reveals the current URAs situation in the aspects of business scope, ability, achievement, population, and organizational structure. Finally, considering the similarity about the university--industry collaboration professionals, the important leavings to design appropriate mandates of URAs are 1) skill standard especially for senior level management, 2) interact with certificate and carrier paths, 3) measurements of URA performance to contribute research activity. It will clearly suggest that realizing these points make research-intensive university perform more innovative.
Shinshu University is actively promoting industry-academia-government collaboration. In recent years, the university has ranked high among Japanese universities in terms of contribution to local communities, the number of joint researches with private firms, and the number of patent rights. Meanwhile, indices indicating its research capabilities, such as the numbers of papers written in English, top 10% highly cited papers, and theses jointly written with non-Japanese authors, have also been on the rise. A major driving force behind this trend is considered to be a perfect unison of the university's measures to promote industry-academia-government collaboration and strengthen its research capabilities. This paper introduces examples of the forming of Shinshu University's base for research and industry-academia-government collaboration aiming at strengthening the ability to contribute to local communities (ability for industry-academia-government collaboration) and also enhancing its own research capabilities. In addition, Shinshu University-Innovative Research & Liaison Organization (SUIRLO), the university's unique body to support research and industry-academia-government collaboration established to back up and further improve the base, is explained in detail together with other related information.
This review concentrated on the changes of the fund, which utilized support organizations and practitioners to support university-industry research collaborations or technology transfers. These funds appeared with practitioners who have been arranged by the government for political reasons, and are a part of several policies or programs related to the Gap Fund. We classified such funds under the category, "Gap Fund Utilizing Support Function." These funds especially have been useful for small and medium enterprises and young researchers.
In recent years, Japanese companies are required to create innovation rapidly due to shorter product life cycle. By this reason, the importance of "Open-innovation" is getting stronger. This is a procedure to accelerate development of innovative products and services without being restricted by their own resource, by introducing technology seeds from outside. On the other hand, Japanese companies have many issues originating from their past successful experience, known as "the not-invented-here syndrome". In order to overcome such issues, companies need approaches so as to (1) make clear top management decision, (2) reform the organization to push forward the decision, and (3) cumulate such operation. To encourage those approaches, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) where the author belongs, implement assistance by government budget, tax system and by collecting the best practice for sharing.
At the critical changes of business in a manufacturing enterprise, changes of possessing technology assets are essential and most important requirements. As a typical example of such changes of business, struggle of FUJIFILM against rapid shrink of photographic industry is discussed.
Service Innovation is boost "the power of the person" to the maximum level in advanced technology. It is the most important for a prosperous future. Therefore, diversity become important. Co-operation for the Service Innovation is based on the society, it must be a wide variety of people and technology and knowledge. This paper is intended to organize the Service Innovation of SECOM, which has been created by the Co-operation.
Japan Society for Intellectual Production and Tokyo Medical and Dental University jointly held a symposium titled "Open Innovation --Challenges to change corporate cultures--" on December 1st, 2015. "Open Innovation" has been widely known in industry, academia and government, recently. On the other hands, some problems have been risen up to the surface as the results of trials to open innovation. Based on this, the symposium was comprised of 1) introduction of pioneering examples of strategic approach to open innovation by large enterprises, 2) introduction of problems concerning open innovation, and 3) discussion about differences of approach to open innovation among the categories of business.
The cases that new business are created by industrial companies helped with the collaborations between Universities and Financial Firms in Japan are increasing. We are thinking that the Collaborations with Industry, Universities and Financial Firms should be checked and focused as the unique system for regional innovation in Japan. But only some cases have been introduced separately, the total situation regarding the Collaborations has not been grasped for quantitative analysis. This research analyzed, with the social network analysis methods, the nationwide survey data that was made by J-SIP (Japan Society for Intellectual Production) in 2009 and 2014. As the result of the verification, this article could show following 3 facts. 1) Local features influenced the network making process. 2) Some of Universities or Financial Firms had centrality and some Star Type Networks were made. 3) Web Type Network, plural universities and firms were connected mutually, was not made. Using these features the nationwide Collaborations in Japan could be classified.
Considering the importance of university's industrial activities and the common use of ICT within such communications, we studied the problem of emails being unread and tried finding the improvement. Firstly, we set our approach by focusing on the emails which are regarded as irrelevant and unnecessary to read by the receivers (university's research and teaching staff). Then we conducted the qualitative survey on the emails' receiving, reading, influence of work as well as the organizational characteristics of receivers. From the analysis results, we found the possible causes are: 1. such kind of emails are relatively more for research and teaching staff, 2. research and teaching staff regard such emails as seriously problematic, 3. if such emails are being sent continuously, they tend to be ignored by research and teaching staff. Hence, we suggested the improvement of email use as: a. taking notice that research and teaching staff tend to selectively read the email by personal interest, b. writing the title as clear as possible, c. delivering the email through the organizations/communities which have close relationship with research and teaching staff.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between university patents and influence factors. The data about university patents and the data about indexes and activities of universities were collected and analyzed. As a result, multiple regression equations explaining numbers of patent applications per professor (including associate and assistant professor), numbers of owned patents per professor, numbers of patent licensing per professor and incomes of patent licensing per professor by 5, 4, 2 and 3 explanatory variables (The multiple coefficients of determination were respectively 76.9%, 74.9%, 44.1% and 48.2%.) were derived. The variables indicating industry-academia collaboration activities occupied the majority of the explanatory variables, and the variables indicating status of students, research activities and types of universities were partially selected. In order to increase university patents, it is necessary to promote industry-academia collaboration activities, and in addition it is expected to strengthen research activities and enhance graduate schools.
Research promotion, which is called research administration, has been introduced mainly into some national universities in recent years. However, it is not easy for university secretariat to establish research administration organization. This is because most of university secretariat are based on bureaucratic system. The system frequently standardizes a work process; therefore, it disturbs innovation. Moreover, even if university research administration organization which is not based on bureaucratic system is newly established, it often has difficulty in cooperating with the other organizations. This paper is a theoretical research with the object of organizational theory to clarify in what kind of organizational style research administration perform effectively. This study revealed that adhocracy is an effective style for research administration.
Until now there has been insufficient examination into the idea that university research result patenting will lead to investment incentives for industries to put those research results to use. In this research, a survey based on a questionnaire given to individuals involved in the industrial side of industry-university collaboration activities has been conducted concering how the existence of the patent applications of universities is recognized in joint research and development. The results show that when industries engage in joint research and development with a university, they do no not require the university to fill out a patent application for the technology that is the target of the joint research. Pharmaceutical industries were no exception to this finding. In addition, when it comes to the handling of joint research results, there are many individuals of the opinion that intellectual property rights of the results should be handed over to the industrial side, which is in a better position to make use of them. However, with respect to the conditions for transfer of the rights, mutual understandings among the parties concerned have not yet been estabilished.
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