Objective: To report a case of an acutely ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA) with a hypoplastic contralateral vertebral artery (VA) successfully treated with internal trapping following the estimation of the collateral flow from anterior circulation.
Case Presentation: A 46-year-old woman was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute hydrocephalus. Ventriculostomy was performed under general anesthesia. CTA revealed a left VADA distal to the origin of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The right VA was hypoplastic, and the right posterior communicating artery (Pcom) was fetal type. We performed balloon test occlusion (BTO) of the VA proximal to the origin of the left PICA and estimated sufficient collateral blood flow via the right Pcom and basilar artery (BA) to the anterior spinal artery (ASA) and the left PICA. Internal trapping of the left VADA was then performed. The angiograms after internal trapping revealed collateral flow from the right Pcom to the BA, and the hypoplastic right VA perfused the proximal BA and ASA. She recovered without any neurological deficits following antiplatelet therapy and vasospasm treatment. She was followed up for 6 years without any neurological events occurring.
Conclusion: When BTO indicates sufficient collateral flow, internal trapping could be a useful treatment for acutely ruptured VADAs on the dominant side, given a complete understanding of the angioarchitecture and the risk of vasospasm due to subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Objective: Injury to the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) caused by femoral puncture may lead to retroperitoneal hematoma. We report on two cases of IEA injury due to femoral venipuncture for neuroendovascular intervention that resulted in hemorrhagic shock and required transcatheter arterial embolization.
Case Presentations: A 67-year-old woman and a 71-year-old man receiving dual antiplatelet therapy sustained injury to a branch of the IEA in the process of right femoral venipuncture for neuroendovascular intervention. In both cases, stent placement in the intracranial artery was accomplished as intended with systemic heparinization throughout the procedure; however, the patients became hypotensive during the procedure, and contrast-enhanced CT scans taken after the stenting revealed extravasation of contrast from the IEA and retroperitoneal hematoma. Transcatheter arterial embolization of the bleeding branch of the IEA was performed with the left femoral approach, and subsequent angiography confirmed the disappearance of the extravasation of contrast.
Conclusion: Femoral venipuncture for neuroendovascular intervention in patients receiving antithrombotic agents may cause IEA injury requiring transcatheter arterial embolization. The risk of IEA injury may be reduced by using the femoral head as a reference, performing ultrasound-guided puncture, and confirming the course of the IEA by femoral angiography before venipuncture.
Objective: This study aimed to use optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) to evaluate the efficacy of post-dilatation (PD) after stent placement for unstable plaques during carotid artery stenting (CAS) using a double-layer stent.
Methods: Twelve unstable carotid plaque lesions diagnosed by MRI were evaluated using OFDI during CAS. The pre-procedural minimum lumen diameter was 1.6 ± 0.7 mm. Each lesion was pre-dilated with balloon catheters (diameter, 5.3 ± 0.5 mm), and a double-layer stent was deployed. PD was performed with balloon catheters of the same size as those used for pre-dilatation. Cross-sectional OFDI images within the stented segment were evaluated at 1-mm intervals for a 20-mm segment, including the most stenotic lesion. Slice rates for the presence of in-stent plaque protrusion (PP) and plaque between the double-layer lumen were calculated.
Results: No procedural complications occurred with the use of an embolic protection device. Compared to after stent placement, slice rates for any PP (44 ± 19% to 62 ± 22%, P <0.05) and plaque between the double-layer lumen (79 ± 16% to 91 ± 34%, P <0.05) were significantly increased after PD; slice rates for >500 μm PP (7.5 ± 14% to 0%, P <0.05) were significantly decreased. Visible debris were captured in 50% of lesions.
Conclusion: PD after double-layer carotid stent placement decreases in-stent large PP. Double-layer construction contributed to the prevention of large PP, as the PP may have been crushed into debris by PD.
Objective: Stent-assisted coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms may lead to straightening of the parent vessel. However, detailed reports documenting the hemodynamic change in bifurcation type aneurysms due to straightening of the parent vessel immediately after stent deployment are scarce.
