Journal of Nippon Medical School
Online ISSN : 1347-3409
Print ISSN : 1345-4676
ISSN-L : 1345-4676
Current issue
Displaying 1-15 of 15 articles from this issue
Special Report
  • Toshiaki Otsuka, Kotone Matsuyama
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 136-139
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    All life science and medical research involving human subjects must be conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the relevant laws and guidelines. Additionally, its scientific and ethical suitability must be reviewed by a committee well versed in the nature and content of the research. Failure to comply with these requirements when conducting research involving human subjects is a serious violation of Japanese laws, guidelines, and local regulations, so several ethics committees and institutional review boards have been established within the Nippon Medical School (NMS) Foundation and its affiliated institutions. It is essential for investigators to keep up to date with the latest developments in the ethical review process and to ensure that any projects they propose to embark on are subjected to an appropriate ethical review before the research is initiated. To help researchers and other staff affiliated with the NMS Foundation keep abreast of these developments, this report outlines NMS's current ethical review processes for research involving human subjects.

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Review
  • Yasuo Murai, Fumihiro Matano, Asami Kubota, Yohei Nounaka, Eitaro Ishi ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 140-145
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disorder that is predominantly observed in women of East Asian descent, and is characterized by progressive stenosis of the internal carotid artery, beginning in early childhood, and a distinctive network of collateral vessels known as "moyamoya vessels" in the basal ganglia. Additionally, a prevalent genetic variant found in most MMD cases is the p.R4810K polymorphism of RNF213 on chromosome 17q25.3. Recent studies have revealed that RNF213 mutations are associated not only with MMD, but also with other systemic vascular disorders, including intracranial atherosclerosis and systemic vascular abnormalities such as pulmonary artery stenosis and coronary artery diseases. Therefore, the concept of "RNF213-related vasculopathy" has been proposed. This review focuses on polymorphisms in the RNF213 gene and describes a wide range of clinical and genetic phenotypes associated with RNF213-related vasculopathy. The RNF213 gene has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases and developing new therapies. Therefore, further research and knowledge sharing through collaboration between clinicians and researchers are required.

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Originals
  • Go Ichikawa, Yasuyuki Negishi, Ryo Tsuchiya, Lilika Higuchi, Tatsunori ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 146-154
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: Endometriosis has several clinical features, including dysmenorrhea, infertility, and endometrioma (EMO). Although oxidative stress status is closely related to endometriosis, it is unclear how the balance between oxidative stress capacity and antioxidant capacity correlates with treatment of or factors that worsen endometriosis. In this study, we used peritoneal fluid from patients with EMO to investigate the role of oxidative stress capacity and antioxidant capacity. Materials and Methods: Participants with EMO (n = 30) and without EMO (uterine myoma, n = 13) were enrolled. All peritoneal fluid samples were collected at the beginning of surgery. We evaluated oxidative stress capacity and antioxidant capacity in peritoneal fluid samples by using the diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests, respectively. The d-ROM and BAP values and the d-ROM/BAP ratio were measured, and their correlations with the CA125 level, revised American Society for Reproductive Medicine (r-ASRM) score, and tumor size were analyzed. Results: The d-ROM/BAP ratio was significantly higher in patients with EMO than in those without EMO. In addition, the d-ROM/BAP ratio was positively correlated with CA125 level and r-ASRM scores in patients with EMO. Conclusions: Oxidative stress is correlated with factors that worsen EMO. The d-ROM/BAP test may be useful for assessing disease status in patients with EMO.

