We conducted a survey with 226 elderly participants aged 69 to 86 years to investigate the gender differences in driving exposure, driving frequency, and driving avoidance in situations in which it was difficult for them to drive. Further, we set to clarify the intent to decrease driving frequency among the elderly through the survey. The results revealed that driving frequency was not related to gender differences, but driving distance was related to gender differences. With regard to driving frequency, significant gender differences were revealed in difficult driving situations. With regard to driving avoidance frequency, significant gender difference was shown in a few situations. Therefore, it was shown that though there were similar trends with respect to driving frequency and driving avoidance, the trends were not same with respect to the index. Further, the results regarding the relationship between driving frequency and driving avoidance frequency in a specific situation after controlling for the driving exposure index revealed weak or moderately significant correlations in all situations among men and significant correlations in a few situations among women. Therefore, no gender differences with respect to driving frequency among the elderly were revealed; however, gender differences existed with respect to driving distance and driving frequency in difficult driving situations. Nevertheless, the decrease in driving frequency is not correlated to the decrease in driving avoidance frequency, and it was indicated that the driving frequency may decrease due to not only intentional avoidance but also other psychological or social factors.
In nursing homes and welfare facilities, the proactive utilization of powered assistive bathing equipment is strongly promoted as a measure to prevent lumbar pain in nursing care staff. However, elimination of hazards and reduction of risks associated with the equipment by technical protective measures, which should be implemented at the design stage, can be considered inadequate in comparison to other industrial machinery. If this remains unaddressed while the utilization of powered assistive bathing equipment continues to be promoted, it could lead to an increase in the number of machinery accidents in the nursing care industry. This paper describes protective devices for a bath lift trolley to prevent hazardous compressions of the operator’s upper limb, which are devised on the basis of safety technologies having been cultivated in the manufacturing industry. Basic performance tests confirmed that the protective devices function as intended. Furthermore, usability evaluation tests wherein nursing care workers simulatively performed bathing assistance tasks using a bath lift trolley equipped with the protective devices confirmed that the protective devices do not adversely affect the usability of the bath lift trolley or the operator’s working conditions.
We conducted questionnaire surveys of employees working for railroad companies for information about communication errors that could be caused by mutual operation service. Further, we analyzed the tendency of communication errors to occur by investigating the “driving terminology words” of each railroad company and conducting a “simulation experiment” for their employees. As a result, we grasped unique railway terminology that had the same meaning. By conducting simulation experiments, we verified the difference in the employees’ comprehension degrees using “repetition” and “confirmation conversation.” As a result, we found that when “confirmation conversation” was used, the correct answer rate improved compared to when “repetition” was used.
Here, we examined chronological changes in physical flexibility and self-efficacy caused by self-stretching, using active individual muscle stretching (AID). Our subjects included nine adults (six men, three women; mean age, 31.9±7.5 years) who were not receiving any treatment for orthopedic diseases. The subjects performed six types of AID twice a week for 10 weeks. Values measured at the start, middle, and end of the study were compared. Changes in subjects with chronic low back pain were also investigated. The results showed significantly elevated sit and reach flexibility values in the middle and at the end of the study compared with those before the start of the study; however, no significant difference was observed in self-efficacy. In the two subjects with chronic low back pain, pain disappeared or subsided. These findings suggest that these stretching conditions improved physical flexibility and could affect chronic low back pain.