Case Presentation: A 48-year-old woman with a history of polycystic kidney disease underwent aneurysm neck clipping with left frontotemporal craniotomy for a ruptured bifurcation-type anterior communicating artery (AComA) aneurysm. Angiography 18 days after clipping showed a recurrent AComA aneurysm, for which stent-assisted coil embolization was performed. Straightening of the parent vessel immediately after deployment of a low-profile visualized intraluminal support junior (LVIS Jr.) stent from the AComA to the A1 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery was confirmed by working projection angiography. The aneurysm was easily embolized with coils with the support of the stent covering the aneurysm neck. The embolization was finished with a slight dome filling of the aneurysm. The parent vessel angle in 3D angiography changed from 90° before stent deployment to 160° immediately after stent deployment. Angiography 2 months after embolization showed the aneurysm with a complete occlusion and the parent vessel angle of 170° in a 3D image.
Conclusion: The hemodynamic change in a bifurcation-type AComA aneurysm due to straightening of the parent vessel immediately after the LVIS Jr. stent deployment led to the covering of the aneurysm neck, resulting in good coil embolization, to which the vessel mobility and the stenting method may have contributed.
Objective: We report a new contact aspiration technique using syringe aspiration called repeated-manual aspiration with maximum pressure (r-MAX).
Case Presentation: From January 2020 to May 2021, 18 patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy with r-MAX for occlusion of the internal carotid artery, the first division of the middle cerebral artery (M1), and basilar artery occlusion. In this method, the aspiration catheter is first guided to the occlusion site, and then, two VacLok syringes are connected to the aspiration catheter. Next, the three-way stopcock is released in one direction. After 15 seconds, the direction of the three-way stopcock is switched. In the meantime, negative pressure is reapplied through the syringe, and the direction of the three-way stopcock is switched again. After reapplying negative pressure through the syringe and switching the three-way stopcock two more times, the aspiration catheter is removed. First-pass thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) scale 3 recanalization was achieved in 11 out of 18 patients (61.1%). In all, 11 patients (61.1%) achieved modified Rankin Scale scores of 0–2 at 90 days. Asymptomatic hemorrhage was observed in two patients (11.1%), and no patients had symptomatic hemorrhage.
Conclusion: The r-MAX technique using syringe aspiration can be employed as one of the methods of contact aspiration.
Objective: Long-term clinical outcomes including delayed rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) after coil embolization (CE) remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the precise timing of re-treatment for recanalized UIAs before rupture.
Methods: From February 2012 to June 2020, a total of 197 patients with 207 UIAs underwent CE in our institution and were followed up for more than 6 months. The follow-up period, as well as morphological changes from treatment to recanalization, regrowth, and rupture, was retrospectively analyzed. Delayed rupture was defined as a rupture that occurred more than 1 month after CE.
Results: The average length of follow-up was 48.7 months. Three of 207 UIAs (1.45%) ruptured after CE. The aneurysm locations were the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior communicating artery (AcomA), and internal carotid artery–posterior communicating artery (ICA–Pcomm). The annual rupture rate after CE was 0.36%. Immediately after the first CE, treated aneurysms were graded according to the Modified Raymond–Roy Classification with class II for MCA aneurysms and class IIIb for AcomA and ICA–Pcomm aneurysms. The ICA–Pcomm aneurysm was treated with two additional CEs and was finally graded as class I. In all cases, DSA or MRA before aneurysm rupture showed recanalization and regrowth of aneurysms. The average periods from final embolization to regrowth and from regrowth to rupture were 54.3 months (±16.8) and 2.3 months (±0.9), respectively.
Conclusion: UIAs with recanalization and regrowth after CE should undergo re-treatment as early as possible.
Objective: We describe the rare case of a patient who was treated for a ruptured distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm via an ipsilateral persistent primitive proatlantal artery (PPPA).
Case Presentation: An 86-year-old female with a medical history of hypertension presented with headache and nausea. CT showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and CTA revealed an aneurysm at the left-side distal PICA. In the left-sided common carotid angiography, the artery with a branch of the occipital artery from the external carotid artery was described. This artery continued as the V3 segment and entered the dura via the foramen magnum. The artery perfused the territory of the left vertebral artery and PICA. We concluded that the artery, which entered the dura, was a PPPA. We decided to perform endovascular therapy that passed through the PPPA. The aneurysm was located in the cortical segments, beyond the cranial loop. We decided that parent artery occlusion (PAO) would be more effective than selective coil embolization to achieve safe and adequate hemostasis. The patient had a good outcome with PAO not assessing collateral circulation.
Conclusion: The emergency endovascular treatment with rare vascular variations requires accurate anatomical knowledge for treatment.
Objective: A case of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) during pregnancy effectively recanalized by endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with the combined use of an aspiration catheter and a stent retriever is reported.
