A systematic review was conducted to identify the biological responses, allergic reaction, hypersensitivity, toxicity, and ion release profile associated with pediatric stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in the existing literature. A systematic search was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. The inclusion criteria consisted of patients younger than 20 years of age with SSC placement on primary or permanent teeth and in vivo and in vitro exposure to SSCs. Outcomes measures included adverse oral/mucosal effects; removal/failure/replacement of the SSC; type of allergic reaction; nickel (Ni) or other ion levels in bodily fluids, cellular, genotoxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic effects related to the SSC. After an initial search of 764 studies in the database, 17 articles were included in the analysis. Evidence of allergic reactions to SSCs in children is limited and obtained from mostly low-quality research. Some studies showed that the amount of Ni detected was less than the amount ingested in the daily diet. In contrast, other studies reported a significantly higher release of Ni occurred into the saliva in acidic environments. There is some concern about the leaching of metal ions such as Ni from SSCs in children at high risk for caries. Further long-term studies are required to investigate this phenomenon.
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) levels in oral rinses using water and clinical parameters of periodontitis; and furthermore, to evaluate the potential of a prototype HGF immunochromatographic paper test strip (HGF-TS) for screening of periodontitis, in comparison with a commercially-available occult blood (hemoglobin) test strip (Hb-TS). Clinical periodontal parameters were recorded, and oral rinses were collected, from 125 subjects. Then, the presence of HGF, and hemoglobin (Hb), in each sample was detected using a prototype HGF-TS and an Hb-TS. In addition, the concentrations of HGF and Hb were also determined in each sample is necessary HGF concentrations in oral rinses showed significant correlations with clinical parameters of periodontitis. The positive rate and read value on HGF-TS showed significantly high values in cases of severe periodontitis compared to healthy subjects. Hb-TS showed generally higher positive rates than HGF-TS; however, it showed false positive results in healthy subjects. The concentration of HGF in oral rinses showed close association with the severity of periodontitis, suggesting that the prototype HGF-TS has potential for use in the diagnosis of periodontitis, although further refinement of the test strip is required to increase the sensitivity.
The purpose of the current study was to synthesize a methacrylate monomer with a thiohydantoin structure. In a flask, (2-thiohydantoin-4-yl) propionic acid, 10-hyroxydecyl methacrylate, 4-dimethylaminopyridine, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were placed in a nitrogen atmosphere. A THF solution of N,N’-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was added and stirred at room temperature. Ethyl acetate and n-hexane were then added to the reaction mixture. The reacted slurry was purified by chromatography with silica gel and hexane-ethyl acetate gradient elution solvent. The structure of the compound was assigned with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectral analysis. The colorless viscous liquid obtained in yield of 49% was characterized as 10-methacryloyloxydecyl-(2-thiohydantoin-4-yl)propionate (MDTHP) or 10-((3-(5-oxo-2-thioxysoimidazolidin-4-yl)propanoyl)oxy)decyl methacrylate (2-THPDM). The MDTHP was soluble to acetone, isopropanol, and methyl methacrylate up to 2.6% or more. This compound could be potentially applicable as a functional monomer for bonding metals and alloys.
In this study, the wettability, cell viability, and roughness of an experimental dense bovine hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] ceramic block were evaluated so that, in the future, it could be used as a base material for dental implants. The results to commercial zirconia and a commercially pure titanium (Ti) alloy were compared. The surface roughness and contact angles were measured. An in vitro evaluation was conducted by means of tests in which pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were placed in indirect and direct contact with these materials. For cell viability, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and crystal violet test were conducted. A qualitative analysis was conducted using variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No statistically significant differences were observed in wettability and roughness tests among the groups. In both the MTT assay and crystal violet test, all groups demonstrated satisfactory results without cytotoxicity. SEM showed cell adhesion and cell proliferation results on the material surfaces after 24 h and 48 h. In conclusion, this dense Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2 ceramic can be considered as a potential biocompatible material.
