Objective: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is generally considered a critical complication. Hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke has also been associated with contrast media administration. The objective of our study was to evaluate correlations between contrast media type and incidence of SICH after MT.
Methods: Ninety-three consecutive patients (41 men; mean age, 80.2 years; range, 44–98 years) underwent MT reperfusion (expanded thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score, 2a–3) for acute large-vessel occlusion ischemic stroke within 8 h after symptom onset between April 2020 and July 2023 were retrospectively reviewed. Correlations between contrast media type (iso-osmolar or low-osmolar medium) and incidence of SICH were assessed.
Results: Contrast media were iso-osmolar in 60 cases or low-osmolar in 33 cases. The overall incidence of SICH was 5.5%. The frequency of SICH was significantly lower in the iso-osmolar group (1.7%) than in the low-osmolar group (12.1%; P = 0.033).
Conclusion: Iso-osmolar contrast media was associated with a lower incidence of SICH compared with low-osmolar contrast media in patients after MT.
Objective: Transradial approach (TRA) is increasingly used as a viable alternative to the traditional transfemoral approach (TFA) in neuroendovascular therapy (NET) owing to its potential anatomical benefits and lower puncture-site complication rates. However, the real-world challenges of implementing TRA-NET have not been thoroughly studied, particularly those related to guide catheter (GC) placement. In this study, we aimed to explore the feasibility and challenges of TRA-NET, with a specific focus on GC placement.
Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients who underwent NET at our institution between December 2019 and May 2022. Procedural success was defined as the successful placement of a GC in the target vessel. Cases in which a Simmons-shaped GC was used or the approach was changed to TFA were classified as difficult. Safety was assessed based on the rate of severe puncture-site complications requiring either blood transfusion or surgical intervention.
Results: Among the 310 patients who underwent NET during the study period, 222 (71.6%) with a median age of 74 years were selected for TRA-NET. The target vessel was in the left anterior circulation (LtAC) in 101 (45.5%) patients, and 8-F GCs were the most frequently used (40.1%). TRA-NET achieved a 95.0% success rate, with a switch to TFA required in 5.0% of the cases. Procedural challenges occurred in 42 (18.9%) patients, primarily in those with LtAC lesions. Specifically, a type III aortic arch (p <0.0001) and age ≥80 years (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with procedural difficulties. Radial artery evaluation was confirmed in 66 cases (29.7%), revealing one instance (1.5%) of radial artery occlusion. No severe puncture-site complications were observed.
Conclusion: TRA-NET may provide substantial therapeutic benefits without significant limitations in device use. However, it may be challenging, particularly in older patients and those with a type III aortic arch with LtAC lesions. Consequently, careful selection of the approach route is imperative.
Objective: Since the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute cerebral infarction due to large vessel occlusion has been proven, the time available for treatment has gradually increased. Currently, under certain conditions, treatment is indicated up to 24 h from onset. Based on neurological signs and imaging diagnosis, Stroke Treatment Guideline 2021 recommends initiation of MT within 6–24 h from onset. Herein, we retrospectively investigated the relationship between cerebral perfusion imaging evaluation and prognosis in patients with acute cerebral infarction due to large or median vessel occlusion.
Methods: Fifty-one patients diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction due to large or median vessel occlusions in anterior circulation between November 2019 and December 2021 were divided into medical care and reconstructive therapy (including tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] therapy and MT) groups. The primary outcome was changes in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission and 1 week after onset. Patients in the medical care group were divided into those whose NIHSS did not worsen and those whose NIHSS worsened. Those in the reconstructive therapy group were divided into those whose NIHSS improved and those whose NIHSS did not improve. We evaluated the relationship between improvement factors in acute neurological symptoms and penumbral and core volumes from computed tomography perfusion performed at admission.
Results: Of 45 eligible patients, 10 received medical care without t-PA or MT and 35 underwent reconstructive therapy, including t-PA and MT. Among the 10 patients in the medical care group, 3 had worsening symptoms and 7 did not. The mean and median (interquartile range [IQR]) penumbra volumes were significantly higher in patients with worsening symptoms than in those without. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed a threshold value of 28.6 mL with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.952. Among the 35 patients in the reconstructive therapy group, symptoms improved for 29 but did not improve for 6. The mean and median (IQR) core volumes were significantly higher in patients whose symptoms did not improve than in those whose symptoms improved. The ROC curve showed a threshold value of 25 mL and an AUC of 0.632.