Case Presentation: A 27-year-old woman at eight weeks’ gestation developed sudden onset of right hemiparalysis and seizures and was referred to our hospital. Her National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission was 23. On MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging showed a hyperintensity area in the left frontal lobe, and T2* imaging showed hemorrhagic infarction in the same area. MR venography showed obstruction of the anterior two-thirds of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Anticoagulant therapy with heparin was started, but since the venous return was expected to be severely impaired, mechanical thrombectomy by endovascular surgery was selected, hoping to resolve symptoms early. Using a large-bore aspiration catheter in combination with a stent retriever, it was possible to safely guide the aspiration catheter into the anterior half of the SSS. The use of a large-bore aspiration catheter enabled retrieval of a large amount of thrombus in a short time, and complete recanalization was achieved. The patient’s hemiplegia and aphasia improved significantly within a week after the procedure, and she was discharged without sequelae.
Conclusion: Mechanical endovascular therapy of CVST performed with a combination of a large-bore aspiration catheter and a stent retriever should be considered particularly for patients with severe neurological symptoms or intracranial hemorrhage and for those who do not respond to anticoagulation therapy.
Objective: Owing to the limited time since the introduction of the PulseRider (PR), inconsequential or rare complications that clinicians should be aware of remain unreported yet. Here, we report a rare complication of incomplete detachment.
Case Presentation: A 50-year-old male underwent PR-assisted coil embolization for a basilar tip aneurysm. Coiling was completed, and the detachment procedure was performed using a detachment machine; the success signal was observed. The delivery microcatheter was subsequently advanced back up to the proximal markers, and no reapproximation of the proximal markers, which indicates successful detachment, was observed. However, only one of the proximal markers returned to the microcatheter, and incomplete detachment of only one leg was detected. Ultimately, electrical detachment was not possible, and physical separation by tension was achieved.
Conclusion: Our case report presents a rare case of a detachment problem in the PR. The PR could not be detached, although the signal revealed successful detachment. Therefore, careful withdrawal of the delivery wire by checking not only the proximal markers but also the behavior of the entire PR and coil complex is important.
Objective: Although the presence of leptomeningeal anastomosis is known as a predictor of favorable outcome in patients with acute large vessel occlusion, the efficacy of enhancing leptomeningeal collateral flow has rarely been demonstrated.
Case Presentation: A 73-year-old man previously diagnosed with asymptomatic bilateral carotid stenosis was admitted to our emergency department 2 hours after the onset of fluctuating symptoms, including aphasia, left conjugate deviation, and right hemiparesis. CT demonstrated no hemorrhagic lesion. Considering the history of the patient, emergent angiography was performed and demonstrated tandem occlusion of the left cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) with left common carotid injection, leptomeningeal flow compensating for distal territory of occluded segment of left middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the left anterior cerebral artery through severe cervical ICA stenosis with right common carotid injection, and the proximal segment of the left MCA through the posterior communicating artery and occlusion of the M2 segment with left vertebral injection. Given the results of angiography and fluctuating symptoms, hemodynamic insufficiency was considered the underlying stroke mechanism for this case. Although recanalization of tandem lesions was initially considered, the risk of distal clot migration was a concern, so the patient underwent right carotid artery stenting (CAS) to enhance leptomeningeal collateral flow. This resulted in immediate resolution of symptoms after right CAS.
Conclusion: Stenting for carotid artery stenosis contralateral to tandem occlusive lesion may offer an effective alternative when both Willisian and leptomeningeal collaterals are robust.
Objective: Unlike in older adults, ischemic stroke in young patients occurs secondary to preexisting conditions. Infective endocarditis (IE) is among the most important causes of stroke in young adults and has a severe prognosis. There are few reports of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for IE-induced large-vessel occlusion (LVO). This paper reports a case of acute IE-induced LVO in a young patient who was successfully treated with MT.
Case Presentation: An 18-year-old woman presented to our hospital with severe headache, high fever, and left fingertip pain. She was admitted to the Department of Neurology for conservative treatment of suspected meningitis. On day 2 of admission, she developed acute left hemiparesis, left hemispatial neglect, and dysarthria. MRA showed occlusion of the right M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery, and the patient immediately underwent MT. After a single pass, we achieved thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b. A white clot was diagnosed as a vegetation on pathological examination. As transesophageal echocardiography showed a vegetation on the mitral valve, the patient was diagnosed with IE and underwent cardiovascular surgery. The patient recovered well and underwent additional treatment and rehabilitation.