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  • Yutaka Igarashi, Kyoichi Nakahara, Tatsuya Norii, Nodoka Miyake, Takas ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 155-161
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: Emergency physicians need a broad range of knowledge and skills to address critical medical, traumatic, and environmental conditions. Artificial intelligence (AI), including large language models (LLMs), has potential applications in healthcare settings; however, the performance of LLMs in emergency medicine remains unclear. Methods: To evaluate the reliability of information provided by ChatGPT, an LLM was given the questions set by the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine in its board certification examinations over a period of 5 years (2018-2022) and programmed to answer them twice. Statistical analysis was used to assess agreement of the two responses. Results: The LLM successfully answered 465 of the 475 text-based questions, achieving an overall correct response rate of 62.3%. For questions without images, the rate of correct answers was 65.9%. For questions with images that were not explained to the LLM, the rate of correct answers was only 52.0%. The annual rates of correct answers to questions without images ranged from 56.3% to 78.8%. Accuracy was better for scenario-based questions (69.1%) than for stand-alone questions (62.1%). Agreement between the two responses was substantial (kappa = 0.70). Factual error accounted for 82% of the incorrectly answered questions. Conclusion: An LLM performed satisfactorily on an emergency medicine board certification examination in Japanese and without images. However, factual errors in the responses highlight the need for physician oversight when using LLMs.

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  • Toshikazu Itabashi, Takahiro Ueda, Ryohei Fukunaga, Takeshi Asano, Yas ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 162-171
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    Advance online publication: December 08, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: Drug resistance remains a significant impediment in leukemia treatment. While Bendamustine hydrochloride (BH) stands out as a promising therapeutic agent for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, the mechanisms of resistance to BH are not yet fully understood. Our study focuses on elucidating the mechanisms behind bendamustine resistance in leukemia cells, with a specific emphasis on epigenetics. Methods: Bendamustine-resistant cells were cultivated from human B cell lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines through systematic and sustained exposure to bendamustine, using the limiting dilution method. Gene expression was assessed via real-time polymerase chain reaction, while the expression of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) was evaluated using flow cytometry. Results: Bendamustine-resistant leukemia cells exhibited a decreased RNA expression level for Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK-1). Notably, after treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, PLK-1 gene expression surged significantly, enhancing bendamustine's cytotoxicity in the resistant leukemia cells. However, MDR1 expression, as determined by flow cytometry, remained consistent between parental and bendamustine-resistant leukemia cells. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the methylation of the PLK-1 gene plays a pivotal role in modulating PLK-1 expression and is central to the development of bendamustine resistance in leukemia cells.

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  • Naoko Shimoda, Yukinao Sakai, Takuya Nishino, Sayuri Kawasaki, Akio Hi ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 172-179
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous impact on hemodialysis patients. This study investigated changes in hemodialysis treatment at our hospital after the start of the pandemic. Methods: We analyzed data from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) system. Data for inpatients receiving dialysis during collection periods A (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and B (after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic) were extracted and compared. The numbers of inpatients and new patients, the number of patients admitted (by department), duration of stay, mortality, place of residence, surgical procedures, and DPC classification were compared. Results: There were no significant differences between periods in patient age, duration of hospital stay, number of new patients, number of ambulance transports, number of deaths, body mass index, comorbidities, laboratory variables before the first dialysis after hospitalization, or patient area of residence. Although differences were observed among the departments, the numbers of emergency dialysis inpatients and maintenance dialysis inpatients increased. The number of surgeries also increased overall, particularly for maintenance dialysis patients (p = 0.0273). The percentage of DPC III patients was significantly higher in period B (p = 0.0368). Conclusions: The number of surgeries performed on maintenance dialysis patients and the overall DPC III rate significantly increased after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic at our hospital, suggesting that COVID-19 worsened the condition of maintenance dialysis patients and prolonged hospital stays.

