With the spread of smartphones, Japanese language learners have increasingly been able to connect with native Japanese speakers and have conversations in Japanese using a variety of communication tools. In particular, instant messenger (IM) applications make it possible to interact in real time using written text, emoji, stamps and pictures. In this study, I analyze online communication between Korean learner of Japanese and Japanese native speaker over a period of one year, in order to demonstrate how language learner build relationships with native speaker and use Japanese outside the classroom.
Undergraduate international students studying the sciences at universities need to gain a command of fundamental specialized terms equivalent to the high school graduate level. This study attempted to identify a list of vocabulary that should be learned in order to gain a command of fundamental mathematics terms in an efficient manner. The study drew on indexes of terms from 90 junior and senior high school textbooks in four mathematics-related subjects, and identified 328 target terms listed in 50% or more of the indexes for each individual subject. These accounted for approximately 32% of all terms.
This paper introduces “GanbatteShadowing”, a shadowing app which has been developed for mobile devices (iOS only and free as of March 2017). It features (1) video clips and textual data to introduce various types of practice method for shadowing beginners, (2) various levels of model sounds with scripts to accommodate diverse learners, (3) auditory function of voice recording and play and visual display of pitch-curve with waveform to help learners compare their performance against the models, (4) changeable settings, and (5) LMS connectivity for file and comments exchange with instructors.
When teaching citation skills, both direct and indirect quotations are often introduced. It is direct quotations that are frequently used in student papers, and we often find problems with their usages of direct quotations. Unlike direct quotations, indirect quotations allow a writer to paraphrase the original text and easily manipulate it according to a writer's own paper context for smoother thesis development. Therefore, an instructor must not only be aware of the problems of direct quotations, but also give students proper guidance, considering the advantages of indirect quotations which are not to be mere shortened forms of the original text.
Acquisition of basic adjectives (adjectives that Japanese learners learn at a beginner’s level) by the Japanese learners at an intermediate or advanced level is insufficient. The background is a wide range of use due to the ambiguity of basic adjectives and difficulty of proper use of their synonyms. However, few dictionaries explain how to properly use their synonyms. Also, research on their synonyms has not been sufficiently conducted. Here I analyze both corpuses of the Japanese learner and native Japanese speaker for the synonymous relationship, revealing that 7 basic adjectives meaning "small" and 10 basic adjectives meaning "big" are synonymous.
Recently, the teacher-centered teaching style has been replaced by the learner-centered teaching style and some teachers have tried their best to develop students' communicative competence. However, there is concern that mainly old-fashioned teaching styles are still being used. In this research, we investigated how often each classroom activity is being used by Japanese teachers, and discovered the current situation. As a result, it has become clear that Japanese teachers are still using teacher-centered style and have not transferred to learner-centered style.
In universities where students can acquire credits in English, there is an increasing number of international students who don't require Japanese. In order to clarify their motivation to learn Japanese, we interviewed 8 Brazilian students who took a Japanese class which isn't a graduation requirement. As a result, 7 of 8 students learned that Japanese learning experiences in Japan further increased learning motivation and continued learning after returning home. By understanding their consciousness and needs, we'd like to support international students who don't need to take Japanese courses to create a mechanism to help students learn Japanese.
In recent years, the students,who do not use Kanji in their country, are increasing. Learning Kanji for many students is found to be difficult. In our university, we give the fresh students writing lessons using brush(fude). Indeed they practice this style of copy learning actively and voluntarily. Also we put the students repeatedly into practice on Fude Touch. They positively participated in it and learned to be aware of forms, the numbers of stroken and stroke styles such as 'tome, hane, harai'. In this report, we investigate how far the writing practice with Fude Touch can be effective for motivating the students to learn.
In order to understand the content of a text, together with the bottom-up processing which include sentence-level understanding, or understanding of the relationship between two sentences or two paragraphs, there is a need to use the knowledge of text structure and to understand the text in a top-down way. This research examines the process of reading texts in Japanese with the aim of understanding the content in the case of Chinese speakers learning Japanese at an advanced level, specifically what kind of strategies they use and what kind of difficulties they have. The results suggest that using strategies that focus on the structure of the text improves the quality of understanding.
In this research, I tried to look into ways of expressing refusal which does not leave an unfavorable impression, especially to those learning Japanese at elementary level. The focus was given to refusal using "taigu" or honorific communication. I tried to analyze the refusal expression "No thank you" found in textbooks of elementary level Japanese. Survey and analysis were conducted from several different perspectives with the goal of understanding the student's feelings impressions and mindset.
