This study aimed to obtain knowledge for improving usability through motion characteristics analysis based on peak velocity of drag on touch screens. We conducted an experiment in which an object was dragged to a target position. The drag direction and distance were adopted as experimental factors. Ten subjects participated in this study; their average age was 23.6 years. The results showed that the fingertip movement for drag corresponded well with the performance model based on Fitts’ law, and the usability decreased under the conditions with relatively long distance excepting the right direction. The peak velocity of dragging was almost linearly related to the distance to the target and was higher in the horizontal direction than in the vertical direction. Since the corrective movement for positioning at the target accounted for more than half of the drag movement, operation support for the corrective movement may improve usability.
One of the important Kansei values of automobiles is engine sound. Engine sound determines the character of a car and is an important element for branding. However, since popular cars sold around the world have diverse preferences for customers in each region, they will inevitably be developed to reflect the demand for improvement of mass production cars while compare with the level of competing cars. It is same for engine sounds, and when providing engine sounds with new Kansei values, a different approach is required. Therefore, in this research, we used Kansei engineering, devised a new process to realize engine sound of a new concept, and verified its usefulness. Specifically, we introduce an example of engine sound design based on the concept of “Woody sound”.
With the spread of digital games, board games as analog games are also popular. There are several discussions focusing on educational methods using board games. However, although it is said that it will have improved communication skills and educational effects, there is not much specific analysis. It is considered impossible to conduct social experiments that only control the use of board games, and it is generally difficult to measure them. Therefore, in this study, based on the hypothesis that it is effective, we set the “Fundamental Competencies for Working Persons” by METI as educational effects for 24 types of board games and analyzed the relationship. This paper describes the results. In addition, we discuss whether board games can be generalized for playing and learning, and the “Fundamental Competencies for Working Persons” for educational effects.
As factors determining roughness sensation of dot pattern, both spacing and curvature of dot are assumed. In this study, the relationship between these two dimensional parameters and the roughness sensation was investigated. We used a 3D printer to produce various types of samples with different combinations of curvature and spacing, and conducted sensory evaluation to select combinations with the same sense of roughness from among them. As a result of the experiment, as the dot curvature is larger (smaller), the smaller (larger) dot spacing is selected, and a contour map of roughness sensation is created on these two dimensional planes. It was found that roughness sensation is proportional to logarithm of dot curvature, assuming that roughness sensation is proportional to logarithmic value of dot spacing. By this experiment, the magnitude of the influence of dot shape in roughness perception and its individual difference were found.
In order to increase the number of videos playback, we researched on the thumbnail images and the titles which were selected by the viewers. We built the samples and conducted the questionnaires in order to reveal the factors that make a great influence on the evaluation and be clear about the positive levels. We revealed the viewers decide the videos under the influence of the images rather than sentences and words. Also, Images factors are particularly effective for males. On the other hand, females are more affected by sentences and words than males. This research revealed the guidelines that YouTuber creates thumbnail images and titles and the elements to incorporate according to the target the males or the females. As a starting point of this research, we will be able to conduct more detailed research on thumbnail images and titles.
We aimed to reveal typical-color effects to visual search for pictogram. We assumed that the typical colors shorten the response time of the visual search compared to the non-typical colors in the high color-associativity pictograms. In order to verify this hypothesis, we investigated typical colors and color- associativity of each pictogram in the first experiment and measured the response time of the visual search tasks. We analyzed the data through the color- associativity and the complexity of components perspective. As a result, we obtained the two conclusions as follow; 1) typical colors do not always affect response times, 2) response time is shortened in the typical colors pictograms that have the high color-associativity and consist of only one component. These results contribute to proposing the color design which permits efficiency in searching for pictograms in the facilities.
The authors are conducting research on value creative consensus building process. This study takes in case of multiple-choice as an example of value creative consensus building process. The authors observed the phenomenon that viewpoint has changed by sharing the conception (value). Next, the authors analyzed the process using constructed Bayesian network model and showed that the appearance of the conception influences the selection. As described above, the authors were able to explain quantitatively the structure of consensus building process that has many choices using mathematical method called by Bayesian network. Furthermore, in this study, we compared consensus building processes based on quantity of choices. This shows that the consensus building process can be grasped by the same structure irrespective of the number of choices, and the possibility that various consensus building processes can be discussed by quantitative analysis in the same way.