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  • Yoshihiro Furuichi, Ryohei Nishiguchi, Takeshi Shimakawa, Tomoyuki Fuj ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 180-189
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: The incidence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) is increasing. However, few reports have focused on ALC-derived esophageal varices (EV). We retrospectively examined differences in overall survival (OS) and EV recurrence rate in patients after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) for ALC and hepatic B/C virus liver cirrhosis (B/C-LC). Methods: We analyzed data from 215 patients (B/C-LC, 147; ALC, 68) who underwent EIS. The primary endpoints were OS and EV recurrence in patients with unsuccessful abstinence ALC and those with uncontrolled B/C-LC, before and after propensity score matching (PSM) to unify the patients' background. The secondary endpoints were predictors associated with these factors, as determined by multivariate analysis. Results: The observation period was 1,430 ± 1,363 days. In the analysis of all patients, OS was significantly higher in the ALC group than in the B/C-LC group (p = 0.039); however, there was no difference in EV recurrence rate (p = 0.502). Ascites and history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (p = 0.019 and p < 0.001, respectively) predicted OS, whereas age and EV size predicted recurrence (p = 0.011 and 0.024, respectively). In total, 96 patients without an HCC history were matched by PSM, and there was no significant difference in OS or EV recurrence rate (p = 0.508 and 0.246, respectively). Conclusion: When limited to patients without a history of HCC, OS and the EV recurrence rate were comparable in patients with ALC who continued to consume alcohol and those with B/C-LC without viral control.

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  • Takeshi Yanagihara, Koichi Kobayashi, Emi Yanai, Hikaru Takeshita, Yuj ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 190-197
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: The appropriate duration of antimicrobial therapy for febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) in children has not been established. This study examined the optimal duration of treatment for fUTI in children. Methods: We created a protocol that used fever duration to determine the duration of antibiotic administration. Transvenous antibiotics were administered until 3 days after resolution of fever, followed by oral antibiotics for 1 week. Diagnosis of fUTI was based on a fever of 37.5°C or higher and a quantitative culture of catheterized urine yielded a bacteria count of ≥5 × 104. Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) and pyelonephritis (PN) were diagnosed on the basis of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (eCT) findings. We retrospectively reviewed treatment outcomes. Results: Of the 78 patients treated according to our protocol, data from 58 were analyzed-49 children (30 boys) had PN and nine (three boys) had AFBN. Blood test results showed that patients with AFBN had significantly higher white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels than did those with PN; however, urinary findings and causative bacteria did not differ between groups. Time to resolution of fever and duration of intravenous antibiotic administration were significantly longer in patients with AFBN than in those with PN. However, average duration of AFBN treatment was 14.2 days, which was shorter than the previously reported administration period of 3 weeks. No recurrence was observed in AFBN patients. Conclusions: A protocol that used fever duration to determine the duration of antimicrobial treatment was useful. Invasive examinations, such as eCT, were not required.

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  • Tsunemi Kitagawa, Yasuyuki Kitagawa, Yoichiro Aoyagi, Tokifumi Majima
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 198-206
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 02, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: Patients with bone metastases often face physical, mental, and social challenges that require multidisciplinary management. To improve treatment and practice, we conducted a questionnaire survey to assess nurses' opinions of problems related to caring for patients with bone metastases. In addition, we investigated nurses' perceptions of bone metastases after participating in a Bone Metastasis Cancer Board (BMCB). Methods: An anonymous questionnaire survey on problems in bone metastasis treatment and the BMCB was conducted. The respondents were nurses with more than 1 year of clinical experience working in wards where patients with bone metastases were admitted. Results: The number of valid responses was 224. Almost all the nurses felt anxiety about the risk of pathological fracture and paralysis while caring for patients with bone metastases. To reduce this anxiety, about 90% of the nurses supported the suggestion that "patients should be referred to an orthopedic surgeon in advance to obtain opinions on load restrictions". Nurses who had participated in the BMCB had higher expectations regarding treatment, multidisciplinary collaboration, and sharing and accumulating knowledge and experience. Conclusion: To improve treatment and nursing care for patients with bone metastases, it is important to make regular BMCB meetings more functional and to actively consult with specialists.

