Journal of Nippon Medical School
Online ISSN : 1347-3409
Print ISSN : 1345-4676
ISSN-L : 1345-4676
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-12 of 12 articles from this issue
  • Go Ichikawa, Yasuyuki Negishi, Ryo Tsuchiya, Lilika Higuchi, Tatsunori ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-204
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024


    Endometriosis has several clinical features, including dysmenorrhea, infertility, and endometrioma (EMO). Although oxidative stress status is closely related to endometriosis, it is unclear how the balance between oxidative stress capacity and antioxidant capacity correlates with treatment of or factors that worsen endometriosis. In this study, we used peritoneal fluid from patients with EMO to investigate the role of oxidative stress capacity and antioxidant capacity.

    Materials and Methods

    Participants with EMO (n = 30) and without EMO (uterine myoma, n = 13) were enrolled. All peritoneal fluid samples were collected at the beginning of surgery. We evaluated oxidative stress capacity and antioxidant capacity in peritoneal fluid samples by using the diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests, respectively. The d-ROM and BAP values and the d-ROM/BAP ratio were measured, and their correlations with the CA125 level, revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine (r-ASRM) score, and tumor size were analyzed.


    The d-ROM/BAP ratio was significantly higher in patients with EMO than in those without EMO. In addition, the d-ROM/BAP ratio was positively correlated with CA125 level and r-ASRM scores in patients with EMO.


    Oxidative stress is correlated with factors that worsen EMO. The d-ROM/BAP test may be useful for assessing disease status in patients with EMO.

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  • Yutaka Igarashi, Kyoichi Nakahara, Tatsuya Norii, Nodoka Miyake, Takas ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-205
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024

    Background Emergency physicians need a broad range of knowledge and skills to address critical medical, traumatic, and environmental conditions. Artificial intelligence (AI), including large language models (LLMs), has potential applications in healthcare settings; however, the performance of LLMs in emergency medicine remains unclear.

    Methods To evaluate the reliability of information provided by ChatGPT, an LLM was given the questions set by the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine in its board certification examinations over a period of 5 years (2018–2022) and programmed to answer them twice. Statistical analysis was used to assess agreement of the two responses.

    Results The LLM successfully answered 465 of the 475 text-based questions, achieving an overall correct response rate of 62.3%. For questions without images, the rate of correct answers was 65.9%. For questions with images that were not explained to the LLM, the rate of correct answers was only 52.0%. The annual rates of correct answers to questions without images ranged from 56.3% to 78.8%. Accuracy was better for scenario-based questions (69.1%) than for stand-alone questions (62.1%). Agreement between the two responses was substantial (kappa = 0.70). Factual error accounted for 82% of the incorrectly answered questions.

    Conclusion An LLM performed satisfactorily on an emergency medicine board certification examination in Japanese and without images. However, factual errors in the responses highlight the need for physician oversight when using LLMs.

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  • Naoko Shimoda, Yukinao Sakai, Takuya Nishino, Sayuri Kawasaki, Akio Hi ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-207
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous impact on hemodialysis patients. This study investigated changes in hemodialysis treatment at our hospital after the start of the pandemic.

    Methods: We analyzed data from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) system. Data for inpatients receiving dialysis during collection periods A (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and B (after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic) were extracted and compared. The numbers of inpatients and new patients, the number of patients admitted (by department), duration of stay, mortality, place of residence, surgical procedures, and DPC classification were compared.

    Results: There were no significant differences between periods in patient age, duration of hospital stay, number of new patients, number of ambulance transports, number of deaths, body mass index, comorbidities, laboratory variables before the first dialysis after hospitalization, or patient area of residence. Although differences were observed among the departments, the numbers of emergency dialysis inpatients and maintenance dialysis inpatients increased. The number of surgeries also increased overall, particularly for maintenance dialysis patients (P = 0.0273). The percentage of DPC III patients was significantly higher in period B (P=0.0368).

    Conclusions: The number of surgeries performed on maintenance dialysis patients and the overall DPC III rate significantly increased after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic at our hospital, suggesting that COVID-19 worsened the condition of maintenance dialysis patients and prolonged hospital stays.