Conclusion: Evaluation of penumbra volumes could detect cases with worsening symptoms in cases where medical care was performed, and evaluation of core volumes may detect cases with non-improved symptoms in cases that received reconstructive therapy.
Objective: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is one of the rare and severe complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. CVST has also been reported to develop into dural arteriovenous fistula; however, there were no reports of dural arteriovenous fistula associated with COVID-19 vaccine-induced cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Here, we describe a rare case of a transverse–sigmoid sinus dural arteriovenous fistula followed by CVST due to COVID-19 vaccination.
Case Presentation: A 70-year-old patient presented with headache five days after receiving a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine. MRI showed a CVST in the superior sagittal sinus, left transverse sinus, and left sigmoid sinus. His headache improved after the administration of anticoagulant therapy. Six months later, a similar headache recurred, and cerebral angiography demonstrated a dural arteriovenous fistula in the left transverse sigmoid sinus and convexity dural arteriovenous fistulas in the left parietal cortex. The patient was treated twice with two sessions of transarterial embolization, and the shunts were completely occluded. His symptoms improved, and he was discharged with a modified Rankin Scale score of 0.
Conclusion: Dural arteriovenous fistula can develop after CVST in association with COVID-19 vaccination.
Objective: The trans-cell technique in stent-assisted coil embolization is a common treatment method for intracranial aneurysm. However, despite the frequency of its use, reports discussing its complications and their management are few. We describe a case of stent and microguidewire entanglement, which could not be removed, during treatment using the trans-cell technique. We discuss the mechanism of the entanglement and its management.
Case Presentation: A woman in her 40s was found to have an unruptured cerebral aneurysm with a maximum diameter of 5.9 mm located in the paraclinodal anterior process of the left internal carotid artery during a close examination of a headache. The aneurysm had an irregular shape and wide neck. Stent-assisted coil embolization was planned. Initially, the coil was embolized using a jailing technique, but the microcatheter was pushed out of the aneurysm during embolization. Thus, we attempted to switch to a trans-cell technique. However, during the process, the stent and microguidewire became entangled and could not be removed. Finally, when the stent slipped off, the entanglement was resolved and the microguidewire was retrieved. Fortunately, the patient was discharged home without postoperative complications.
Conclusion: Once a stent and a microguidewire become entangled, safely releasing them is difficult. Thus, it is important to avoid this scenario from occurring.
Objective: We verified the usefulness of patient management using a balloon-pressurized belt (Stanch Belt Plus) to prevent puncture site hematomas, which can occur at a specific rate even with hemostatic devices after endovascular neurosurgery.
Methods: A total of 113 patients who underwent endovascular surgery with a femoral puncture from April 2019 to September 2020 were divided into two groups: 31 cases using a traditional compression belt and 82 cases using a newly introduced balloon-pressurized belt during this period. The clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. The chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U test were used to test for significant differences.
Results: There were no significant differences in treatment procedures or frequency of hemostatic device use, but the balloon-pressurized belt group had a significantly lower incidence of hematomas (2.4% vs 12.9%, p <0.05) and a significantly lower incidence of moderate or higher lumbago (22.0% vs 41.9%, p <0.05). The incidence of epidermal detachment tended to be low; however, no significant difference was observed (3.7% vs. 12.9%, n.s.).
Conclusion: Patient management with the newly introduced balloon-pressurized belt may decrease the occurrence of groin hematoma and lumbago among complications after endovascular neurosurgery.
Objective: We report a case of near-occlusion of the common carotid bifurcation caused by a giant free-floating thrombus (FFT) successfully treated with mechanical thrombectomy using a large dual-layer stent retriever.
Case Presentation: A 51-year-old man presented to our hospital with dysarthria, right hemiparalysis, and paresthesia. MRI revealed an acute infarction of the left cortical watershed zone, and MRA revealed decreased signals in the left common carotid bifurcation. Carotid ultrasonography demonstrated a giant FFT in the left common carotid bifurcation. Angiography revealed a giant thrombus extending from the left common carotid artery (CCA) to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery. As direct aspiration from both a balloon-guided catheter (BGC) and an aspiration catheter (AC) was ineffective, we deployed a large dual-layer stent retriever from the ICA to the CCA with an AC-connected aspiration pump and retrieved it under manual aspiration through the BGC. The giant thrombus was successfully removed, and complete recanalization was achieved without distal embolisms.