Orexins (Oxs) are multifunctional neuropeptides, secreted from the lateral hypothalamus, that stimulate feeding behavior and energy expenditure. In this study, the direct effects of Oxs on the membrane properties of trigeminal motoneurons (TMNs) were examined, which critically participate in the genesis of rhythmical oral motor activities underlying suckling and mastication. Sprague-Dawley rats (3-6 day-old) were used to obtain whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from TMNs. Bath application of Ox-A depolarized the membrane potential and induced inward current, wherein Na+ and Ca2+ were charge carriers. Transient receptor potential channel activation potentially contributed to current and voltage responses by way of Ox-A. Ox-A increased the peak amplitude and duration at half-amplitude of the medium-duration after hyperpolarization following the action potential. The interspike frequency of steady-state firings during repetitive discharge was increased, along with a shift in the frequency-current relationship occurring toward the left. Extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ were involved in regulating modulatory effects, but a requisite level of intracellular Ca2+ was not essential for Ox-induced upregulation of the interspike frequency. Ox-A also enhanced conditional bursting induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate and 5-HT, suggesting it participates in modulating TMNs’ discharge patterns during various oral motor activities.
This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of radiographs and flat-panel volume-computed tomography (fpVCT) in detecting the remaining root-canal filling material. Thirty-two root canals in extracted human mandibular molars were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. The filling material was removed, and the teeth were split longitudinally. Radiographs and fpVCT scans were obtained and digitized. Virtual images were developed using reconstruction software and then superimposed, and the remaining filling material was outlined. Direct observation of the split root halves using flatbed scans served as a control. The presence and extension of the remaining filling material were evaluated. Statistical analysis was conducted using chi-squared test (P < 0.05). A total of 116 remnants were detected in the flatbed scans, 81 in the fpVCT scans, and 90 in the radiographs, with no significant difference between the radiograph (78%) and fpVCT (70%) results (P = 0.18). In the fpVCT scans, 42% of the remnants exhibited the same dimensions as the control, whereas 27% appeared larger and 30% appeared smaller. In the radiographs, the dimensions of the remnants were identical to the control in 64% of cases, smaller in 29%, and larger in 7%. FpVCT did not exhibit better performance than dental radiographs in detecting the remaining root-canal-filling material: the extension of remnants was indicated correctly in the fpVCT in fewer than 50% of the samples.
This study compared shrinkage strain, polymerization shrinkage kinetics, and degree of conversion (DC) of a set of resin composites and investigated their influencing factors. Ten commercial resin composites were assessed, and 5 specimens (n = 5) were developed for material and subjected to light curing using light emitting diode light at 650 mW/cm2 for 40 s. The laser triangulation method was adopted to assess the shrinkage strain, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to measure DC. The shrinkage strain was monitored for 5 min in real time and its data were subjected to differential calculations to get the shrinkage strain rate curve with respect to time, obtaining the maximum shrinkage strain rate (Rmax) and gel time. The values of shrinkage strain varied from 1.28% to 2.10%. The Rmax values were between 5.17 μm/s and 21.83 μm/s. Gel time values varied from 3.08 s to 4.32 s. The DC yielded values ranging from 53.62% to 87.01%. The values of polymerization shrinkage and DC were dependent on the composition of materials, including the monomer matrix and filler system. Compared to the micro-filler materials, the nano-filler resin composites had higher values of DC. Some resin composites are suitable for clinical applications because of their superior polymerization shrinkage properties and DC.
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease involving complex tripartite cross-interactions among bacterial, host and environment factors. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a protein family produced in response to stress conditions. Hsps protect cells under adverse circumstances such as infection, inflammation and disease. One of the causes of periodontal disease is thought to be an imbalance in the expression of Hsps and anti-Hsp antibodies. Hsps are classified according to their molecular weight, and one of the major ones is Hsp70. In the present study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of anti-Hsp70 antibody in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from two gingival sulci in each of nine patients with chronic periodontitis (CP): one healthy control (HC) site with a probing pocket depth (PPD) of ≤3 mm and one CP site with a PPD of >5 mm. Anti-Hsp70 antibody levels in GCF were higher at HC sites than at CP sites. Moreover, the anti-Hsp70 antibody levels were found to increase after initial periodontal therapy at both HC and CP sites. These results suggest an association of anti-Hsp70 antibody with periodontitis.