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  • Yoshinobu Saito, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Takeru Kashiwada, Toru Tanaka, Hir ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 207-217
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 16, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Background: Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor used as an antineoplastic drug, is associated with a remarkably high incidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The clinical and pathological characteristics of ILD caused by everolimus have not been thoroughly investigated; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the features of everolimus-associated ILD. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who received everolimus for cancer treatment at our hospital. Patient backgrounds were compared between the ILD and non-ILD groups. Chest computed tomography (CT), changes in biomarkers, and lung histopathological features were analyzed for ILD cases. Results: Sixty-six patients were reviewed, and ILD developed in 19. There were no differences in patient demographics between the ILD and non-ILD groups. The severity of ILD was grade 1 (G1) in 9 and grade 2 (G2) in 10 cases. Chest CT showed organizing pneumonia (OP) or a hypersensitive pneumonia pattern. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, Krebs von den lungen-6, and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) at the onset of ILD were significantly higher than those at baseline. Analysis of G1 and G2 ILD subgroups showed a higher SP-D levels in the G2 subgroup. Five patients underwent lung biopsies; all specimens demonstrated alveolitis with lymphocytic infiltration and granulomatous lesions, and some had OP findings. Conclusions: Everolimus-associated ILD is mild and has a favorable prognosis. Patients with symptomatic ILD were more likely to have higher SP-D levels than those with asymptomatic ILD. Granulomatous lesions are an important pathological feature of everolimus-associated ILD.

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  • Ryohei Fukunaga, Takahiro Ueda, Ryosuke Matsui, Toshikazu Itabashi, Ry ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 218-226
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 16, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are used for the treatment of various diseases because of their rapid proliferation and high anti-inflammatory and tissue repair properties. Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis with coronary arteritis and aneurysms occurring in pediatric patients. In this study, we examined serologically and pathologically whether the administration of human ADSCs (hADSCs) to a mouse model of Kawasaki disease could suppress vasculitis. Methods: Candida albicans water-soluble fractions were intraperitoneally injected into DBA/2 mice for 5 consecutive days to generate a mouse model of Kawasaki disease. The model mice were intravenously administered hADSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Serum samples collected on days 15 and 29 were used to compare cytokine levels. Mouse hearts dissected on day 29 were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining using Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a protein involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, and CD44, a cell-surface marker of hADSCs. Results: Comparison of inflammation-related cytokines showed a significant decrease in IL-1α expression at day 15 (P<0.05) and IL-6 expression at day 29 (P<0.01) in the hADSCs-treated group compared to the PBS group. Evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining showed decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and a tendency towards increased Gal-1 expression in the hADSCs group. CD44 expression was not observed in both the groups. The survival curve showed that the hADSCs group had a significantly longer survival time (P<0.05). Conclusions: The present experimental results indicate that hADSCs have an early anti-inflammatory effect, and that Gal-1 may be involved in preventing inflammation and reducing tissue damage.

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  • Haruki Akasu, Tomoo Jikuzono, Mami Matsui, Masaomi Sen, Marie Saitou, ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 227-232
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: Detective flow imaging (DFI) is a new imaging technology that displays low-velocity blood flow, which is difficult to visualize on conventional color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU). In this study, we compared the usefulness of DFI with that of CDU and methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy for detecting parathyroid adenoma (PA) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Methods: From March 2021 to March 2023, 87 PHPT patients underwent surgery, and 66 had a single PA. We performed preoperative conventional ultrasonography with CDU, MIBI scintigraphy, and DFI for 42 patients (5 males and 37 females; mean age: 61.6 ± 15.4 years). Results: MIBI scintigraphy detected PA in 85.7% (36/42) patients, and both CDU and DFI detected PA in all patients. The rates of vascularity in PA detected by CDU and DFI were 71.4% (30/42) and 85.7% (36/42), respectively. Vascularity was detected by DFI in 6 patients who were negative for vascularity on MIBI scintigraphy. Furthermore, DFI detected blood supply in 6 of the 12 patients with undetectable blood supply on CDU. Fisher's exact test revealed that high or low blood flow, as determined by DFI, was significantly associated with detection of feeding vessels in PA by CDU (P < 0.001). Conclusions: DFI was useful for preoperative detection of PA blood flow.

