Aquatic insects having a high diversity are good biotic indicators for freshwater quality. Their larvae living in freshwater are sensitive to pesticides, and its impacts has been examined not only through laboratory toxicity studies using water and sediment exposure but also through higher-tier micro-/mesocosm studies and field monitoring. Many sophisticated statistical methods have been applied to assess the impacts of pesticides at levels from species to community, but their body burden has been studied much less, especially in relation to toxicity. We review the uptake, metabolism with relevant detoxifying enzymes, and depuration of pesticides in aquatic insect larvae, which determine their body burden and help to understand the toxicity profiles specific to each chemical class. We also discuss experimental conditions, environmental factors, and species sensitivity in relation to the bioconcentration/-accumulation and toxicity of pesticides.
A series of ethyl 4-[(7-substituted 1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)methyl]benzoates was synthesized and evaluated for their anti-juvenile hormone (anti-JH) activities to induce precocious metamorphosis in silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae. The introduction of bulky alkyloxy substituents on the 7-position on the benzodioxan ring significantly increased activity. Ethyl 4-[(7-benzyloxy-1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)methyl]benzoate (4c) showed the most potent activity among the test compounds, and its median-effective dose (ED50) value was 41 ng/larva. The JH I, II, and III concentrations in the hemolymph of the 3rd instar larvae treated with compound 4c were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS) after using a simple purification method. Compound 4c clearly decreased the JH I and II titers of 3rd instar larvae within 24 hr after treatment, and prevented JH I spike usually found immediately after 4th instar molting.
Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is a nuclear-coded mitochondrial protein that exchanges ATP for ADP across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Most organisms possess several ANT paralogues, and functional differences among these paralogues remain largely unknown. In the present study, we identified ANT paralogue genes in hemipteran species: the stink bug, bean bug, pea aphid, and Japanese mealybug. The ANT paralogues of the stink bug, Plautia stali, are encoded by two genes, PsANTI1 and PsANTI2. PsANTI1 was constantly expressed at all developmental stages and in all tissues analyzed. In contrast, the expression levels of PsANTI2 were undetectable in first instar nymphs and adult antennae. Gene silencing of each paralogue in P. stali revealed that PsANTI1 plays an important role in homeostasis, whereas the depletion of PsANTI2 failed to result in lethality. Thus, we concluded that PsANTI1 is a good target gene for developing novel pesticides.
Five spraying techniques were evaluated for the coverage of bifenthrin on peas under open field conditions. Ultra-low volume sprayer (ULVA) and Ground hydraulic motor with conventional spray gun (GMG) gave number mean diameters (NMDs) from 27 to 68 and from 33 to 73 N/cm2 with volume mean diameter (VMD) from 50 to 120 and from 320 to 508, respectively. Homogeneity factor values were 2, 2, 2.5, 2.8, and 13.5 in ULVA, Domestic modification of the ground hydraulic motor sprayer with one nozzle (GMO), Ground hydraulic motor sprayer with vertical boom (GMV), Motorized knapsack mist blower sprayer (MKM) and GMG. The percentages of the lost spray in the ground were 23, 39, 21, 24, and 36% for ULVA, MKM, GMG, GMO and GMV, respectively. An analytical method was developed using QuEChERS and GC-ECD to determine the initial deposit of bifenthrin in pods and leaves. Initial deposits were from 0.006 to 0.05 mg/kg in pods and from 0.03 to 0.66 mg/kg in leaves. The most efficient technique was single nozzle Twinjet, followed by the motorized knapsack sprayer.
Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived signaling molecules that mediate symbiotic and parasitic communications in the rhizosphere and plant hormones that regulate the growth and development of plants through crosstalk with other hormones. Natural SLs are classified into two groups based on the stereochemistry of the B–C ring junction. Rice and sorghum plants, both gramineous crops, produce orobanchol-type and strigol-type SLs, respectively, while tobacco plants produce both types. In the present study, we demonstrate that such species-specific phenomena in SL production also occur in the transport of exogenous SLs from roots to shoots. In rice plants, strigol-type SLs such as 5-deoxystrigol have been reported to actively inhibit tiller bud outgrowth, whereas root-applied strigol-type SLs could not be detected in shoots harvested 20 hr after treatment, indicating that metabolites of SLs or other signaling compounds downstream of SLs—but not SLs themselves—are the true inhibitors of tiller bud outgrowth.
We developed an improved simulation model for predicting pesticide concentrations in river basins based on PADDY-Large, which includes lateral seepage loss of pesticides from paddy fields. Based on the structure of typical Japanese paddy fields, pesticide transport process due to lateral seepage through bunds was modeled as a compartment system consisting of pore water and soil particle. The model was validated with concentrations measured by monitoring paddy pesticides in a tributary of the Sakura River in Japan. The improved model by including loss of pesticides due to lateral seepage through bunds successfully simulated temporal changes in the pesticide concentrations.