The aim of this study is to determine the cytotoxic effects of tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTANa4) when used alone or when combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), with and without the addition of cetrimide (CTR). Human pulmonary fibroblast cell line was exposed to the following irrigating solutions: group 1, 2.5% NaOCl; group 2, 10% EDTANa4;group 3, 20% EDTANa4; group 4, 2.5% NaOCl/5% EDTANa4; group 5, 2.5% NaOCl/10% EDTANa4; group 6, 2.5% NaOCl/5% EDTANa4/0.2% CTR; group 7, 2.5% NaOCl/10% EDTANa4/0.2% CTR; group 8, control, cells in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium. Methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used to determine the viability of cells after 1 and 24 h. Viability percentages were analyzed for global comparison using the Welch test followed by the Games-Howell test to determine groups with similar viability, and the Student’s t test was used to compare the two times. The lowest viability was obtained with a 2.5% NaOCl solution at both time periods. The association of NaOCl with EDTANa4 increased the cellular viability in direct relation with the concentration of the chelating agent. Globally, after 24 h of exposure, cell viability reduced. The solutions of EDTANa4 showed moderate cytotoxic effects when compared with NaOCl alone.
The purpose of this study was to determine the depth of cure and the type and amount of monomers released from bulk-fill composites in different curing protocols. Five different composite resins Filtek Bulk-Fill Posterior, Filtek Bulk-Fill Flowable, SureFil SDR, X-tra Fil, and X-tra base, were used. A light-emitting diode (LED) device was used in 3 different modes (standard, high power, and extra power mode), and a halogen light device was also used as a control. Surface hardness was measured and the depth of cure was calculated. Monomer analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using Tamhane’s T2 post-hoc test (α = 0.05). The cure depth for all materials except for Filtek Bulk-Fill Posterior (extra power mode) and Filtek Bulk-Fill Flowable (high power and extra power modes) was over 80%. Under the conditions of this study, the amount of monomer released from composite resins changed according to the type of composite resin and the light mode used.
This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different antiseptics and different concentrations thereof in a model of wound healing using human gingival fibroblasts. The fibroblasts were rinsed with four different antiseptic solutions: sodium hypochlorite (HYP), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), and benzalkonium chloride (BC). The effect on the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). In addition, the effects of the antiseptics on wound healing at 1, 12, 24, and 48 h were assessed through a wound healing assay. The viability of the fibroblasts rinsed with antiseptics was investigated with respect to the concentrations inhibiting cell growth by 50% (IC50), 25% (IC25), and ≤2% (IC2). A statistically significant increased release of IL-6 was obtained with BC IC25 and IC2 after 12, 24, and 48 h (P < 0.01). For TGF-β1, no significant release was found for CHX IC2 after 24 and 48 h or for IC50 and IC25 after 12 h. There was no significant effect on wound healing capacity for CHX or for BC IC25 and IC2. This study demonstrated that antiseptic rinses of human gingival fibroblasts alter the release of IL-6 and TGF-β1 and impact wound healing capacity, with both BC and CHX conferring neutral effects.