This paper reports on task activities conducted in a pre-advanced Japanese course. On observation of the recorded and documented transcript of the task activity it was found that students gave an oral presentation of the answers to the task at the end of the activity, adding new contents to the answer they gave at the beginning of the activity, and that they were able to use words and phrases to express the new contents through their interaction with peer learners. On the other hand, there were cases where students did not use appropriate words and phrases even though they receive corrective feedback.
While teaching a class is the foremost task of an instructor, whether class preparation also counts as part of that duty have been unclearly defined. Yet recently, the Labor Standards Inspection Office issued a recommendation toward major educational institutions to recognize class preparation as labor entitled to payment. This, however, raises course management questions regarding what and how much instructors should actually prepare. Utilizing a various data, this paper discusses how much time is required for Japanese language instructors to conduct effective class preparation.
In preparation for the development of career development teaching materials for international students, analysis was performed on: (1) career development teaching materials, (2) business Japanese teaching materials and (3) practical reports on classwork aimed at career development. The results revealed that most materials intended for international students were about business Japanese, and that few are designed to help them consider their long-term careers beyond post-study employment. This paper highlights the importance of developing teaching materials that encourage them to consider their career plan at an early stage of their university study and enable them to choose from diverse work options including employment in Japan.
This paper introduces reading material focused on promoting metacognitive ability. The material is designed for undergraduate international students. It encourages students to practice utilizing metacognition when reading, such as thinking about their own reading goals, monitoring their comprehension or way of reading, figuring out how to solve problems when needed, and evaluating their understanding or their use of strategies after reading. The purpose of the material is to help students increase metacognitive abilities and adapt their learning to new contexts or tasks they encounter in their academic
The purpose of this study is to reveal the possibilities and challenges of the course, `Advising for Japanese Language Learning'. We interviewed students from the course (trainees) and experienced and novice advisors at a facility, Waseda Nihongo Support, regarding how they will deal with a particular advising case. The results showed that all the parties were conscious of the three principles for advising, but novice advisors and trainees had difficulties exploring the gap between the current learning state and future vision.
This paper reports on a kanji syllabus for graduate school students in science and engineering, which contains 700 kanji classified into 7 levels. Most of the graduate students, who have no kanji background, have problems with learning kanji after completing an elementary Japanese course. It is because they have not acquired sufficient vocabulary necessary to learn kanji. We developed a syllabus for those who have limited vocabulary to learn kanji. The syllabus covers 89% of the kanji in the former "JLPT level 3" syllabus and 83.1% of the high appearance frequency kanji in the science and engineering fields.
In recent years much attention has been paid to Japanese language education for foreigners in local areas of Japan, and a wide variety of learning materials has been opened to the public. However, there are not enough for learners in the Tohoku area. Currently, we are developing Japanese learning materials for international students in Sendai city at A1/A2 level to help them become familiar with Sendai, and to have a more active life. In this paper, we will show the background of development, characteristics and content of trial materials, and discuss future issues.
The author conducted a dictogloss to three learners who completed a beginner level textbook. The reconstructed texts individually written by the learners and the text written through a group discussion were compared from a grammatical viewpoint. The results revealed that the most difficult grammatical elements among the three texts tended to be adopted through discussion. Regarding the dictogloss, wherein only two learners participated, the grammatical elements of the texts after pair discussion were found to be balanced, which indicated consideration of human relations. The analysis reveals learners' consciousness of reproducing sentences very similar to the original sentences by adopting more difficult linguistic forms. Moreover, it also suggests that the learners consider their relationship while working in pairs.
The intermediate oral expression class held a Drama Activity for six weeks. The aim of the activity for the students was to have the audience understand the story line of dramas. Students wrote the drama script, practiced acting, and prepared costumes and sounds effects. The improvement of the oral expression ability was expected through this activity. In this report, significance of this activity will be shown through analysis of student's before-and-after the activity questionnaires, field-notes, scripts, performances and reproduction of the story line. Based on these the future research implications will be drawn.
The author conducted an Extensive Reading class for intermediate and advanced exchange students from April to July 2016. In this research, the author introduces the outline of the class and analyzes the result of the self-evaluation questionnaire to the students. As a result of analyzing the free description of the questionnaire, it was found that the language aspect was improved such as the ability of speaking and listening Japanese. In the emotional aspect, it was found that not only increase in positive reading attitude, motivation for Japanese learning but also building interpersonal relationships, maintaining mental stability and acquiring self-affirmation.
This is a report of a training course for Japanese volunteers aimed at improving problem-solving abilities. This course held 10 lessons, three hours per lesson and once per week. Nine volunteers who participated in the course reflected on their practice in volunteer Japanese classes and looked for the solution for some problems they noticed. According to the reflection sheet the participants wrote after every lesson, it revealed that they learned the importance of facilitating learner autonomy and of holding their own conclusions for problem-solving. Most of the participants found how important it was to study each other in a group through training course arranged on the based on group works.