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  • Tsunemi Kitagawa, Yasuyuki Kitagawa, Yoichiro Aoyagi, Tokifumi Majima
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-210
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024

    Background: Patients with bone metastases often face physical, mental, and social challenges that require multidisciplinary management. To improve treatment and practice, we conducted a questionnaire survey to assess nurses' opinions of problems related to caring for patients with bone metastases. In addition, we investigated nurses' perceptions of bone metastases after participating in a Bone Metastasis Cancer Board (BMCB).

    Methods: An anonymous questionnaire survey on problems in bone metastasis treatment and the BMCB was conducted. The respondents were nurses with more than 1 year of clinical experience working in wards where patients with bone metastases were admitted.

    Results: The number of valid responses was 224. Almost all the nurses felt anxiety about the risk of pathological fracture and paralysis while caring for patients with bone metastases. To reduce this anxiety, about 90% of the nurses supported the suggestion that "patients should be referred to an orthopedic surgeon in advance to obtain opinions on load restrictions". Nurses who had participated in the BMCB had higher expectations regarding treatment, multidisciplinary collaboration, and sharing and accumulating knowledge and experience.

    Conclusion: To improve treatment and nursing care for patients with bone metastases, it is important to make regular BMCB meetings more functional and to actively consult with specialists.

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  • Yoshinobu Saito, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Takeru Kashiwada, Toru Tanaka, Hir ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-211
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 16, 2024
    Supplementary material

    Background: Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor used as an antineoplastic drug, is associated with a remarkably high incidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The clinical and pathological characteristics of ILD caused by everolimus have not been thoroughly investigated; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the features of everolimus-associated ILD.

    Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who received everolimus for cancer treatment at our hospital. Patient backgrounds were compared between the ILD and non-ILD groups. Chest computed tomography (CT), changes in biomarkers, and lung histopathological features were analyzed for ILD cases.

    Results:Sixty-six patients were reviewed, and ILD developed in 19. There were no differences in patient demographics between the ILD and non-ILD groups. The severity of ILD was grade 1 (G1) in 9 and grade 2 (G2) in 10 cases. Chest CT showed organizing pneumonia (OP) or a hypersensitive pneumonia pattern. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, Krebs von den lungen-6, and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) at the onset of ILD were significantly higher than those at baseline. Analysis of G1 and G2 ILD subgroups showed a higher SP-D levels in the G2 subgroup. Five patients underwent lung biopsies; all specimens demonstrated alveolitis with lymphocytic infiltration and granulomatous lesions, and some had OP findings.

    Conclusions: Everolimus-associated ILD is mild and has a favorable prognosis. Patients with symptomatic ILD were more likely to have higher SP-D levels than those with asymptomatic ILD. Granulomatous lesions are an important pathological feature of everolimus-associated ILD.

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  • Ryohei Fukunaga, Takahiro Ueda, Ryosuke Matsui, Toshikazu Itabashi, Ry ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-212
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 16, 2024

    Background: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are used for the treatment of various diseases because of their rapid proliferation and high anti-inflammatory and tissue repair properties. Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis with coronary arteritis and aneurysms occurring in pediatric patients. In this study, we examined serologically and pathologically whether the administration of human ADSCs (hADSCs) to a mouse model of Kawasaki disease could suppress vasculitis.

    Methods: Candida albicans water-soluble fractions were intraperitoneally injected into DBA/2 mice for 5 consecutive days to generate a mouse model of Kawasaki disease. The model mice were intravenously administered hADSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Serum samples collected on days 15 and 29 were used to compare cytokine levels. Mouse hearts dissected on day 29 were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining using Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a protein involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, and CD44, a cell-surface marker of hADSCs.

    Results: Comparison of inflammation-related cytokines showed a significant decrease in IL-1α expression at day 15 (P<0.05) and IL-6 expression at day 29 (P<0.01) in the hADSCs-treated group compared to the PBS group. Evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining showed decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and a tendency towards increased Gal-1 expression in the hADSCs group. CD44 expression was not observed in both the groups. The survival curve showed that the hADSCs group had a significantly longer survival time (P<0.05).