In this study, a Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.)-infected mouse periodontitis model was used to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid intake on differentiation and maturation of cultured osteoclast. Four-week-old C57BL/6JJcl mice were divided into four groups according to the diets they were fed from the beginning of the experiment (i.e., food containing omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids) and whether they were orally administered P.g. Thirty-three days after beginning the experiment, bone marrow cells were sampled from the femoral bone of mice from each group and differentiated into osteoclasts; the effects of the ingestion of different fatty acids were subsequently investigated. There was no statistical interaction between the different fatty acids and P.g. infection on the number of osteoclasts (P = 0.6). However, the fatty acid type affected the number of osteoclasts in mice (P = 0.0013), with the omega-3 groups demonstrating lower osteoclast numbers than the omega-6 groups. Furthermore, the addition of resolvin E1 (RvE1), which is an omega-3 fatty acid-derived lipid mediator, suppressed the differentiation of mouse cultured osteoclasts (P < 0.0001). Therefore, the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids may suppress osteoclast differentiation while inhibiting bone resorption and tissue destruction due to periodontitis.
The present study used an aluminum phantom to calculate accurate vertical magnification values around the mental foramen on panoramic radiography (PR) and compared corrected PR (Cor-PR) thickness measurements of the aluminum phantom and mandibular cortical width (MCW) of the human head with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements at two fields of view (FOVs). The calculated vertical magnification value for PR around the mental foramen was 1.37. Measurements of the aluminum phantom significantly differed between Cor-PR and CBCT with an FOV of 100 mm and between CBCT with FOVs of 40 and 100 mm; however, MCW measurements did not significantly differ among the three methods. There was a very strong correlation between Cor-PR and CBCT with an FOV of 40 mm and between CBCT with FOVs of 40 mm and 100 mm, and intraobserver and interobserver agreement was good-to-excellent for all methods. These results suggest that Cor-PR and CBCT with small and large FOVs are acceptable for measuring MCW.
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is an effective alveolar ridge reconstruction technique used before or at implant placement. The combination of various barrier membranes and bone substitutes has been employed. This study aimed to perform a preliminarily evaluation of the safety and performance of a new nonabsorbable bi-layered porous polyethylene (PPE) membrane, in combination with a freeze-dried cortical bone allograft in posterior mandibular ridge augmentation. Fifteen adults who had combined posterior mandibular defects were included for ridge augmentation via GBR using PPE membrane and allograft before implant placement. The keratinized mucosa width (KW), ridge width (RW), ridge height (RH), distance from measurement matrix to bone (DMB), and horizontal alveolar width at 14.0 mm apical to the occlusal plane (HAW) were clinically measured at 15 intended implant sites before and after the augmentation. Fifteen biopsy specimens were harvested at the implant sites for histological analysis. All the subjects completed the whole study. The KW and RH showed minor gains by 0.2 ± 1.4 mm and 0.9 ± 2.3 mm respectively; however, no statistically significant differences were found between, before, and after the augmentation (P > 0.05). In contrast, the RW and HAW significantly increased by 4.8 ± 1.6 mm and 2.3 ± 1.7 mm, respectively, (P ≤ 0.001), while DMB significantly decreased by 1.0 ± 0.8 mm after treatment (P < 0.001). Histological analysis revealed that allograft underwent active bone remodeling. The PPE membrane was adequately safe and efficient to use with allograft in GBR for the reconstruction of combined ridge defects. Although some complications were observed, these were manageable and subsequently lead to successful implant placement for all the subjects. However, further randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm these findings.
Administration of local anesthetics with adrenaline can cause tachycardia and hypertension. This study assessed whether combined administration of landiolol with adrenaline and lidocaine would induce local anesthesia without causing hemodynamic changes. Normal saline (NS), lidocaine with adrenaline (LA), and lidocaine with adrenaline and landiolol (LLA) were injected into Wistar Kyoto (WKY/Izm) or spontaneously hypertensive (SHR/Izm) rats, followed by measurement of the pulse rate (PR), and the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures (SBP, DBP and MBP). In the LLA group, the increase in PR was significantly suppressed in both SHR/Izm and WKY/Izm rats relative to those in the LA group. Although SBP was significantly reduced in WKY/Izm rats given LLA, relative to those given NS or LA, it was elevated in SHR/Izm rats given LLA. Landiolol-induced changes in PR may be due to blockade of adrenaline-induced β1 receptor stimulation, which suppresses cardiac hyperactivity, whereas the early surge of blood pressure in SHR/Izm rats given LLA may be due to the dominant alpha-adrenergic effects of β1 receptor inhibition. The anti-adrenergic effects of LLA were safe and effective in WKY/Izm rats, although the unexpected early hypertensive surge in SHR/Izm rats indicates the need for caution.