Corpus analysis ('YUK Japanese essay corpus of Chinese native speakers studying Japanese with taggers 2015' Ver. 5) reveals that the uses of "KARA" and "KARANO" often confuse Chinese Japanese learners. Concerning this point, this study pays special attention to the following two questions. First, do such mistakes also exist among other Chinese Japanese learners? Second, are the mistakes made by Chinese Japanese learners different from their counterparts made by native Japanese speakers? To answer these two questions with the aim of helping teach the differences between "KARA" and "KARANO", this study investigated the occurrence of such mistakes via questionnaire with Chinese Japanese learners and native Japanese speakers being research subjects.
Onomatopoeia is frequently used at care sites, so there is a possibility that foreign care workers master the onomatopoeia of care on site in nature. However, its actual condition is unknown. Therefore, I searched about natural acquisition of the onomatopoeia of care from hearing to EPA candidates. It was considered by result, as for the type to be used by assumed scene and movement being easy to learn, as for the type to be used the purpose of the act might use in it being difficult. It was also considered for use in an ambiguous understanding state.
This study reports on a Japanese language class that used content-based instruction to develop students' Japanese language skills through examining the topic of the Great East Japan Earthquake. The class also aimed to raise the students' awareness of the issues surrounding the earthquake, critical thinking skills, and their understanding of others. Students were expected to broaden their perspectives by learning about the tragedy and what is currently happening in the affected area in Japanese. The results of this study are significant to researchers and educators interested in content-based learning as well as "learning through Japanese," in contrast to "learning Japanese."
As Japanese undergraduate classes are mainly conducted as lectures, foreign students studying in Japan must have adequate Japanese language skills in order to participate, and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) students in particular need to be able to understand mathematics lectures. However, very few foreign students are accustomed to hearing mathematics lectures conducted in Japanese prior to their enrollment. The author of this study researched problems that foreign STEM students encounter when listening to video lectures on mathematics. Participants encountered problems in four main areas (1) inability to understand mathematical expressions and formulas (2) inability to understand lecturer's pronunciation (3) difference in the characters used for mathematical notation between Japanese and Chinese (4) Inability to understand technical collocations.
Japan is a country that is prone to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The present study discusses methodologies for teaching about disasters in school-based (K-12) Japanese language classrooms that include students of varying levels of Japanese proficiency, from various linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and from different developmental stages. The authors include their insights on the students' ability to increase their understanding of natural disasters and their impact on Japan, and their learning of related Japanese expressions.
It is very important for a Japanese language learner to have adequate skills to participate in Japanese casual conversations, as it influences on creating and expanding the human network in the target ｌanguagesociety. In this paper, casual conversation in contact situation held by three women from Taiwan, China and Japan is compared to the casual talks held by three pairs of female native speakers of Japanese. As the result, the sequence organizations themselves are not very different from one another, however, less frequent evaluation and narrative are observed in the contact situation than in the native speakers'conversations.
Students who are not accustomed to academic writing and presentation tend to fail in citing reference materials appropriately. This study approached in tackling this issue from the perspective of course development. A course on Japanese language pedagogy was employed in four stages that focused on their autonomous thought process; (1) reading a specialized book and discussing it, (2) working on a practical assignment related to the book, (3) making a presentation related to the assignment and discussing it, (4) writing a paper. This course design persuaded the students to read reference materials repeatedly and think about them critically. Additionally, it helped in developing to their academic writing and presentation abilities through insightful learning.
When indirectly quoting material in academic papers, one should paraphrase the source texts in one's own words. However, the extent to which one should paraphrase the original text remains unclear. This study investigated criteria for plagiarism used by university faculty members, Japanese students, and international students. They were asked to judge whether four versions of a paragraph, each with a different degree of modification and citation from the original text, were plagiarized. Results revealed that all three groups considered a paragraph without citation as plagiarized, but their judgments about the proper degree of textual appropriation differed.
This paper reports research examining the stylistic shifts of verbs in the expression of critical thinking of mid- to high intermediate Korean learners of Japanese. In both Japanese and Korean, stylistic shifts between standard and polite expressions are not allowed in either written and spoken language. However, in this research, which examined the written expression of opinions elicited through tasks of 31 Korean learners of Japanese, instances of style shift were found in both Korean and Japanese. An analysis demonstrated evidence of style shifts at the boundary between descriptive and evaluative statements.