    Conclusions: The present experimental results indicate that hADSCs have an early anti-inflammatory effect, and that Gal-1 may be involved in preventing inflammation and reducing tissue damage.

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  • Toshikazu Itabashi, Takahiro Ueda, Ryohei Fukunaga, Takeshi Asano, Yas ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-206
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 08, 2023

    Background: Drug resistance remains a significant impediment in leukemia treatment. While Bendamustine hydrochloride (BH) stands out as a promising therapeutic agent for non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, the mechanisms of resistance to BH are not yet fully understood. Our study focuses on elucidating the mechanisms behind bendamustine resistance in leukemia cells, with a specific emphasis on epigenetics.

    Methods: Bendamustine-resistant cells were cultivated from human B cell lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines through systematic and sustained exposure to bendamustine, using the limiting dilution method. Gene expression was assessed via real-time polymerase chain reaction, while the expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) was evaluated using flow cytometry.

    Results: Bendamustine-resistant leukemia cells exhibited a decreased RNA expression level for Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK-1). Notably, after treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, PLK-1 gene expression surged significantly, enhancing bendamustine's cytotoxicity in the resistant leukemia cells. However, MDR1 expression, as determined by flow cytometry, remained consistent between parental and bendamustine-resistant leukemia cells.

    Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the methylation of the PLK-1 gene plays a pivotal role in modulating PLK-1 expression and is central to the development of bendamustine resistance in leukemia cells.

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  • Hiroya Hasegawa, Jun Akatsuka, Shogo Imai, Yuki Endo, Masato Yanagi, H ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-609
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 08, 2023

    Renal abscesses require prompt diagnosis and appropriate intervention, as they can be life-threatening. However, diagnosis based solely on clinical findings is often challenging. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman with left renal masses on follow-up computed tomography (CT) after surgery for pT2aN0M0 lung carcinosarcoma. The masses were localized only in the left kidney without suspected metastatic lesions at other sites. The patient was referred to our department for further evaluation and treatment under a diagnosis of suspected metastatic lung carcinosarcoma of the left kidney. On enhanced CT, the left renal masses, the largest of which had a diameter of 40×36 mm had thick irregular walls gradually enhanced by the contrast media and an internal low-attenuation area. The masses showed heterogeneous signal intensity with a pseudocapsule on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical symptoms such as fever or costovertebral angle tenderness were absent, and blood and urine tests were not sufficiently inflammatory to suggest a renal abscess. Histopathological findings on CT-guided renal biopsy revealed only inflammatory tissue and no tumor cells. However, because lung carcinosarcoma metastatic nodules could not be ruled out, laparoscopic left nephrectomy was performed for a definitive diagnosis and curative intent. The pathological diagnosis was renal abscess without malignant lesions. Here, we present a case of renal abscess mimicking metastatic lesions in a patient with lung carcinosarcoma. Accurately differentiating renal abscesses from metastatic renal tumors before treatment is often difficult. Renal abscess diagnosis should be considered through a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical findings of individual cases.

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  • Atsushi Marumo, Haruka Okabe, Hisae Sugihara, Masanobu Eguchi
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-505
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: August 08, 2023

    Ischemic colitis is a common disease with a good prognosis; however, complications can occur in the presence of a serious underlying disease. Herein, we present a case report in which characteristic findings on lower gastrointestinal endoscopy led to a diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). An 82-year-old woman visited our hospital for chronic heart and renal failure. She had a history of breast cancer, myocardial infarction, and hemorrhoidal fistula and was initially hospitalized for ischemic colitis. Subsequent lower gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed extensive ulcerative lesions in the ascending, transverse, and descending colon. Histopathologically, small vessels exhibited multiple fibrin thrombus formations. Based on histopathological and endoscopic results, the presence of an underlying disease was suspected. Flow cytometric analysis showed that erythrocytes and granulocytes had 5.5 and 86.4% CD55- and CD59-negative cells, respectively. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with PNH and considered severely ill, given the ischemic colitis-induced abdominal pain and the need for red blood cell transfusions (4–6 units per month). Accordingly, the patient was administered ravulizumab. Ischemic enteritis did not relapse following ravulizumab administration, and transfusion dependence improved. If a patient with ischemic colitis presents atypical lower gastrointestinal endoscopic findings, it is important to explore the presence of an underlying disease.

