This study deals with the almattu-azibtu formula, the enigmatic expression that a certain woman is almattu itti almanāti azibtu itti azbāti, "a widow with widows (and) a divorcée with divorcées," which is attested in six Emar texts of Syro-Hittite type. Through an analysis of these texts, the following three features are particularly noteworthy : (1) the women concerned are free women ; (2) but they are in a socio-economically inferior position ; also (3) the above formula is stated in the context of the premise of (or, in five texts, at the time of) their marriage. From the last point, we may conclude that the meaning of the almattu-azibtu formula is that after the marriage ends, either by the death of the husband or divorce, the woman is to be treated like other normal widows or divorces. Furthermore, we should note that this formula is used substantially to prescribe the release of a former slave in Emar VI 16. In another text, a free woman married to a slave (QVO 5-T 1) was, after his death, adopted by his owner, who presumably wanted to keep her under his control (QVO 5-T 2). From these points, we may understand the intention of the formula as prescribing that because they are free women, though in an inferior position, they shall not be treated as slaves. The same intention can be identified in the expression, kīma mārat Emarkišīt, "because she is a daughter of Emar," in RE 61, a text of Syrian type.
Pottery with cord-impressed decoration is representative of the Early Bronze Age in southeastern Europe. But little attention has been paid to a systematic study of it in terms of typology and provenance analysis. This paper presents the characteristics and the process of the changes using 32 sherds from Dyadovo in Upper Thrace, Bulgaria. The first half of this article demonstrates a close correlation between typological traits in form, pattern and decoration. Judging from the stratigraphic context, small bowls decorated with a right-twisted cord appeared earlier than shallow bowls and deep bowls decorated with a left-twisted cord. A comparison of Dyadovo pottery with pottery from surrounding areas reveals that each area had distinctive characteristics. Hence it is concluded that the small bowls were not imported directly from the northwestern Pontic areas to the north, but rather that the method of decoration was diffused. The second half of this article shows the results of ceramic petrographic investigations with polarizing and binocular microscopes carried out on these sherds and on about 300 sherds from Dyadovo, and on clay samples collected nearby and on Sveti Iliya Hill, about 5 km away. The analysis demonstrates that most of the shallow bowls and the deep bowls were made of granitoid-derived clay (Type I), and so were local wares. However, it is likely that the flint or jasper in the paste of the small bowls (Type II) came from a zone around the southern foot of Mt. Sliven in Upper Thrace. It is concluded that after the advent of cord-impression decoration in Upper Thrace, the small bowls were made in the Sliven region, some of which were imported to Dyadovo, and thereafter, shallow bowls and deep bowls of local Dyadovo ware came to be decorated with cord impressions until the decline of the settlement.
In his grammar of Sahidic Coptic, Bentley Layton analyzes the focalizing conversion (also called the "second tense") as a construction with a "focal point", i.e., a focalized constituent, and designates the following constituents as eligible focal points : 1) subject, 2) predicate, 3) suffixed direct object, 4) attributive element of a noun, and 5) adverbial complement. These focal points correspond to the argument focuses of Knud Lambrecht's classification of focus types. There is no doubt that Layton's analysis works well in general. However, there seem to be cases where the focus is assigned to the whole sentence rather than to a constituent. This suggests that the construction in question can take another focus type, i.e., the sentence focus of Lambrecht's classification. The purpose of this paper is to confirm the following hypothesis derived from the above observation :
Besides the argument-focalizing function, the focalizing conversion in Sahidic Coptic can serve a sentence-focalizing function, which is equivalent to that of the Middle Egyptian Spw-construction (cf. BSNESJ 49/1) and the Late Egyptian i.sḏm=f-construction (cf. BSNESJ 54 / 1). As discussed in the above papers, these correspond to the Japanese modal no da-construction.
In order to test this hypothesis, several examples selected from the Sahidic version of the Gospel of Mark (PPalau Rib. Inv.-Nr. 182) are discussed from two points of view :
1) an analysis of the examples corresponding to jussive expressions in the Greek text (e.g., Mk 14, 15), 2) an analysis of the various uses resulting from the sentence-focalizing function.
The results of the examination indicate consistently that the hypothesis proposed in this paper has validity.
