Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are useful in the diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors and can be performed on outpatients. These modalities are complementary: MRI examines a large area, while FNAC assesses a highly specific region; MRI displays only signal intensities, while FNAC visualizes actual tumor cells. We investigated the combined use of these methods for differentiating malignant and benign tumors. Methods: 148 patients (153 lesions: 137 benign, 16 malignant) underwent preoperative MRI and FNAC. A diagnosis was judged to be correct if one or both diagnoses were correct, incorrect if at least one diagnosis was incorrect, and indeterminate if both diagnoses were indeterminate or if MRI was indeterminate and the FNAC sample was insufficient. Results: The diagnostic yields for MRI only, FNAC only, and their combination were 81.7%, 84.3%, and 92.2%, respectively, indicating that the diagnostic performance of MRI and FNAC was significantly improved when the methods were combined. Conclusions: As compared with either modality used alone, combined preoperative use of MRI and FNAC improved diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors.
Background: Although unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has become more common because of its good outcomes, several complications have been reported. Tibial implant alignment, an important cause of such complications, has been investigated; however, the optimal alignment of the tibial implant has not been determined. This study used 3-dimensional finite element analysis to investigate changes in stress distribution in the proximal tibia after UKA at multiple tibial implant alignments. Methods: A 3-dimensional finite element model was created with CT digital imaging and communications in medicine (CT-DICOM) data from a medial osteoarthritic knee. Change in stress distribution of the tibial implant alignment on the coronal plane (middle position, varus 5°, valgus 5°) and sagittal plane (0°, 5°, 10°) under conditions of a loose boundary between implant and bone and no loosening was analyzed with 3-dimensional finite analysis. Results: In the absence of loosening, the stress distribution was high at the lateral rim of the subchondral bone in the varus alignment model, and the high stress distribution moved from the anterior to the posterior position with posterior tilting from 0° to 10°. With loosening, the stress distribution was high at the proximal tibial medial cortex in the valgus alignment model. Conclusions: To reduce UKA complications, the present findings indicate that the optimal alignment of the tibial implant is at the middle position on the coronal plane, with a posterior inclination similar to the original inclination on the sagittal plane.
Background: We investigated the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk factors associated with vancomycin (VAN) and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) combination therapy in non-intensive care unit (ICU) and ICU settings. Methods: In this single-center retrospective cohort study, adults who received VAN for ≥48 h during the period from 1 January 2016 through 31 December 2017 were included. The primary endpoint was incidence of AKI. Results: Data from 593 adults were analyzed. The incidence of AKI was 10.6% overall, 8.0% in the non-TZP group, and 19.8% in the TZP group. In univariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for AKI was higher in the TZP group than in the non-TZP group (2.84, 95% CI = 1.64-4.90). In both the non-ICU and ICU settings, the OR for AKI was higher in the TZP group than in the non-TZP group (non-ICU: OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 1.52-6.09; ICU: OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.03-6.08). Furthermore, in propensity score analysis, the OR for AKI was higher in the TZP group than in the non-TZP group (OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.52-5.17). In both the non-ICU and ICU settings, the OR for AKI was higher in the TZP group than in the non-TZP group (non-ICU: OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.17-5.64; ICU: OR = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.05-11.6). Conclusions: Combined use of TZP in patients receiving VAN increased AKI incidence in non-ICU and ICU settings.
Background: We modified and administered capecitabine + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide combination therapy (CEX) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for HER-2-negative breast cancer and retrospectively analyzed its effectiveness and tolerability at our center. Methods: The inclusion criteria were presence of breast cancer negative for HER-2 and positive lymph node metastasis, or negative lymph node metastasis when tumor diameter was 20 mm or greater without distant metastasis. Additional inclusion criteria were a performance status of 0 or 1, an EF >60%, and an age of 75 years or less. Clinical outcomes were evaluated after 4 courses of epirubicin 80 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2 (administered every 3 weeks), and capecitabine 1,500 mg/m2 (administered for 2 weeks and withdrawn for 1 week). Results: A clinical benefit was noted in all 18 patients who received CEX as neoadjuvant chemotherapy during the period from 2009 through 2013. The clinical response rate was 83.3% (15/18), and the clinical complete response rate was 50%. Aesthetic outcomes of breast-conserving surgery were positive in all patients. Among patients with satisfactory outcomes, 33.3% had a pathologic complete response (triple-negative: 6, luminal: 0) and 68.8% were n0 (triple-negative: 8, luminal: 3). All patients with a pathologic complete response are presently alive, free of recurrence, and currently undergoing follow-up. Adverse events were classified as grade 2 or lower in all patients. Conclusions: CEX therapy administered as neoadjuvant chemotherapy could be useful for individualized treatment. In particular, this regimen was effective for triple-negative breast cancer.