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  • Tetsuya Shimizu, Masato Yoshioka, Akira Matsushita, Junji Ueda, Mampei ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-601
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: August 08, 2023

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is a very rare disease-causing portal hypertension. Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) including essential thrombocythemia (ET) is reported as a risk factor for EHPVO due to underlying persistent thrombophilia.

    A Japanese woman in her 40s was referred to our hospital with a one-month history of gastric variceal bleeding due to EHPVO. Laboratory investigation demonstrated thrombocytosis despite portal hypertension. She had a mutation of clonal marker JAK2V617F with EHPVO, which prompted us to consult a hematologist. Bone marrow biopsy revealed megakaryocyte lineage proliferation, leading to a diagnosis of ET.

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy indicated esophagogastric varices (LsF2CbRC2, Lg-cF1RC1). Abdominal Computed Tomography and angiography revealed splenomegaly and portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. These radiologic findings suggested EHPVO.

    The patient had a history of ruptured esophagogastric varices and required prophylaxis against further variceal bleeding prior to anti-thrombotic therapy for EHPVO with ET. We performed laparoscopic Hassab's operation followed by endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and hematological cytoreduction therapy.

    Laparoscopic Hassab's operation and three bi-monthly EVL improved the esophagogastric varix (LmF0RC0, Lg-f F0RC0) at 6 months after surgery. Platelet count decreased to 60.1 x104 /uL by cytoreduction therapy. She was very healthy at 7 months after surgery.

    Patients with EHPVO are traditionally referred to the gastroenterologist for abdominal pain, intestinal bleeding, or refractory ascites; however, hypercoagulative disease may be occult in such patients and require the attention of a hematologist. When encountering the patients with splanchnic thrombosis caused by EHPVO, the gastroenterologists should screen for hematological disease, including MPN.

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  • Ryohei Fukunaga, Takeshi Asano, Ryosuke Matsui, Masanori Abe, Naruhiko ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-501
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: June 02, 2023

    Invasive neonatal infection with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a disease of concern that can lead to neurological sequelae. Guidelines for preventing mother-to-child transmission have been introduced to reduce the incidence of early-onset infection, but guidelines for controlling the late-onset form are lacking. Recently, the trans-breastfeeding route of transmission has been highlighted as an example of late-onset infection, but no consensus on how to manage such infections has been reached. In this report, we describe a case of late-onset bacteremia/meningitis in a neonate suspected to have been infected with GBS via breastfeeding. A vaginal culture test of the mother at 35 weeks' gestation was negative for GBS. Since she had symptoms of mastitis, breast milk and nipple cultures were also tested and found to be positive for the strain of GBS identified in the neonate on genetic analysis. Diagnosis of trans-mammary GBS infection is challenging because breastfeeding-related events are difficult to identify. In our case, the diagnosis was based on the mother's history of mastitis, and the patient was treated without escalation to sequelae. When a neonate develops a fever, physicians should consider GBS infection and examine the mother's medical history to facilitate accurate diagnosis, especially if the history includes mastitis. A breast milk culture should be performed if the mother has mastitis, especially in cases of infection in preterm infants and in recurrent cases.

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  • Yoshimitsu Honda, Tetsuro Sekine, Ryoji Kimata, Norio Motoda, Keigo Ta ...
    Article ID: JNMS.2024_91-301
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: February 21, 2023

    Perineural spread (PNS) from pelvic carcinoma has been regarded as a pathway to muscle and bone metastasis. However, few cases have been reported, especially in patients with bladder carcinoma. In the present report, we discuss a case of diffuse cancer involvement in the muscle 5 years after radical cystectomy for advanced bladder carcinoma. Careful observation of temporal changes on medical images confirmed PNS as the pathway to muscle metastasis (i.e., primary PNS). Our report presents early and post-treatment CT, MRI and FDG-PET/CT findings of PNS from the bladder carcinoma.

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