Previous studies have demonstrated that during lower-body exercise the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) is equivalent to the percentage of the oxygen consumption reserve (%V˙O2R) but not to a percentage of the peak oxygen consumption (%V˙O2peak). The current study examined these relationships in trained surfboard riders (surfers) during upper-body exercise. Thirteen well-trained competitive surfers performed a stepwise, incremental, prone arm-paddling exercise test to exhaustion. For each subject, data obtained at the end of each stage (i.e., HR and V˙O2 values) were expressed as a percentage of HRR, V˙O2peak, and V˙O2R respectively and used to determine the individual %HRR-%V˙O2peak and %HRR-%V˙O2R relationships. Mean slope and intercept were calculated and compared with the line of identity (slope=1, intercept=0). The %HRR versus %V˙O2R regression mean slope (0.88±0.06) and intercept (20.82±4.57) were significantly different (p<0.05) from 1 and 0, respectively. Similarly, the regression of %HRR versus %V˙O2peak resulted in a line that differed in the slope (p<0.05) but not in the intercept (p=0.94) from the line of identity. Predicted values of %HRR were significantly higher (p<0.05) from indicated values of %V˙O2R for all the intensities ranging from 35% to 95% V˙O2R. Unlike results found for lower-body exercise, a given %HRR during prone upper-body exercise was not equivalent to its corresponding %V˙O2R. Thus, to ensure more targeted exercise intensity during arm-paddling exercise, individual HR-V˙O2 equations should be used.
We investigated the relationship between an individual's center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction in quiet standing (QS) and perceptibility of different standing positions. The position of the center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPy position) while standing was represented as the percentage distance (%FL) from the hindmost point of the heel in relation to foot length. CoPy position in QS was located from 31 to 58%FL. Perceptibility of standing position was evaluated by the difference between the reference position and the subject's attempt to reproduce that position. Subjects were tested for their ability to reproduce reference positions selected randomly from a total of 13 positions at 5%FL increments from 20 to 80%FL. Using an approximation formula curve, we identified the relationship between reference position and reproduction absolute error. The standing position range with reproduction error exceeding 90% of the difference between the maximum and minimum errors was defined as the low perceptibility range of standing position. The approximation curve had one peak near QS. CoPy positions in QS were located in the low perceptibility range, except for five subjects with a more posterior location. The correlation coefficient between CoPy positions in QS (x) and reference position (y) showing maximum error was 0.70 and the regression line was y=0.464x+28.2; the intersection point with y=x was 53%FL. Reproduction absolute errors in reference positions at 20–30%FL and 70–80%FL were significantly smaller than those at 40–60%FL (p<0.05). We concluded the following. (1) Standing positions showing the lowest perceptibility are located close to the QS position; however, in subjects whose QS position is located more posteriorly, the standing position showing maximum error is more anterior. (2) Perceptibility of extreme forward- and backward-leaning positions is very high and independent of individual QS position.
The aim of this study was to determine whether the increase in blood volume in resting muscle during moderately prolonged exercise is related to heart rate (HR) upward drift. Eight healthy men completed both arm-cranking moderately prolonged exercise (APE) and leg-pedaling moderately prolonged exercise (LPE) for 30 min. Exercise intensity was 120 bpm of HR that was determined by ramp incremental exercise. During both APE and LPE, HR significantly increased from 3 to 30 min (from 108±9.3 to 119±12 bpm and from 112±8.9 to 122±11 bpm, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between HR in APE and that in LPE. Oxygen uptake was maintained throughout the two exercises. Skin blood flow, deep temperature, and total Hb (blood volume) in resting muscle continuously increased for 30 min of exercise during both APE and LPE. During both APE and LPE, there was a significant positive correlation between total Hb and deep temperature in all subjects. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between HR and total Hb (in seven out of eight subjects) during LPE. However, during APE, there was no positive correlation between HR and total Hb (r=0.391). These findings suggest that an increase of blood pooling in resting muscle could be proposed as one of the mechanisms underlying HR upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.
The effect of daily ambulatory activity on physical fitness has not yet been identified by quantitatively measuring the time spent on the intensity levels of ambulatory activity in elderly women over 75 with different functional capacity levels. The subjects consisted of 147 elderly women over 75 years old (82.8±4.3 years old) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves. Physical fitness was measured for 7 items (handgrip strength, knee extensor strength, postural stability, stepping, one-legged standing time with eyes open, 10 m walking, and the Timed Up and Go Test). The subjects wore a triaxial accelerometer for 2 consecutive weeks to measure their daily physical activities. The functional capacity level was assessed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. The subjects were divided into two groups, a group with a score ≥10 points (high functional capacity group, n=59) and a score <10 points (low functional capacity group, n=88), and the relationship between physical fitness and physical activity was examined in both groups. In both the high and low functional capacity groups, 10 m walking, the Timed Up and Go Test, and one-legged standing time with eyes open significantly correlated with either the total steps/day or the ambulatory activity intensity. In the high functional capacity group, the knee extensor strength also significantly correlated with the total steps/day and moderate ambulatory activity. It is suggested that very elderly women with a reduced functional capacity should maintain their mobility by simply increasing their daily ambulatory activity.
It seems likely that the influences of light upon circadian rhythms will decrease with aging, particularly those rhythms that are more influenced by light with a higher color temperature and richer in short wavelengths. More specifically, cataract patients' optical systems transmit light poorly, especially the shorter wavelengths that affect the circadian system more. The present study investigated melatonin secretion profiles and sleep patterns before and after cataract surgery. Fifteen subjects were studied for 3 consecutive weekdays before, and one month after, their cataract surgery. UV-cutting intra-ocular lenses were used for patients after surgery. No statistically significant differences between before and after surgery were observed in the amount of light received and the amount of activity. This means that there were no significant changes in their lifestyle during the experimental period. Considering the group as a whole, no significant differences were present in melatonin secretion, sleep parameters, or sleepiness before and after the surgery. However, individual subjects responded differently. The subjects showed a negative correlation between the wake-up (p=0.067) or retiring times (p=0.017) and sleep efficiency after surgery. The amount of light received during the nighttime influenced sleep more significantly than during the daytime.