Conclusion: Although rare, IE-induced septic emboli may occur in young patients with LVO, necessitating MT and pathological diagnosis of the clot.
Objective: To meet the new standard of the annual dose limit for the eye lens recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection, radiation doses of neuroendovascular procedures in Japanese institutions were investigated.
Methods: Radiation doses to operators involved in 304 neuroendovascular procedures at 30 Japanese institutions were prospectively surveyed. The institutions recruited at an annual meeting of the Japanese Society for Neuroendovascular Therapy participated voluntarily. A maximum of 10 wireless dosimeters were attached to the radiation protection (RP) goggles, the ceiling-mounted RP shielding screen, and the operators’ forehead and neck over the protective clothing. Doses recorded inside the goggles were defined as eye lens doses for operators who wore RP goggles, while doses to the forehead were defined as eye lens doses for those who did not. The shielding effect rates of the protection devices were calculated, and statistical analysis was performed for the comparison of radiation doses.
Results: From 296 analyzed cases, mean eye lens radiation doses per procedure were 0.088 mGy for the left eye and 0.041 mGy for the right eye. For the left eye, that dose without RP equipment was 0.176 mGy and that with RP goggles plus an RP shielding screen was 0.034 mGy. Four parameters, including left eye dose, air kerma at the patient entrance reference point, fluoroscopic time, and the total number of frames, were assessed for five types of neurovascular procedures. Of them, transarterial embolization for dural arteriovenous fistula was associated with the highest eye lens dose at 0.138 mGy. The shielding effect rates of protection goggles were 60% for the left and 55% for the right RP goggle. The mean doses to the inner and outer surfaces of the RP shielding screen were 0.831 mGy and 0.040 mGy, respectively, amounting to a shielding effect rate of 95%.
Conclusion: To meet the new standard, both RP goggles and RP shielding screens are strongly recommended to be used effectively. Without proper use of radiological protection devices, the number of neuroendovascular procedures that one operator performs per year will be limited under the new guideline.
Objective: Endovascular treatment (EVT) for large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke patients during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic requires the implementation of an in-hospital system to guard against infection. Changes to this system may be needed upon aggravation of the epidemic in a particular region. The objective of this study was to clarify the present state of infection protection and the effects of a change in the in-hospital system in EVT at a single institution.
Methods: The subjects were consecutive patients treated by EVT under the protocol of infection protection using medical history and chest CT at our hospital between April 2020 and February 2021. For the subjects, background factors, time metrics, including door-to-puncture time (D2P), clinical outcome, and success of infection protection for medical staff were examined. The patients were divided into a group of those with PCR measurement after EVT (Group C; from April 2020 to November 2020) and a group of all with PCR measurement before EVT (Group P; from December 2020 to February 2021). Time metrics and clinical outcome were compared between the groups.
Results: There were 69 subjects, including 40 and 29 patients in groups C and P, respectively. The median age was 82, which was higher in group P. The median D2P was 70 min, which did not differ significantly between the two groups, but it was slightly longer in group P than in group C by multivariate analysis. A favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0–2 at 3 months) was observed in 23 patients (38%), which did not differ significantly between the two groups, but the rate of a favorable outcome was slightly lower in group P than in group C by multivariate analysis. Although medical staff wearing full personal protection equipment were needed for 15 patients (22%), 12 of whom were suspected of being positive and three (4%) were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR, no staff member who participated in EVT was infected.
Conclusion: The median D2P was 70 min and 38% had a favorable outcome of EVT under the present state of infection protection. After a change in the in-hospital system for clinical settings during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, the D2P increased and the rate of a favorable clinical outcome slightly decreased, but both were not significantly affected and infection protection for medical staff was effective. Therefore, the effects of a change were acceptable considering the circumstances.
Objective: We report a case of contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) after repeated percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion.
Case Presentation: An 88-year-old woman with left hemiparesis was transferred to our hospital by ambulance. MRI revealed acute MCA M1 occlusion. We performed intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy and PTA for right MCA occlusion, leading to complete recanalization and improvement in hemiparalysis. After approximately one week, restenosis of right MCA developed and PTA was performed again on day 11. However, her left hemiparesis exacerbated shortly thereafter. CT demonstrated leakage of contrast medium, and an extensive high-intensity area (HIA) on the white matter in the right cerebral hemisphere was noted on MRI FLAIR. The HIA on MRI and neurological deficits gradually improved after conservative treatment, but diffuse atrophy of the right cerebral hemisphere occurred and higher brain dysfunction remained.