Kozue YAMAGUCHI, Yoshihiro TSUJI, Steven M.A. CARPELS, Ryoma HAYASHI, Yuji INOGUCHI, Yuko MIZUNO-MATSUMOTO
Interictal paroxysmal rhythmic activity can appear in electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with mental disorders. The abnormal EEG were analyzed by wavelet-crosscorrelation analysis. The EEG were categorized as following: 2-4 seconds (A) and 0-2 seconds (B) before the appearance of the abnormal EEG; 2 seconds during the abnormal EEG (C); 0-2 seconds (D) and 2-4 seconds (E) after the abnormal EEG. Wavelet-crosscorrelation coefficients (WCC) in the theta and alpha bands for each segment were calculated in all patients. The results in the theta band showed that the abnormal connections between the sites in the brain could continue although the EEG seemingly recovered from the interictal paroxysmal rhythmic activity. The results in the alpha band showed that the normal connections between the sites in the brain could be weakened in the 2 seconds prior to the beginning of the interictal paroxysmal rhythmic activity in the EEG.
Field of Visual Perception (FVP) has been attracted as a method for quantitative evaluation of impression. In recently, FVP for digital images has been proposed, and the effectiveness has been confirmed. However, FVP has not been applied widely on the field of image processing by two reasons: (1) the calculation cost is too high, and (2) only calculation model for binary images has been established and it cannot be applied to grayscale images. This paper first proposes an acceleration method for increasing practicality. Next, instead of grayscale image, we verify the correctness and the effectiveness of applying FVP to halftone image, which is binary image converted from grayscale image without discomfort. The experimental results showed that the calculation cost decreased to 0.01% at least. Moreover, the results of applying FVP to halftone images showed both of the difficulties and the potentialities for evaluating impression.
People who are hard of hearing have difficulty hearing life sounds necessary to live indoors. Therefore, various products are available to support them. Nevertheless, these devices are insufficient in terms of convenience and cost. For those reasons, we propose a system that identifies sounds related to daily life activities. We have developed the system as a software application for use with a mobile terminal such as a smartphone. We conducted an evaluative experiment to verify its identification performance. Results confirmed that it can identify life sounds of ten types with high accuracy: over 90%. As described herein, we also present results of the performance evaluation experiment of the developed system. Additionally, we discuss challenges for development of the current system from a practical perspective.
This paper proposes a new evaluation method and how to visualize its result in the field of furniture development for indoor public spaces through the application of a quantitative method. To achieve improved user satisfaction, we set up evaluation items for the furniture and conducted an evaluation experiment. First, we extracted information of possible importance for evaluating furniture design through judges' comments in design awards and edited them as evaluation items. Next, users evaluated the degrees of significance and satisfaction in relation to each evaluation item while actually using the furniture. We converted the evaluation result by calculating deviations and graphically represented them to highlight items that need improvement. The experiment involved two user groups: those who provide services and those who receive them. The results of both groups will be compared so that specific guidelines for improving furniture can be developed taking both groups into consideration.
Evaluating supply chain management is important because it helps to find out supply chain's weakness. Customers' satisfactions is one of important topics because a propose of supply chain management is to satisfy customers requirements. If an organization lacks satisfaction of customer needs, it will lose an opportunity in business. Usually, agricultural supply chain consists of a manufacture and several suppliers. In this case, the manufacture has to evaluate performances of chains with possible suppliers. The manufacture may replace some suppliers to improve their customers' satisfactions. However, the current evaluate methods cannot be used such usage because the methods cannot consider a situation in which some suppliers are replaced. Therefore, a new evaluation model is proposed. The proposed model allows the users to inspect a chain's efficiency with considering to replace some of supply chain suppliers. In order to show the ability of the method, a case study of Thai frozen shrimp industry is shown and the results is discussed.
Since foodservice companies are the special situations where treat foods and a food hygiene problem is not avoided, solicitation of ecology is difficult for it. Therefore they are not rated at brand about ecology and they don't know how to announce information of ecology. We did a questionnaire survey of awareness about ecology to university students who will live in the next generation. We learned the greater part of university students want to make use of the restaurant which is rather expensive, if they reduce food waste and realize “recycle”. “Recycle” is beginning, but “reduce of food waste” is a problem. And we learned that it is possible to reduce food waste by use of “visualization system” and “demand prediction”. We showed it is possible in foodservice companies to do “ECO BRANDING”. Additionally, cooperation with a business partner, systematization of equipment was pointed out as a keyword of future branding promotion.
The visual impression evaluation of the white polka-dot textiles with six base colors, covered by the transparent white or black polyester georgette fabrics with four different cover degrees, 0 (uncovered), 0.48, 0.58 and 0.74, were examined by means of the semantic differential method with 12 pairs of adjectives. The results were compared by those obtained for the textiles without the polka-dot patterns. The impression became weaker in the most adjective pairs for the larger cover degree and was, in some cases, shifted in between the paired adjectives, one side to another. The impressions especially tended to be more “elegant”, “adult-like” and “humble” by the covering. It was found that the ratio of the magnitude of the covering effect by the black fabrics to that by the white was constant for each adjective pairs independently of the textiles patterned or un-patterned and of their colors.
