The Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), which is a computer-simulated 3D virtual reality (VR) system, is expected to provide sport learners with interactive and immersive learning materials. The purpose of this study was to reveal perceptual characteristics of tennis players when they viewed the tennis ball flight reconstructed in CAVE. The visual stimuli of this study were reconstructed based on the actual measured values of the tennis court and the ball flight. Perceptual performances, subjective impression scoring and shot type discrimination (flat, topspin and slice), were assessed by varying the conditions of three visual VR settings: binocular disparity, screen number, and viewpoint. The augmented-disparity setting was likely to induce a higher sense of discomfort than the no-disparity and normal-disparity settings. The four-screen condition was more likely to induce a correct response than the one-screen condition. The viewpoint of the umpire induced a significantly higher sense of discomfort than the field player viewpoints, and the viewpoint close to the approaching ball made it more difficult to discriminate the shot type. This research was a pilot study on sport perception in VR, and the results will contribute to the construction of sport-simulating VR systems.
In this study Cognitive Therapy was for athletes who complained of competitive anxiety, such as getting anxious when making mistakes in a game, or feeling impatient and irritated during play. It becomes sometimes a problem for clients to have limited time for counseling as they have to participate in several games and they need trainings accordingly. Therefore counseling with athletes is obliged to be done within the specified seasons and time. Thus only three months (seven sessions) were allowed for counseling in this case, and the results showed that competitive maladjustment could be improved in the short term. There were three reasons why such an improvement occurred in the short term. Firstly, a targeted belief and principle could be decided during the phase of assessment. Secondly, the cognitive appraisal of the athlete was changed. Thirdly, the athlete became less attached to the belief of mistakes and perfectionism, and this can be the most effective factor to the improvement. By applying Cognitive Therapy approach to athletes with competitive anxiety, this study focused on how the athlete' s cognitive appraisal including their sense of maladjustment was changed in the process of the therapy, and it considered the effectiveness and future problems.