Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-brain-computer interface (BCI) has fast input speeds, high accuracy, and a large number of inputs. The problem with SSVEP is the stress caused by flickering stimuli and the risk of developing photosensitivity. In this study, we attempted to reduce flicker stress by developing a high-frequency SSVEP-BCI. In addition, we measured the critical fusion frequency (CFF) at which humans cannot perceive flicker and investigated the change in BCI performance below and beyond CFF to examine the practicality of the high-frequency SSVEP-BCI. The results showed CFF was 56.8 Hz. Also, an accuracy of 58.75% for high-frequency (56-70 Hz) SSVEP-BCI and 90.5% for low-frequency (26-40 Hz) SSVEP-BCI. For this reason, the high-frequency SSVEP-BCI could not obtain the same performance as the low-frequency SSVEP-BCI. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the use of extremely low-frequency stimulation and improve the analysis algorithm in the future.
In the present study, a series of perceptual experiments were conducted for designing a new sports-type motorcycle: 1) A perceptual experiment was conducted to investigate the impressions of participants for existing models of sports-type motorcycles, using the semantic differential method. The results of the experiment were used to define the concept of the new model. 2) Designers drew various sketches that could have matched the concept. Then, the sketches were used in an experiment and two alternatives were chosen and refined for building mockups. 3) A more perceptual experiment was conducted using the two mockups with other real motorcycles to measure the impressions of them. Using the results, the design of the new sports-type motorcycle was finally defined. Through this affective design process, the efficiency of the design was improved and the term of the development was shortened. The affective-design process model was introduced in the new management regulations.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the persuaded’s preferred color on interpersonal cognition and behavioral modification in persuasion situations. To elucidate this influence process, a psychological experiment was conducted using a video to persuade people to visit the lab. From weak behavioral intentions (lab visit, website browsing) to strong behavioral intentions (face-to-face conversation), the aim was to see what level of behavior was elicited. The results showed that, compared to the achromatic condition, the presence of a favorable color behind the persuader reduced ‘careless’ interpersonal impressions and improved the relative evaluation of the persuasive content. It was also found that weak behavioral intentions, such as ‘visit the lab’ or ‘browse the lab website’, were promoted as a result of the persuasion. These findings can enrich the use of color and improve communication in real and online spaces.
The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a common neuropsychological test that assesses selective attention and executive functions and is used to detect dementia. However, the test lacks efficiency due to its paper-based format. In this study, we digitally transformed (DX) the TMT using Scratch, a high-level block-based visual programming language. This is a user-friendly programming language and allows beginners to create advanced games and programs. In the DX-TMT we developed, two new tasks, one of which with an increased difficulty level, were added in addition to the two original tasks from the paper-based TMT. The results showed that the DX-TMT reproduced the basic features of the paper-based TMT. The additional task with increased difficulty was associated with a longer completion time than the original tasks, especially in elderly subjects, with greater individual differences. These results suggest that the DX-TMT could be utilized for the early detection of mild cognitive impairment.
In this study, three breathing conditions, normal breathing, abdominal breathing, and apnea, were tested to identify relaxation methods for pain reduction. Pain was induced in healthy male subjects by passive straight-leg raising (SLR) stretches, muscle tone was assessed using muscle hardness and SLR angle indices, and pain and relaxation were evaluated using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pamin, and electroencephalography (EEG) indices. We predicted that abdominal breathing would correlate with higher alpha wave band and relaxation degree during SLR stretch intervention, lower pain degree during SLR stretch intervention, and SLR angle widening due to reduced muscle tone after SLR stretch intervention. However, our results did not support our predicted outcomes. Notably, our findings suggest that normal and abdominal breathing tend to be more relaxing than apnea, and that increased alpha wave band activity via abdominal breathing may be necessary to cope with rapid pain cycles.
This study aims to analyze the effects of breathing exercises on autonomic nervous system activity. Nine young Japanese women participated in the Day 1 session (relaxation [R]) and the Day 2 session (breathing exercises [BE]). After 2 Day sessions, they performed BE at home, daily for 4 weeks. We held one session per week for 4 weeks. BE included diaphragmatic exercises, which had a longer exhalation phase than inhalation phase. We measured pulse waves from photoplethysmography. They were analyzed for estimating the relative pulse wave amplitude (rPWA) and length (rPWL). The results showed that the rPWL after 5 minutes of BE was significantly higher than those at the end of the BE and the rPWL during BE lower than those before BE. Therefore it was suggested that sympathetic activity was dominant during BE and parasympathetic activity was dominant after BE.