Oshibori is a small wet towel to wipe hands before meal in Japan. Most of researches on oshibori have investigated the towels from the perspective of cleaning and sanitation. Few studies have assessed the qualitative and sensory characteristics associated with oshibori. In this paper, subjective evaluation experiments were carried out using cotton oshibori of different temperatures such as 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 °C in the laboratory temperature at 20, 25 and 30 °C over four seasons. 29 males and 33 females evaluated oshibori on following properties such as “favorite,” “rare,” “hot,” “feel-smooth,” “high-grade,” “comfortable,” “soft,” and “moist,” according to five point grading. As results, the oshibori at the temperature of 5, 15, 45 and 60 °C were evaluated to be comfortable. Contrary, those of 30 and 75 °C were evaluated uncomfortable. Moreover, sexual specificity of the evaluation was observed.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of clothing pressure on physiological and psychological responses, to create an evaluating method of the clothing comfort. We have investigated the physiological and psychological responses to the clothing pressure in both situations which eyes open and eyes closed. The pressure amounting to 90% of the subjects' waist size was applied to their abdominal region by the waist belt. The influence of clothing pressure on physiological and psychological responses were evaluated by the following measurements: sensory test, electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram and blood pressure. Consequently, when subjects were fastened by waist belt, sympathetic nerve activity increased in case of eyes closed. On the other hand, parasympathetic nerve activity increased in case of eyes open. The physiological and psychological responses are different in eyes closed and eyes open conditions. The results mean that the clothing comfort on the pressure requires a sensory multimodality evaluation.
Classification of fragrances has not accepted widely, because the range of stimuli was very wide and words of evaluation were a little. This study picked up essential oils, and selected words from prior questionnaire. Purpose of this study was to classify fragrances by psychological method. This study consisted of 2 experiments, A and B. The same materials and procedures were used in both experiments. Subjects were asked to evaluate fragrances by SD(semantic differential) method. In experiment A, a total of 220 subjects were joined and 15 pair words were used. In experiment B, 75 subjects were joined and 18 pair words were used. Cluster analysis and Factor analysis were used for analyzing the data. As a result, in both experiments, 11 clusters and 3 factors were observed, and clusters of citrus fragrances were showed. The factor of “Pleasantness” was showed in the first factor. This factor was common both experiments.
We investigated the effects of pre-preferences for CG characters (avatar), gender of CG characters, exposure frequency, and the concordance between CG characters and the background on the impression formed about CG characters. During 8 sessions, 36 participants were shown a succession of CG characters presented against concordant or discordant backgrounds. During sessions 1, 3, 5, and 7, participants evaluated each CG character in terms of post-preference, intelligence, and reliability using a 7-point scale. Session 8 involved a delay condition. The results showed that post-preference evaluation scores in the high pre-preference condition were associated with better first impressions of CG characters, and increased with exposure frequency. However, background conformity influenced the impressions of CG characters when pre-preferences were medium or low. In addition, post-preference and reliability evaluation scores were higher for female than male characters.
In this paper, we propose an estimation of reader's emotion towards news articles using Twitter, and apply this method to the access log analysis of a news website. The proposed estimation method is divided into 3 steps: 1) The system collects tweets about news articles from Twitter. 2) The system tags each tweet with an emotion. 3) The system estimates the reader's emotion towards the news articles using tweets obtained in the second step. The system can tag an article with one or more of 11 emotions (anger, dislike, excitement, fear, like, joy, relief, sadness, shame, surprise, nothing). The experimental result shows the effectiveness of this method using Twitter for estimating the reader's emotion. For access log analysis based on emotion, we collected the access log of a self-produced news website. The system tags each collected news article with emotions using the proposed method. We analyzed the access log by using Hidden Markov model (HMM). As the result of access log analysis, we obtained some interesting findings such as that the users tend to read the article which causes excitement or surprise at the start.
Streaming views of stable video images are now available to any household thanks to today's widespread Internet use and faster speeds. Seminars that combine moving images with documents are now proliferating, particularly in markets that target user education. The POWERLIVE GigaCast online seminar system was developed based on an overall system design that focuses primarily on user interaction. With a balance of stable basic functions and optimized interactive functions, the system supports large-scale communications at a significantly reduced cost. Throughout the development of GigaCast, we have identified the following 3 elements in regards to the user interaction: 1) information which should be synchronized with user actions; 2) information which provides the illusion of being synchronized as long as kept within a certain timing in order; and 3) information which does not require to be synchronized. Especially, for the above 2) and 3), we have discovered that it is possible to free up some space in design by dispersing the load required to the server system through providing explicit control while taking advantage of their characteristics.