This study used finite element (FE) analysis to investigate the stability of miniscrews (screws) placed at the median palate. FE models with variable suture maturity and screw-suture distances were used to examine the relationship with screw stability. Four groups were classified by extent of maturation of the midpalatal suture (0%, 60%, 75%, and 100%). The placement position was set at the center of the suture (0.0 mm), or 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm to the side of the suture, and von Mises stress values in bone and screw displacement were compared among models. The stress value for the unsutured model, in which the screw was placed at the center of the suture, was greater than 30 MPa. Stress values for models in which screws were placed to the side (0.5-1.5 mm) were less than 28 MPa. Maximum screw displacement was greater in the 0.0-mm incomplete suture model than at other placement positions. Because bone conditions vary among patients, placement position and suture maturation should be examined on cone beam-computed tomography images, to ensure screw stability.
Oral carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with survival rates of approximately 50%. The major type of oral cancer, present in 90% of the cases, is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The genetic background predisposing an individual to OSCC is complex and largely unknown. Studies have suggested that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms modulate the cancer risk, prompting us to assess the impact of three functional eNOS gene polymorphisms on OSCC risk. The present study included 50 patients with OSCC and 110 controls. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used for genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms −786 T/C (rs2070744) and 894 G/T (rs1799983) and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) intron 4b/a polymorphism. Homozygous carriers of −786 T/C and intron 4b/a VNTR variant alleles paired with a significant increase of oral cancer risk [odds ratio (OR): 3.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-12.21; P = 0.045 and OR: 11.29, 95% CI: 2.71-47.11; P < 0.001, respectively]. When combined, CC and 4b4a genotypes together led to a 21-fold OSCC risk increase (OR: 21, 95% CI: 2.07-213.29; P = 0.006). Haplotype analysis showed that the C-G-4b haplotype conferred an 11-fold increase in OSCC risk. In conclusion, eNOS polymorphisms considerably influence levels of OSCC risk in the Serbian population.
This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether the corono-apical location of sinus tracts differs according to the presence/location of vertical root fracture (VRF) in microsurgically treated root-filled teeth. The cases included were (1) anterior and premolar teeth without a preoperative diagnosis of VRF, (2) those with a periodontal probing depth of ≤3 mm, and (3) those for which preoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and intraoperative video records were available. VRF was diagnosed intraoperatively. The locations of buccal cortical bone defects and fracture lines were categorized on video images, and the corono-apical sinus tract locations were determined by superimposing video images onto volume-rendered CBCT images. Eleven of the 78 teeth investigated had VRF, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of sinus tracts between vertically fractured and non-fractured teeth (Mann-Whitney U-test, P > 0.05). The location of the sinus tract was significantly more coronal in vertically fractured than in non-fractured teeth (Mann-Whitney U-test, P < 0.0001). The location of sinus tracts was high correlated with cortical bone defects (Spearman’s correlation, P < 0.0001). In microsurgically treated anterior and premolar teeth with a normal probing depth, sinus tracts were located more coronally in vertically fractured than in non-fractured teeth, and were highly correlated with the location of cortical bone defects.
Zirconia is widely employed as a material during dental implant work because of its superior esthetics. This study sought to evaluate the impact of titanium or zirconia implant abutments on epithelial attachments after ultrasonic cleaning. These implants were inserted into the extraction socket of rat maxillary first molars. Then, the length of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction was measured. In addition, titanium and zirconia disks were cleaned using an ultrasonic scaler, surface morphology changes were observed, and the number of epithelial cell attachments to the surface was measured. Ultimately, the surfaces of the titanium disks were easier to damage than those of the zirconia ones. There was no difference in the number of epithelial cell attachments between the two materials with the ultrasonic cleaning. The length of the HRP reaction was shorter on the zirconia implant abutment surface than on the titanium one after mechanical cleaning. In conclusion, zirconia is harder than titanium and a better choice for use in the epithelial tissue attachment. Zirconia is more suitable as a material for implant abutments than titanium.