Pseudo-Meigs syndrome is defined as secondary accumulation of ascites and hydrothorax associated with a pelvic tumor other than benign ovarian tumors such as fibroma, which usually resolve after surgical removal of the tumor. Here we report a case of pseudo-Meigs syndrome caused by a giant uterine leiomyoma, which was initially suspected to be ovarian cancer. A 37-year-old nulliparous woman presented with a 5-month history of abdominal distension and anorexia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a giant cystic lesion and solid mass in the peritoneal cavity, along with plentiful ascites. Chest X-ray images showed a small pleural effusion on the right side. The patient was referred to our hospital for treatment of suspected ovarian cancer and peritonitis carcinomatosis. Although serum CA125 level was elevated (up to 331.8 U/mL), magnetic resonance imaging showed a giant sub-serosal uterine leiomyoma with cystic degeneration (27 × 15 × 13 cm). A small dermoid cyst was also detected in the right ovary. Ascites was drained and the patient underwent myomectomy and ovarian cystectomy. The patient had a degenerated leiomyoma with no pathological evidence of malignancy. Because symptoms disappeared postoperatively and serum CA125 returned to normal, without recurrence of ascites, pseudo-Meigs syndrome was diagnosed.
Background: Although arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) often results in good outcomes, some patients have severe pain postoperatively. This study investigated the efficacy of nerve block for ARCR. Methods: This study was retrospective, and consent was obtained from all patients. We divided 50 patients who had undergone ARCR into 4 groups: continuous interscalene nerve block was performed for 11 patients (continuous-injection group), single interscalene nerve block for 10 (single-injection group), suprascapular nerve block for 8 (suprascapular group), and intravenous analgesic administration for 10 (intravenous group). Eleven patients received no nerve block (control group). We evaluated diclofenac sodium and pentazocine dosing, visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and perioperative complications in each group. VAS scoring was done immediately after surgery and 1 and 6 hours and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days postoperatively. Results: The doses of diclofenac sodium and pentazocine did not differ between groups. VAS scores immediately after surgery and at 1 and 6 hours after surgery were significantly lower in the single-injection and continuous-injection groups than in the suprascapular, intravenous, and control groups. VAS score at 1 day postoperatively was significantly lower in the continuous-injection group than in the other groups. One patient in the continuous group reported temporary paralysis of the fingers and drug solution leakage. Conclusion: Interscalene nerve blocks yielded good pain relief for ARCR. Although continuous interscalene nerve block produced continuous pain relief, complications are a concern.
Background: The GUCY2D (guanylate cyclase 2D) gene encodes a photoreceptor guanylate cyclase (GC-E), that is predominantly expressed in the cone outer segments. Mutations in the GUCY2D lead to severe retinal disorders such as autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy (adCRD) and autosomal recessive Leber congenital amaurosis type 1. The purpose of this study was to identify the phenotype of a Japanese patient with a probably pathogenic GUCY2D variant. Methods: Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed, and whole exome sequencing was performed on DNA obtained from the patient. The variants identified by exome sequencing and targeted analysis were further confirmed by direct sequencing. Results: A 47-year-old man had atrophic and pigmentary changes in the macula of both eyes. Amplitudes and implicit times on full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were within normal limits; however, the densities of multifocal ERGs in the central area were reduced in both eyes. Whole exome sequencing identified heterozygous variant c.2527G>C, p.Glu843Gln in the GUCY2D gene within the mutation hot spot for adCRD. The allelic frequencies of this variant are extremely low and, according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, the variants are classified as likely pathogenic. Conclusions: This is the first report of a heterozygous variant, c.2527G>C, p.Glu843Gln, in the GUCY2D, in a patient presenting with mild macular dystrophy without a general reduction in cone function. Our findings expand the spectrum of the clinical phenotypes of GUCY2D-adCRD and help clarify the morphological and functional changes caused by defects of dimerization of GC-E in the phototransduction cascade.
A 39-year-old Japanese woman presented with a pruritic infiltrated erythematous plaque on the right cheek. Histopathologic analysis of the erythema showed dermal edema, separation of collagen bundles, and nodular perivascular and periadnexal infiltration of lymphocytes in the whole dermis, without epidermal changes. Alcian blue staining intensity was elevated between the collagen bundles, indicating dermal mucinosis. The nodular infiltrates consisted of CD3+ T cell clusters and CD20+ B cell clusters (ratio, approximately 3:1) and included numerous CD123+ cells, indicative of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Blood analysis revealed serum antinuclear antibody at a titer of 1:160 (homogeneous, speckled pattern). Lupus erythematosus tumidus with pseudolymphomatous infiltrates was diagnosed. Hydroxychloroquine treatment partially improved symptoms; however, the addition of prednisolone was required for complete resolution. Lupus erythematosus tumidus is sometimes accompanied by pseudolymphomatous infiltrates. Dermal mucinosis and the presence of numerous plasmacytoid dendritic cells are useful in differentiating lupus erythematosus tumidus from pseudolymphoma.
Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears can cause ulnar-sided wrist pain. Arthroscopy is important in treatment and diagnosis, and arthroscopic repair of TFCC tears is indicated after failure of nonsurgical treatments such as cast immobilization, splinting, and administration of nonsteroidal anti-inﬂammatory drugs for more than 3 months. Several arthroscopic procedures have been described, including inside-out, outside-in, and all-arthroscopic techniques. However, these arthroscopic procedures are time-consuming and technically demanding. This article presents a straightforward technique of arthroscopic inside-out repair that uses double-loop sutures for ulnar-sided TFCC tears.