Various kinds of practical support have been developed using sports psychology. But little is known about the way in which the relationship between a client and a supporter is developed. This may be because human relations are of a changeable and ambiguous nature and can only be judged subjectively. In this paper, based on a model of "analytic encounter" (Jacob, 1985), we assumed that human relations develop from a conscious to an unconscious level. A case was studied in which a favorable change in the relationship between a client and a supporter was observed. As a result, two elements were found to be very important: 1. placing greater emphasis on the changes in the psychological distance between a client and a supporter than on the emotional changes of the client and the supporter. 2. considering things that are thought to be unrelated. In conclusion, when providing support to a client, it must be noted that a certain psychological distance should be maintained. The attitude of "participant observation" (Sullivan, 1976) requires maintaining an objective stance of not becoming involved in a client's problems.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the psychological and physiological effects, and the effects on performance, of archery athletes monitoring their own heartbeats in shooting situations. Two conditions were used for the experiment: (1) control condition, in which athletes competed without hearing their own heartbeats; and (2) experimental condition, in which athletes competed while listening to their own heartbeats. The two conditions were compared using the following indices: (1) VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) as a psychological index; (2) electrocardiogram R-R interval as a physiological index; and (3) shooting time, shooting timing, and score as indices of performance. The results of the experiment were as follows: (1) No significant differences in mood between the control condition and the experimental condition were observed. (2) In both the control condition and the experimental condition, the electrocardiogram R-R interval grew shorter from pre-experiment rest to the experimental period. (3) Athletes who monitored their own heartbeat showed less variation in shooting time than those in the control condition. (4) Athletes who monitored their own heartbeat fired more shots during the ventricular diastole than during the ventricular systole in comparison to those in the control condition. (5) Athletes who monitored their own heartbeat scored higher than those in the control condition. These results indicate that monitoring the heartbeat during shooting reduced fluctuations in shooting time, increased the number of shots during the ventricular diastole, and gave higher scores; it would therefore appear that monitoring the heartbeat during shooting is a valid method for enabling athletes to deliver high performance.
There are two approaches for the provision of psychological support for athletes, namely, mental training (MT) and counseling. The view that both approaches should be clearly distinguished in terms of what they address and accomplish is advocated by most sport psychologists in Europe and the United States, and on the basis of this viewpoint, psychological support for performance enhancement is exclusively applied to MT. However, in Japan, some sport psychologists report the efficacy of the counseling approach for performance enhancement and in helping athletes demonstrate the best of their abilities. There are research tasks related to how both approaches complement each other and how cooperative relationships can be established between practitioners of sport psychology using each approach. In this paper, a case wherein there is a clear shift in the support provided to an athlete -namely, from MT to counseling- is introduced. In the discussion on the difference between both approaches and the cooperative relationships between them in the field, this case should provide valuable information. The subject of the case study is a female student athlete practicing individual sports; the athlete had a psychological problem with regard to demonstrating her abilities. Eleven sessions of MT and twenty-six counseling sessions were conducted. The athlete learned coping methods (flexibility and variation) during MT to address the chief complaint of "lack of control over feelings". Moreover, MT helped in distancing the athlete from the problem involving her "family," which was the underlying problem of the chief complaint, while her settlement in the team and dissatisfaction with her leader were discussed in the counseling sessions. It is believed that the cooperation between MT and counseling was effective in enhancing the different aspects of this athlete's personality, and in this case, it improved her mental ballast and performance.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sense of authenticity (SOA) and contingent self-esteem (CSE) in college athletes' self-development on their mental health. University students (n =241) answered the sense of authenticity scale (SOAS) and the contingent self-esteem scale (CSES) administered as indicators of self-development, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28: somatic complaints, anxiety and insomnia, and severe depression). They were classified as athletes (n =156) or non-athletes (n =85). The results of examining the effect of SOA and CSE were as follows. SOA promoted the mental health in athletes and non-athletes. CSE promoted anxiety and insomnia in athletes, but showed no effect on any subscales of the GHQ-28 in non-athletes. Almost no difference in CSE was seen between athletes and non-athletes, although SOA was higher in athletes than non-athletes. The effect of CSE on anxiety and insomnia among athletes did not disappear with the influence of SOA. It has been suggested that SOA and CSE are located at opposite poles conceptually. However, the commitment of athletes to the athletic setting was promoted by their self-worth contingent on sporting achievements, which lead to performance enhancement. This indicates that neither SOA nor CSE is necessarily located at opposite poles conceptually for athletes. These results suggest first the possibility that there are states of SOA and CSE characteristic to athletes, and second the need to consider self-development from both of SOA and CSE in relation to athletes.
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