Taurocholic acid (TCA), a conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, is one of the main bile acids that is elevated in liver disease. Considering the epidemiologic linkage of periodontal disease to liver disease, the question arises about the possible effect of elevated TCA levels on periodontal cells. To answer this question, gingival fibroblasts and human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-2) were pretreated with interleukine1β (IL1β) and tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα) in the presence and absence of TCA. Also, mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) were incubated with sterile-filtered human saliva with and without TCA. Inflammatory cytokines were measured by real time polynucleotide chain reaction (RT-PCR) and an immunoassay. The nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit was visualized by immunostaining. In pretreated gingival fibroblasts and HSC-2 cells, TCA considerably reduced the expression of IL1β, IL6, and IL8. In support of these observations, TCA lowered the saliva-induced expression of IL1α, IL1β and IL6 in RAW 264.7 cells. An immunoassay confirmed the capacity of TCA to diminish inflammation-induced expression of IL6 in gingival fibroblasts, HSC-2 and RAW 264.7 cells. Consistently, TCA blocked the nuclear translocation of p65 in fibroblasts. These findings suggest that TCA has anti-inflammatory activity in gingival fibroblasts, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and macrophages in vitro.
Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) is produced inside cells in its precursor form (pIL-1α). Enzymatic cleavage yields mature (mIL-1α) and the propiece of IL-1α (ppIL-1α), which are thought to be localized in the nucleus, because of the presence of nuclear localizing signals. Studies of ppIL-1α function have been hampered by the lack of a ppIL-1α-specific antibody (Ab). In the present study, the authors generated anti-ppIL-1α Ab by using recombinant histidine-tagged ppIL-1α (His-ppIL-1α) as an immunogen. Rabbits were immunized with His-ppIL-1α, and affinity-purified Ab was obtained. Ab reactivity and specificity were examined by Western blotting. The antibody successfully recognized transfectant-derived green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged ppIL-1α but not GFP. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system established by biotinylating the anti-ppIL-1α Ab successfully detected GFP-ppIL-1α. The Ab and ELISA system allows functional analysis of ppIL-1α and improves understanding of ppIL-1α.
In order to reduce the spread of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019), it is crucial to take extraordinary prevention and safety measures in dental offices, and to defer all elective and non-urgent procedures. Dental emergencies are defined through oral symptoms but, the systemic and psychological conditions of each patient should be considered. The present short communication proposes a multilevel evaluation (oral, systemic and psychological) and risk assessment score for the management of dental emergencies following the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) outbreak. A comprehensive categorization and score scale assessment for dental emergencies allows a better identification of patient’s treatment needs and avoids unnecessary contact between dental health care providers and patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
In this aging Japanese society, the demand for ensuring a healthy life and improving the quality of life is on the rise. The government declared “Health Japan 21” and dental health has been identified as one of the most important issues. At the same time, national medical care expenditure is increasing year by year. As such, efficiency in dentistry is required, and the quality, efficacy, and safety of medical devices have been standardized. As one of the steps toward introducing new medical devices and technology, this report contains a collection of data, research, and studies on the social insurance system and pricing of medical devices in foreign countries.
The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide. Nasopharyngeal swabs are widely used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect SARS-CoV-2. However, the collection of nasopharyngeal swabs has a series of drawbacks concerning exposure of healthcare staff, difficulty in collection, and discomfort of patients. Therefore, an alternative noninvasive sample for diagnostic of emerging viral diseases is required. The usefulness of saliva screening tests is compared to conventional swab tests in this report. The results suggest that saliva could be a reliable sample for detecting SARS-CoV-2.