The purpose of this study was to explore the perception toward breastfeeding in Japanese expectant fathers. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 21 expectant fathers. They were recruited when their wives were during late pregnancy. The data were analyzed qualitatively and inductively. The following five themes were extracted as fathers’ perceptions toward breastfeeding “breastfeeding is a matter of course” “consideration for wife’s burden and sexuality is essential” “I don’t worry about breastfeeding because of its heavy burden” “I want to cooperate with my wife because we are both parents” and “I want to leave the feeding method to my wife because it is a same matter of pregnancy and delivery” Participants had both positive and negative perceptions toward breastfeeding, and they thought mothers should decide that they breastfeed or not. It was found that they respected mothers’ decisions, so the breastfeeding supporters should include fathers into their support since pregnancy.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a maternal participation learning program for female high school students on the practice of self-care to mitigate menstrual pain. Participants acquired correct information on menstrual pain and self-care methods to mitigate it, while conversing with their mothers. A convenience sample, consisting of 169 students was drawn from five schools. These students were divided into two groups, with and without program intervention. Evaluations were conducted on 57 students in the intervention group and 55 students in the comparison group before and after the intervention. Before the program, the reported level of menstrual pain at a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of 6.8 (SD 1.9) in the intervention group was significantly stronger than the reported level of menstrual pain at NRS 5.9 (SD 2.0) in the comparison group (p=.016). A two-way analysis of variance showed interactions with “menstrual pain level” (p=.001) and “knowledge of menstrual pain” (p=.007). After the program, the intervention group’s “knowledge” increased and “menstrual pain level” decreased to NRS 4.3 (SD 2.7). “Conversation” in the intervention group increased significantly (p=.014), but there was no significant difference in “menstrual pain control” indicating self-care. In conclusion, the program promoted conversation and was beneficial in terms of increasing knowledge of menstrual pain and self-care to mitigate menstrual pain but did not result in any change in the practice of self-care.