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  • Kakusho Chigusa Nakajima-Ohyama, Yoshie Shizusawa, Shotaro Uchiyama, Y ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 233-240
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Background: Antipsychotics are commonly used to treat delirium but can adversely affect the extrapyramidal and cardiac conduction systems. Antipsychotic use has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality in older adults. Therefore, alternative and adjunct medications for delirium are necessary. We retrospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of gabapentin (GBP) as an alternative and adjunct medication for delirium. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the records of patients with delirium treated with GBP (71 patients; median age, 81 years; interquartile range, 76-87.5 years; 54.9% males) at a general hospital. We examined duration to delirium improvement, as assessed by the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) and DSM-5 criteria, as well as adverse events. Results: The median (interquartile range) GBP dose was 200 mg (150-350 mg) /day. A total of 71.8% and 85.9% of the patients failed to meet the diagnostic criteria for delirium at 2 days and 5 days after initial administration, respectively (p<0.05). In subgroup analysis, patients with a history of epilepsy or cerebrovascular disease responded better to GBP than did those without such histories, suggesting that patients with abnormal/borderline neuronal activity respond to GBP even though they do not exhibit seizures. GBP did not induce extrapyramidal symptoms, cardiac conduction disturbances, hyperglycemia, or epilepsy but caused sleepiness and myoclonus. Conclusions: GBP may improve delirium with fewer adverse effects and may be a safe alternative or adjunct treatment for delirium. Dosage adjustment may be necessary to prevent sleepiness.

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Case Reports
  • Yuji Tomori, Norie Kodera, Mitsuhiko Nanno, Tokifumi Majima
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 241-248
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Radiocarpal dislocation is an uncommon injury that is usually caused by high-energy trauma. Herein, we present two cases of dorsal radiocarpal dislocation with radial styloid fractures that were treated by arthroscopy-assisted reduction and internal fixation. Wrist arthroscopy provides accurate information on intra-articular fractures and carpal and/or intracarpal ligamentous tears of the radiocarpal joint. Furthermore, the procedure enables simultaneous anatomical reduction of intra-articular fractures and radiocarpal and/or intercarpal ligament repair. Arthroscopy-assisted reduction and internal fixation yield satisfactory outcomes for patients presenting with dorsal radiocarpal dislocation and radial styloid fractures.

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  • Kenta Igami, Yoshio Shima, Sakae Kumasaka, Musashi Hibio, Haruka Iwata ...
    2024 Volume 91 Issue 2 Pages 249-251
    Published: April 25, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 21, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Stridor is caused by oscillation of the narrowed upper airway. The most common cause of neonatal stridor is laryngomalacia, followed by vocal fold abduction dysfunction. Herein, we present two neonatal cases of idiopathic dysfunction of vocal fold abduction. A neonate was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on day 4 of life for inspiratory stridor, intermittent subcostal retraction, and cyanosis. A second neonate was admitted to the NICU on day 7 of life for inspiratory stridor and cyanosis when crying. Neither patient had dysmorphic features or unusual cardiac ultrasonography findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by laryngo-bronchoscopy. Conservative treatment with biphasic positive airway pressure was effective in both cases and symptoms resolved within a few months. Resolution of vocal fold abduction dysfunction was confirmed by repeat endoscopy. Clinical manifestations of vocal fold abduction dysfunction vary widely. Although most cases resolve spontaneously, prolonged tube feeding, or even tracheostomy, is needed in some severe cases. Diagnosis of vocal fold abduction dysfunction requires a laryngo-bronchoscopy study; thus, there may be a large number of undiagnosed patients. Vocal fold abduction dysfunction should be considered in the differential diagnosis for neonatal inspiratory stridor.

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