The water-content of the skin declines with age, resulting in drying of the epidermis. Moreover, wound repair ability decreases along with aging. The recovery process from wounds accompanying these age-related changes to the skin has been examined in a small number of animal studies. The present study considered differences arising from the washing agent used for topical therapy, with a focus on the recovery. The present study created an experimental mouse model of skin burns, and investigated the effects of the following agents on moisture retention of the affected area：1）commercial alkalinity（CA）soap；2）commercial mild acidic liquid（CMAL）soap；3）100% olive oil soap made with the cold process method（CP）. The parameters assessed was water content as measured. After 5 time-treatment, there was statistical significance between moisture contents treated with CP and CA, CMAL or control（p＜0.05）. The treatment with CP tended to decrease inflammatory necrosis and scab formation, and to enhance epidermal regeneration and favorable cosmetic appearance than that with CA and CMAL, and control. The results showed that CP had the abilities to retain moisture and promote wound healing, suggesting that CP is effective in healing aging dry skin.
The present study aimed to identify factors related to the failure of venipuncture conducted by registered nurses for peripheral intravenous catheterization. Sixty-five attempts were investigated. The depth and cross-section area of venous blood vessels were measured before venipuncture. Visibility, movability and palpability of veins were simultaneously evaluated. The nurse evaluated the difficulty of puncture on a Likert scale from 1（very easy）to 10（very difficult）. The success rate of venipuncture was 69.2%. Veins in which venipuncture failed were significantly deeper and thinner than those in which venipuncture succeeded. Failed venipuncture was associated with increased difficulty resulting from vein characteristics such as being invisible. The nurses tended to judge that venipuncture was less likely to succeed when a blood vessel was invisible and not palpable. The findings suggested that nurses need to visualize and dilate invisible veins to increase the likelihood of successful venipuncture.
Patients fall out of their beds frequently in hospitals, and such incidents are a critical issue because they often lead to serious accidents. Accidents of patient falling out of beds have increased with increasing numbers of the hospitalized elderly. Although bed sensors are commonly used as a fall-preventive measure in hospitals, these sensors cannot prevent accidents. We hypothesized that if bed sensors can monitor patients,behavioral changes continuously like vital sensors, nurses will be able to understand patient behaviors from the recorded data and provide appropriate care, thus decreasing patient falls. A three-dimensional measurement system was then developed. With this system, the position, movement, direction, and velocity of patients can be measured in a three-dimensional space in a non-contact, noninvasive manner. Using this system, we measured long-term behaviors of patients in bed. The analysis results allowed us to identify the behavior changes leading to a patient,s fall from bed. In addition, we quantified how behavioral changes in acute-phase patients change over several weeks after hospitalization. We believe that these quantified data will be useful in daily patient care and in evaluation of nursing-care plans.
Measurement of transepidermal water loss（TEWL）is the gold standard for the evaluation of skin barrier function. However, it is difficult to obtain stable values in the clinical setting. In this study, we evaluated the use of albumin detection by skin blotting as a newmeasurement method for determination of skin barrier function. We analyzed the correlation between TEWL values and detected the intensity of albumin staining by skin blotting in animal models and humans. The albumin intensities were significantly correlated with TEWL values in samples of back skin from mice（r =0.56, p=0.02）. In addition, the albumin intensities were also correlated with TEWL values in human skin（r=0.73, p <0.01）. Thus, albumin intensity using skin blotting was a noninvasive and stable method for evaluating skin barrier function as an alternative to TEWL.
The number of elderly people with gait disorders is increasing owing to population aging. Early rehabilitation is important for preventing such people from becoming bedridden and for facilitating the recovery of walking capability. BWSTT（BodyWeight-Supported Treadmill Training）is a valid early gait-training method. Noting the effectiveness of BWSTT, we have developed a novel gait-training platform called NILTWAMOR（ Novel Intelligent Lift-Type Walking-Assist Mobile Robot ）. NILTWAMOR has an omnidirectional driving system using omniwheels and a bodyweight-supported system using two wires that can each independently hoist a harness. This paper proposes two systems to assist effective gait training. Firstly, an omnidirectional moving control system following human intention is proposed. This system estimates the users walking direction by identifying the users body center and controls the platform in order to track the user omnidirectionally. Secondly, a system that maintains a constant floor reaction force is proposed. This system estimates deviation of the user's body center based on the user's posture and maintains constant floor reaction force of the gait trainer's supporting legs and the body center. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed gait-training platform, both systems were applied to healthy subject and patient undergoing gait rehabilitation.
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