Engine sound in boats was considered a source of noise and was studied as a reduction objective. In other mobilities, on the other hand, engine noise is designed to enhance the emotional value of the vehicle. However, there is still a major lack of research into the potential of motor and motor sounds in boats to improve sensory value. This study is the first step toward improving the sensory value of the boat through the engine and motor sounds. The effects of engine and motor sound were evaluated in a Randomized Controlled Trial using a fictitious advertising video in the Japanese market. The results indicate that the engine and motor sounds have the potential to improve the attractiveness of the boat and driving performance in advertising videos. The results suggest that engine and motor sounds may improve the attractiveness of the boat.
Agent systems that support humans by providing useful information are becoming widespread. However, the agents cannot always provide the most useful information due to the limit of technology. The effect of provision of “neither-good-nor-bad” information on the perceived trustworthiness of agents has been investigated in previous studies. The results show that providing “neither-good-nor-bad” information is effective when users act to gain profits. These studies have focused on agents’ positive advice, which recommends a user to choose a specific option. In this paper, by contrast, we investigate its effect on agents’ negative advice, which recommends a user not to choose a specific option, on trustworthiness of the agent. Experimental results show that providing “neither-good-nor-bad” information in the style of negative advice is effective when users act to gain profits and to avoid losses of already obtained profits.
The purpose of this study is to examine whether performing Towel Toe-Curls during daily activities while sitting on a chair is effective in preventing falls. Out of 142 healthy older adults (mean age 74.6±4.5 years) who did not qualify for long-term care certification, 80 with floating toes were assigned to the floating toe group, and the other 62 were assigned to the ground contact group. Furthermore, both groups were randomly divided into exercise and control groups. The exercise group performed Towel Toe-Curls for one year, whereas the control group did not. Exercise groups of both the floating toe and ground contact groups showed an increase in pressure in each toe and foot arch ratio; we also observed a significant improvement in reach distance of the Functional Reach Test and an adjusted center of gravity. These results suggest that Towel Toe-Curl is effective in preventing falls.
The outboard motor market is expanding due to an increase in leisure use, and there is a demand for enhanced quietness and comfort of outboard motors. In the development of automobiles and motorcycles, original sound quality index research and sound quality development are being pursued to enhanced product value, but in the development of outboard motors, there are examples of noise reduction and compliance with noise regulations, but there are almost no examples of sound quality enhancement. In this study, we focused on the sound quality of outboard motors and conducted a questionnaire survey of North American boat users using the SD method. The difference in the impression of outboard motor sound quality was clarified, and factors affecting the results were obtained by factor analysis, and three important factors for sound quality of outboard motor could be extracted. In addition, considered the physical features of the extracted factors.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of alcohol in mouthwash on peripheral and cardiac autonomic nervous system activity. In a within-subject experimental design, 20 healthy male adults used three types of mouthwash each having a different concentration of alcohol, Alc.0%, Alc.3%, and Alc.9%, and no rinse as a control after performing a 20-minute calculation task. Along with subjective evaluation, skin conductance and electrocardiogram were recorded throughout the experiment. Although there was no difference in subjective stress levels, a significant decrease was observed in skin conductance level (SCL) in the recovery period at Alc.0% and Alc.3% respectively as compared to the control group. As for the Alc.9%, subsequent decrease in the recovery period of SCL was smaller as compared to Alc.0% and Alc.3%. The findings suggest that the use of non or low-alcohol mouthwashes promotes recovery from peripheral stress response and non or low-alcohol mouthwashes might be better suited for use in situations requiring relaxation.
More robots interact remotely with people and teleoperated robots are also being used in childcare. Effective interaction cannot be achieved unless knowing how to present the touch interaction that children perform on a daily basis for the operator. Toward future goal of this research that implementation of the technology that communicates social touch information on telepresence childcare robots, this paper reports investigation how to present touched information to an operator by evaluating brain activity. As a result, texts describing the touch situation was the most acceptable presentation method with the least brain load on the operator.