Conclusion: Repeated ischemia and reperfusion, and the frequent use of contrast media were considered the causes of CIE.
Objective: We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that occurred at 30 weeks of pregnancy and was treated by coil embolization in a woman with middle cerebral artery (MCA) aplasia.
Case Presentation: A 40-year-old woman who was 30 weeks pregnant presented to the emergency department with a half-day history of headache and nausea. She had sudden onset headache and her symptom did not improve. There was no neurological deficit. Head CT at the referring hospital revealed SAH. The fetal state was stable. There was no sign of threatened premature delivery. Head MRA revealed aplasia of the left MCA and aneurysm with a daughter sac at the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Head DSA revealed that the A1 aneurysm with a daughter sac arose from the anomalous collateral artery leading to a plexiform network. The diagnosis was SAH due to rupture of an A1 aneurysm. Performance of less invasive coil embolization seemed to be possible and was carried out under general anesthesia. The operation was completed after placing one coil and confirming that most of the aneurysmal dome was embolized, including the daughter sac. There was no cerebral vasospasm and no obvious neurological deficit. Antiplatelet drugs were only required for 10 days after the operation. Pregnancy was stable and the patient delivered a baby by cesarean section at 38 weeks of pregnancy.
Conclusion: A rare case of aneurysmal SAH in a pregnant woman with MCA aplasia was successfully treated by endovascular surgery.
Objective: There are few detailed reports on abducens nerve palsy due to a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm (VADA). We investigated the clinical characteristics and long-term course of abducens nerve palsy in ruptured VADA patients treated by endovascular surgery.
Methods: Of the 51 cases of ruptured VADA treated by endovascular intervention from 2011 to 2019, 31 with a good/fair outcome, in which ocular motility disorder was able to be followed, were included and investigated.
Results: In all, 11 patients (35.5%) had abducens nerve palsy, and the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade and Hunt & Hess (H&H) grade at the time of arrival of patients with abducens nerve palsy were significantly higher than those of patients without abducens nerve palsy. Of the 10 patients who were able to be followed, abducens nerve palsy in 3 completely recovered in 7–180 days. Abducens nerve palsy improved in five patients and remained in two patients.
Conclusion: More severe neurological findings on admission reflect a higher rate of abducens nerve palsy. Diplopia induced by abducens nerve palsy is one of the most important sequelae of ruptured VADA, which impairs the daily activities of the patients. Some cases of abducens nerve palsy improve over a long period. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis and follow-up should be concerned.
Objective: We report a rare case of pterygopalatine fossa arterial venous shunt disease with venous congestion of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) that was treated by transarterial balloon-assisted embolization.
Case Presentation: A 57-year-old man presented with congestion of the right bulbar conjunctiva, protrusion, and swelling of the right eyelid was admitted to our hospital. Angiography demonstrated an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) forming small congregated vessels in the pterygopalatine fossa fed by the branch of the ophthalmic artery (OA) and artery of the superior orbital fissure, draining into the SOV via the inferior ophthalmic vein (IOV). From the artery of the superior orbital fissure, transarterial embolization (TAE) with ONYX using a dual-lumen balloon catheter was performed. The patient was treated without complications.
Conclusion: TAE using transarterial balloon-assisted embolization with ONYX is effective for periorbital arteriovenous shunts, although special care is necessary to prevent the migration of ONYX into the OA.
Objective: This report highlights a case of a de novo aneurysm assumed to be caused by hemodynamic stress resulting from proximal basilar artery stenosis.
Case Presentation: A 76-year-old woman presented at our hospital with tinnitus. Although MRI did not reveal the cause of her tinnitus, it did uncover an incidental finding of basilar artery stenosis. The patient reported a history of cerebral infarction, diabetes, and hypertension. Six years following the initial discovery of basilar artery stenosis, a saccular aneurysm was detected at the bifurcation of the basilar artery and the right anterior inferior cerebellar artery, corresponding to the distal portion of the basilar artery stenosis. Upon revelation of an enlarged aneurysm on the subsequent two-year follow-up MRI, the patient received coil embolization treatment. No signs of recurrence were observed on the next two-year follow-up MRI.