I report on attempts to acquire specialized vocabulary using ICT. Foreign workers with a basic level of Japanese face challenges in acquiring the necessary and requisite level of Japanese in order to do their job. Therefore, as a part of the trainees' Japanese language training the 'Specialized Vocabulary Workplace Word Book' was created to help trainees perform their duties. In this article I will introduce training method, and explain how it was created and utilized in practice within a company. Furthermore, I will outline the role of the teacher from the perspective of learning support.
With its simplicity and profundity, haiku is often utilized in Japanese Language Education. Despite having to maintain a rigid 5-7-5 form and include a seasonal word, haiku brings learners deeper understanding of Japanese culture, improving language skills and fostering creativity. At the same time, incorporating haiku in class can pose difficulties for Japanese language teachers. In this paper, I describe three types of in-class haiku lessons: 1) integration 2) creation and 3) appreciation. In addition, I discuss what haiku can do for learners and for the teaching of Japanese language.
Learning terminology of mathematics in Japanese is as important as leaning mathematics contents. However, it is not easy to teach, because a mathematics' lecturer is often not a professional of teaching languages. Many of them do not know the effective method. Regarding to Japanese lessons, there are more than enough languages to teach for the international students every day. Thus, there is no time to teach focusing on mathematics terminology during class. Therefore, the effective method has to be created for teaching a terminology by non-professional lecturers. As a first step, an efficient Kanji list is reported in this paper. This Kanji list can tell important information for the lecturers and students. In this paper, how to create and use this list is reported.
The students who cooperated with this survey learned Japanese according to our sentence pattern syllabus. We arranged the classroom activity around, what we called, "Today's Word" and "Student on Duty" for the purpose of creating a classroom environment which encouraged students to learn through collaboration and allowed the faculty to monitor each student's progress. Through the survey, it was revealed that the students used various strategies to convey a meaning when speaking. The way students, who were listening, reacted varied. There was a disagreement between the aim of this classroom activity and a conventional learning / teaching way.
Japanese language teachers instructed Freshman Academic Writing courses for approximately 2000 students across academic departments. The focus of the courses was the research process and for students to choose the research topic based on their own interests, without the instructor choosing any theme. This paper illustrates the method for classifying student's topics using the library classification scheme. In particular, it discusses the formal structure achieved and the relationship between student interests and fields of study. In conclusion, it considers how Japanese language teachers can engage in creating a framework for more open Freshman Education.
The authors introduced a peer-learning technique to a mid-high level Japanese as a second language reading/writing class using a summary writing activity. After students individually wrote a summary of an article, they were divided into groups and instructed to write a group summary of the same article. Instructions on how to write the group summary were not given. This paper discusses the results of a survey administered to the students after this peer-learning experience. From this survey, the actual process of writing a group summary was discovered. Future possibilities and problems revealed from the survey are also provided.
In Japan, the renrakucho notebook plays an important role in facilitating written communication between parents and their child's kindergarten, preschool, nursery school or daycare. The "Writing in the Renrakucho Notebook" website is designed to serve as a useful guide to writing in the renrakucho for parents who are not fluent in Japanese. User comments regarding the website fall into four categories: technical aspects such as improving user ability to conduct quick searches for the subject matter of their choice, content-related points including specific issues parents wish to see added to the website, requests for outreach programs such as workshops, and other inquiries. This paper addresses these four categories and explores strategies for their improvement.
This study analyses the interactions of two different types of learners' discussions. The discussions were implemented after textbook-based activities in which the students learned about Japanese society and its culture. The purpose of these discussions was to deepen the learners' understanding of the themes raised in the textbook. Through detailed scrutiny of the discourses, it became apparent that task variation influences the learners' interactions, and learners collaboratively achieve better understanding in different ways.
After the Great East Japan Earthquake, disaster prevention education has been conducted at many educational institutions. This paper reported a practice in a Japanese culture and society class titled " Let's learn disaster prevention". In this class, both foreign and Japanese students researched, discussed and presented about disaster prevention by themselves. During a task" What if interview: One day before the Earthquake", it was observed that after a foreign student sympathized with her friend's talk about hard experiences of the Earthquake, she talked the experiences in her own words as "my matter"at presentation. This paper focuses on her generation process of " my own meaning" from dialogue with others.
Flipped classroom is presently gaining attention as a new teaching method. In this system, students get exposure to new material outside of class, then class time is used to do the harder work, such as problem-solving. This paper is a report on a Flipped Classroom that uses Japanese radio podcasts for advanced Japanese students. Each student listens to a podcast program, which was chosen by another student before class, and then students discuss the contents of the podcast to deepen their understanding. A post-class survey showed that students felt their listening ability had improved, and their vocabulary had also increased. Meanwhile, students had difficulty finding an appropriate program to introduce, because podcast programs had no search function.