The royal succession in the 25th, i.e. the Kushite, dynasty has been interpreted as hereditary through patrilineal succession, because of the father-son relationship of the kings. One of the textual grounds for accepting the father-son relationship of the kings is the indirect one that some royal women held both the titles "the king's sister" and "the king's daughter", and this ground is regarded as decisive. However, this ignores the possibility that the Kushite kingdom was a matrilineal society using the same term for both brothers/sisters and parallel cousins, as does Iroquois/Crow kinship terminology. This possibility is suggested by the fact that not all women called "the king's sister" were also called "the king's daughter". In a patrilineal society, all of the king's sisters must have been also king's daughters, and the title "the king's daughter" was so important that it would hardly ever be omitted. If the Kushite kingdom was a matrilineal society using Iroquois/Crow kinship terminology, a current king should have been the son of a previous king's sister, and "the king's sister" should have denoted both a king's sister and a king's maternal parallel cousin. In that case, a daughter of the king's mother or her sister, whose father was not a king, was called just "the king's sister" and a daughter born of a marriage between the previous king and his sister was called "the king's daughter" and "the king's sister". The genealogy of the 25th dynasty reconstructed according to Iroquois/Crow kinship terminology shows the pattern of the succession of political power from a maternal uncle to his nephew typical of a matrilineal society. Although there still remain several points which need to be discussed, the idea of interpreting the royal succession in the Kushite dynasty as a matrilineal succession seems quite promising.
This paper attempts to examine the development of the vizierate in the Early Ottoman Empire, through analyzing the origins, careers and activities of the viziers of the period. Initially, the Ottoman vizierate comprised a single individual, but the number seems to have increased during the reigns of Murad I and Yildirim Bayazid. During the earlier period, the vizier had power over both administrative and military affairs. However, it is likely that after the number of viziers increased, the second and third viziers of the military class took charge of military affairs, the military authority held by the Grand Vizier of the ulema class gradually becoming diminished until the title was merely nominal. Although the Grand Viziership was thought to have been held exclusively by the ulema class, this paper makes it clear that individuals from the Turkish military class held the office for an extended period during the reigns of Mehmed I and Murad II. During the reign of Murad II, palace slaves (kuls) assumed the offices of second or third vizier, a few of them concurrently holding the post of Rumeli Beylerbeyi. Owing to the severe and continuous struggle between viziers of kul and ulema backgrounds during this period, viziers other than Grand Viziers changed frequently. Although the limitation of this era is reflected in the fact that the kul viziers could not advance to the Grand Viziership, Fatih Mehmed, who had succeeded to the throne for a time during this period, must have realized the effectiveness of having kul viziers. Thus, after the conquest of Constantinople, he strengthened his position as absolute monarch by appointing kul viziers, such as Zaganos and Mahmud Pashas, to the Grand Viziership. From this standpoint, the reign of Murad II was a quite important era, paving the way for the coming age.
This article proposes a historical explanation for the development of Niphal verbal forms in Biblical Hebrew. Niphal forms are roughly classified into two patterns, niqtal (with suffixes) and yiqqɔtel (with prefixes or circumfixes). Some scholars also distinguish hiqqɔtel (imperative) from yiqqɔtel based on their supposed origins. The following three points are discussed in this article. (1) By internal reconstruction, it appears that the niqtal pattern originated from **naqtal. As Origens Hexaplaic Greek transcription shows a *nɛqtɛl pattern, it is possible to assume the shift **naqtal＞*nɛqtɛl around third century C. E. After that, the change *nɛqtɛl＞niqtal occurred through vividation of the verbal stem. (2) Both yiqqɔtel and hiqqɔtel have the initial vowel i, which was added to avoid the initial consonantal cluster. The epenthetic vowel i in the initial position of the word is attested not only in Hebrew, but also in many other Semitic languages. The underlying forms may have been **yqqatil and **qqatil, to each of which the epenthetic vowel i was added for ease of pronunciation, a change which resulted in *yiqqatil (＞yiqqɔtel) and *iqqatil respectively. The initial h- was then added to the latter to contain the epenthetic vowel within a syllable, a change which resulted in the hiqqɔtel. (3) According to G. Buccellati’s analysis in Akkadian verbal forms, only the initial and final vowels of the verbal stem are morphologically meaningful and the other middle stem vowels (realized as a) were inserted to build the shape of the verb. It is possible to suppose that the a stem vowels in **naqtal and **y(i)qqatil in Proto-Hebrew are the vestiges of the same inserted meaning-neutral intervening vowels, though they acquired the new function of creating the passive form by alternation of the stem vowels at the Proto-Central Semitic stage.