Conclusion: Although there is no established treatment for giant thrombi in the carotid artery, mechanical thrombectomy using a large dual-layer stent retriever may be an effective treatment option.
The clinical manifestations of dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are highly variable and dependent on the hemodynamic properties and location of the fistula. The locations of the fistula are numerous and include the cavernous sinus, transverse–sigmoid sinus, superior sagittal sinus, inferior and superior petrosal sinuses, anterior condylar confluence, tentorium, anterior cranial fossa, middle fossa, foramen magnum, cranio-cervical junction, convexity, and spinal cord. These dAVFs can be divided into two types, “sinus type” and “non-sinus type,” based on their communication with dural shunts and cerebral veins. The sinus type involves direct communication between the arterial dural branch and one dural sinus, sometimes leading to recruitment of cortical veins. On the other hand, the non-sinus type is embedded into the dura, with the drainage always involving a cerebral vein and no communication with any sinus. Treatment options for these types of dAVFs differ; sinus-type dAVFs require normally sinus obliteration and occlusion of recruited veins, while non-sinus-type dAVFs require embolization of the drainage vein. Accurately classifying the type of fistula, sinus type or non-sinus type, is critical for developing a proper treatment plan. This review describes clinical characteristics and treatment of those non-sinus-type dAVFs involving unusual locations with illustrative cases.
Objective: Basilar artery occlusion (BAO) secondary to traumatic vertebral artery (VA) dissection caused by vertebral fracture is a rare cause of acute ischemic stroke, and optimal management, such as antithrombotic agents, surgical fixation, and parent artery occlusion (PAO), has been controversial. We report a case in which mechanical thrombectomy and PAO were performed for a BAO due to right VA dissection caused by a transverse foramen fracture of the axis vertebra.
Case Presentation: A patient in her 80s suffered from a backward fall, and a neck CT revealed a fracture and dislocation of the right lateral mass of the axis and a compressed transverse foramen. The patient was instructed to admit and to remain in bed rest; however, she suddenly lost consciousness the following day. The CTA revealed right VA occlusion and BAO; therefore, the patient underwent mechanical thrombectomy and the BAO was successfully reperfused but the VA stenotic dissection remained. PAO of the right VA was performed on the fifth day after the accident to prevent BAO recurrence.
Conclusion: Mechanical thrombectomy is an effective treatment for BAO caused by VA dissection, and PAO may contribute to the prevention of stroke recurrence.
Dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) of the foramen magnum (FM) region is rare. Moreover, the terminology of dAVF is very confusing in this region. In the narrow sense, the FM dAVF is the non-sinus-type dAVF with direct venous reflux to the medulla oblongata or spinal cord via the bridging veins (BVs) of the FM. Previous literature was systematically reviewed to investigate the clinical characteristics, angioarchitecture, and effective treatment of the FM dAVF. From the literature review, almost all the feeders of FM dAVF were dural branches. Spinal pial arteries were rarely involved as the feeder. All lesions had venous reflux to the medulla oblongata via medullary BVs. The FM dAVF is characterized by a significant male predominance and a high incidence of aggressive symptoms. The most common symptom is congestive myelopathy, followed by hemorrhage. The FM dAVF differs from the craniocervical junction (CCJ) arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and is similar to the thoracolumbar spinal dAVF. Direct surgery for the FM dAVF is effective and safe. Endovascular treatment for the FM dAVF may be more effective and has lower complication rates than that for the CCJ AVF.
Anterior cranial fossa (ACF) dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare lesion among cerebral DAVFs. This lesion shows significant bleeding risk because of the angioarchitecture, involving direct leptomeningeal retrograde venous drainage, as a nonsinus-type DAVF. Over the years, direct surgery has been considered the primary treatment for ACF DAVF, offering favorable clinical outcomes compared to a low complete obliteration rate with endovascular treatment and the relatively high risk of blindness due to central retinal artery occlusion with transophthalmic artery embolization. In recent years, however, significant improvements in DSA and 3D reconstruction imaging quality have allowed a much more precise understanding of the angioarchitecture of the shunt and vascular access route. In addition, advances in endovascular devices, including catheters and embolic materials, have facilitated microcatheter navigation into more distal vessels and more reliable closure of the fistulous point. Supported by such technological innovations, endovascular approaches to the treatment of ACF DAVF have been becoming successful first-line treatments. This article reviews the evolution of treatment strategies and the current status of endovascular treatment for ACF DAVF, with a particular focus on transarterial embolization.