This report is a practice report on the environmental course and related activities taught as an optional 90-minute social activism class for two hours a week at the Japanese language school where the author works. The student participants learned about the local nature and environment in the environmental learning room ran by a designated person. Together they organized an eco-bottle cap collection campaign and spread posters promoting environmental awareness all over campus. The participants started on campus of the Japanese language school for foreign students and moved on to their local communities; it consequently made it possible for the local Japanese people to change their mind about Japanese language school and their foreign students.
The authors showed what three Japanese language teachers with zero IT knowledge could provide students over a two-week period using the “Glexa” LMS to create online learning materials, such as fill-in-the-blank and match-up questions for kanji/grammar and video flashcards for kanji, relating to their semester-end exam. The students said in questionnaires that learning with this system is convenient because of being able to study anywhere, as well as the ability to self-check their work. The authors also explained the collaborative work of implementation of the system (which is being used primarily for English education) within their education and the challenges that presents.
This article reports the efforts being made toward creating teaching material for use in a training course for Japanese Volunteers. This teaching material is aimed at improving problem-solving abilities and power to handle class structures. As part of preparation, first, keywords were extracted on the basis of the teaching material concept set on 21st century skills. Next, we suggested activities to help learn the keyword concepts. After examining the structure of the teaching material, a tentative version was prepared and given to three Japanese Volunteers. Based on their comments, the final version was created.
This project aims to create an automated word substitution system for converting standard Japanese into simple Japanese. This substitution occurs on a word-by-word basis, but some things are impossible to express using introductory-level vocabulary (Levels 3 and 4 of the old JLPT). We analyze which words could be used as substitutions to explain these terms. The results of this analysis show that from the six main categories used in the Bunrui-goi-hyō database, the most needed were words expressing "abstract relations" and "human activity—mental and physical" These types of words are indispensable for explaining abstract concepts, and should enceforth be presented after the introductory vocabulary.
This study gives a report regarding the management and operation of the Business Japanese Class that is consisted with Japanese students who are Japanese native speakers and foreign students who are non-native speakers. The study describes and analyses the actual situation and practices of those students studying together in the Business Japanese Class at Tohoku University International Graduate School of Accounting Policy (IGSAP) and, after that, based on this example, studies and presents the new way of Japanese-language education.
When learners ask a teacher for assistance in linguistic problems, the teacher's answer is considered to be very important because there may be a gap between what the learners want to say and what they are able to say. Considering this, the present study examined how learners ask teachers for assistance and draw out a word through interactions beginning from learners' initiation. The analysis results revealed that learners used six ways to ask teachers for assistance.
This paper analyses the Japanese verb "deru" based on cognitive linguistics theory from the perspective of teaching polysemic verbs in Japanese language education. As I will demonstrate, "deru" has 21 different meanings. The conceptually basic meaning (Matsumoto, 2009) is "moving of the agent or inanimate subjects from inside to outside," from which the other 20 meanings derive, motivated by metonymy and metaphor.
Critical thinking is an essential 21st Century skill (Kusumi & Michita, 2015). In this research, the effects of task difficulty and language on written persuasiveness are examined. Thirty Chinese learners of Japanese were asked to write four opinion tasks varying the language used (Chinese and Japanese) and the task-difficulty (daily-life and specialist themes), and the persuasiveness (% of reason and evidence statements; Manalo et al.,2015) analyzed. The results showed that the simple tasks completed in Chinese were more persuasive than difficult tasks written in Japanese. These results will be discussed with reference to tasks in language teaching.
This class is designed to build the student's own interpretation of a "lecture" through collaborative activities. We create a way of explanation for students to convey the contents to students who are from different backgrounds. By doing this, students deepen their understanding and become more reflective.For this purpose, students attended a lecture on "soil mechanics." Later, they had discussion about the contents of the lecture through group work. Next students explained the contents of the lecture to the Japanese students who are from Art majors. Through these repetitive explanations, one of the students was able to explain the concept clearly which he could not point out in the early stage.
The aim of this study is to investigate the problems of reading comprehension in a non-Kanji background intermediate learner of Japanese. In this study, a learner read reading materials for JLPT N2 and N1 and answered the comprehension questions about each text. In this comprehension process, a learner reported the difficult parts of the reading materials, such as unknown words, kanji, grammar, expressions. Then the author and a learner discussed solving those difficulties. The results indicate that the learner constructed limited mental representation of meaning from the text due to engaging much time in lower-level linguistic processing.