Conclusion: It was assumed that proximal basilar artery arteriosclerotic stenosis had caused hemodynamic stress on the distal vessel wall, and that this was responsible for the formation and growth of a de novo aneurysm. This case suggests that cerebrovascular arteriosclerotic changes may be associated with de novo aneurysm formation and therefore requires careful follow-up.
Objective: In various fields, differences in eye-gazing patterns during tasks between experts and novices have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate gazing patterns during neuro-endovascular treatment using an eye-tracking device and assess whether gazing patterns depend on the physician’s experience or skill.
Methods: Seven physicians performed coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm in a silicone vessel model under biplane X-ray fluoroscopy, and their gazing patterns were recorded using an eye-tracking device. The subjects were divided into three groups according to experience, highly experienced (Expert) group, intermediately experienced (Trainee) group, and less experienced (Novice) group. The duration of fixation on the anterior–posterior (AP) view screen, lateral (LR) view, and out-of-screen were compared between each group.
Results: During microcatheter navigation, the Expert and Trainee groups spent a long time on fixation to AP, while the Novice group split their attention between each location. In coil insertion, the Expert group gazed at both the AP and the LR views with more saccades between screens. In contrast, the Trainee group spent most of their time only on the AP view screen and the Novice group spent longer out-of-screen.
Conclusion: An eye-tracking device can detect different gazing patterns among physicians with several experiences and skill levels of neuroendovascular treatment. Learning the gazing patterns of experts using eye tracking may be a good educational tool for novices and trainees.
Objective: Coil unraveling is a rare, yet dangerous complication of endovascular coiling. In this study, we report a patient in whom an intraoperatively unraveled coil was successfully retrieved using a KUSABI exchange catheter, which is used in the field of cardiovascular medicine to facilitate catheter exchange in coronary interventions.
Case Presentation: The patient was a 90-year-old woman. To treat an unruptured aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery, endovascular coil embolization was performed. During the filling step, the coil started to unravel. Early attempts to retrieve the unraveled coil using a microsnare were complicated when the ensnared part broke off during the process. The broken tip of the unraveled coil was maneuvered inside the guiding catheter, after which a KUSABI catheter was inflated inside the guiding catheter to press and immobilize the unraveled coil against its inner lumen. This fragment of the unraveled coil was extricated from the patient by retracting the entire guiding catheter assembly. We guided a microsnare along the remaining unraveled coil to capture the intact part of the coil, and eventually retrieval was successful.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, no study has reported retrieval with a KUSABI trapping balloon catheter for the management of coil unraveling. However, this method is considered effective. We report this case and review the literature.
Objective: There are few reports on endovascular treatment of tandem lesions in the posterior circulation and no consensus on treatment strategies has been reached. We report a case of tandem lesions of basilar artery occlusion and vertebral artery stenosis treated by thrombectomy and vertebral artery stenting.
Case Presentation: We present the case of a 73-year-old man who developed consciousness disorder and tetraplegia. Head and neck CTA revealed tandem left vertebral artery stenosis and basilar artery occlusion. The patient was treated using a reverse technique, which involves performing thrombectomy first and then vertebral artery stenting, along with Carotid Guardwire PS. Postoperative impairment of consciousness and improvement of tetraplegia were achieved.
Conclusion: The reverse technique combined with Carotid Guardwire PS may be a useful treatment strategy for tandem lesions in the posterior circulation.
Objective: Morphologically challenging cerebral aneurysms cannot be treated through standard endovascular procedures. We report two cases of ruptured aneurysms treated using coils and n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA).
Case Presentations: Case 1 was an 80-year-old woman diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). An angiogram revealed a large and wide-necked basilar artery bifurcation aneurysm. Bilateral superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) originated from the aneurysmal wall. A 3-mm-diameter bleb was detected on the aneurysmal fundus. The bleb enlarged 1 month following coil insertion. During the second treatment, we infused a small volume of 33% NBCA into the coil-framed bleb following proximal flow control of the bilateral vertebral arteries (VAs). The complete bleb obliteration was confirmed by the angiogram at 6 months later. The coil shape was followed up via plane X-ray for 5 years. No rebleeding occurred. Case 2 was a 41-year-old woman diagnosed with SAH. An angiogram revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the left PCA (P1 and P2 segments) accompanying a bleb on the P1 segment. Endovascular treatment was performed, and a coil was inserted into the bleb, infusing 33% NBCA into the coil frame following proximal flow control of bilateral VAs and the right internal carotid artery. Angiograms conducted at 3 months, 1 year, and 9 years and an MRA conducted 12 years later revealed a lack of bleb recanalization.
Conclusion: We developed a Coil and NBCA technique to obliterate ruptured blebs following proximal flow control. This technique can be considered an effective alternative for treating morphologically challenging cerebral aneurysms.
Objective: The first pass effect (FPE), which means the achievement of complete or near-complete reperfusion of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the first pass, is one of the goals of mechanical thrombectomy (MT). However, the impact of FPE on the prognosis has not been assessed for Japanese patients with various degrees of independence before the onset of LVO. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic effects of FPE in a comprehensive stroke center in Japan, which includes patients in a variety of self-independence states with different comorbidities before stroke onset.
Methods: Between April 2017 and March 2020, 151 patients who underwent MT with a stent retriever (SR) alone as initial strategy for anterior circulation (internal carotid artery terminal, M1, M2) LVO at our hospital and finally achieved modified treatment in cerebral infarction (mTICI) 2b–3 were analyzed. Forty-eight patients in whom first pass mTICI 2c–3 was achieved were classified into the FPE+ group, and the other 103 patients were classified into the FPE– group. We compared the characteristics and clinical outcomes between patients with and without FPE, and estimated the odds ratio for outcomes after adjusting for confounders.
Results: The puncture–reperfusion time was shorter (20 vs. 35 minutes; p <0.01), and cardiogenic embolism was more common (81.3 vs. 60.2%; p = 0.01) in the FPE+ group. The FPE was significantly associated with good neurological outcome after 3 months (p <0.01; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69–9.38), reduction in all intracranial hemorrhage (p <0.01; aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10–0.54), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (p = 0.04; aOR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.01–0.98).
Conclusion: The FPE with an SR alone improved the neurological prognosis in a Japanese patient group.
Objective: We report a rare case of a patient with a ruptured posterior communicating artery (P-com A) dissecting aneurysm and chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated by endovascular embolization using a small amount of contrast medium.
Case Presentation: An 88-year-old female patient had sudden onset of headache and vomit due to subarachnoid hemorrhage. MRI revealed a ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the right P-com A. The patient had CKD of severity grade 4. Endovascular treatment was performed using only 10 mL of diluted contrast medium with injection through a microcatheter. The postoperative course was uneventful, and no deterioration of renal function occurred.
Conclusion: With minimal amount of contrast medium, endovascular treatment could be safely and effectively performed for patients with P-com A dissecting aneurysms and severe CKD.
Objective: Ruptured carotid-cavernous aneurysms (CCAs) are known to result in direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). Although endovascular treatment is recognized as the first-line treatment for direct CCF, obliteration is sometimes difficult because of the high-flow shunt. In this report, we present a case of a direct CCF treated by the combination of transarterial and transvenous approaches.
Case Presentation: A 57-year-old woman presented with conjunctival chemosis, exophthalmos, and tinnitus. Ophthalmological examination revealed increased intraocular pressure. DSA demonstrated a direct CCF due to a right ruptured CCA with retrograde shunted flow through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), superficial middle cerebral vein, basal vein of Rosenthal, and middle temporal vein. Two microcatheters were guided into the shunt segment from the internal carotid artery and SOV. In addition, a balloon catheter was placed at the neck of the aneurysm to assist coiling. Coil embolization for the CCF was performed using two microcatheters in the opposite direction, which enabled compact and tight packing of the shunt segment with only six coils. The CCF was eliminated. Two-year-follow-up MRA revealed no recurrence.
Conclusion: The bidirectional double catheter technique is a useful approach to obliterate a shunt in a short segment with minimal coils.
Objective: We introduce a coil-assisted technique using a small diameter helical coil to preserve a branch artery in the aneurysm neck or dome during coil embolization of a cerebral aneurysm.
Case Presentations: We report three cases that were treated with the coil-assisted technique. Using this method, the branch artery was preserved with a small diameter helical coil that was placed to support another frame coil. The first case was a ruptured internal carotid artery–posterior communicating artery (IC–Pcom) aneurysm, the second case was a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm, and the third case was an unruptured IC–Pcom aneurysm, with branching of the Pcom, A2, and Pcom, respectively, from the neck or dome of the aneurysm. We were able to preserve the branch artery in all cases.
Conclusion: This technique is feasible and safe for coil embolization of intracranial branch-incorporated aneurysms. The technique is especially useful for preserving branch arteries that are difficult to preserve by conventional techniques.