A water dispersible granule (WDG) was prepared through direct granulation of an agrochemical suspension composed of a mixture of sodium lignosulphonate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder using a fluidized bed granulator. The evaluation of various physicochemical properties showed that the mass median diameter (MMD) and disintegration time of the WDG increased with an increase in the PVA content. It was also revealed that the MMD was positively correlated with the viscosity of the agrochemical suspension and that the disintegration time decreased with an increase in solubility of the binder mixture.
The effect of inclusion or exclusion of the root-shoot junction on the estimation of pesticide residue levels in turnip roots and leaves was investigated. Turnips grown at two experimental sites were sprayed with six pesticides. At residue analysis, the turnips were divided in three segments: roots (R), leaves (L), and root-shoot junctions (J). The highest pesticide residue amounts were found in leaves ≥93% of total, with minimal amounts in roots. Residue amounts in root-shoot junctions were intermediate between those of leaves and roots. Residue levels were calculated for the root plus root-shoot junction, and were higher than those in roots: (R+J)/R=1.0–9.0. In contrast, residue levels in the leaf plus root-shoot junction were lower than in leaves only: (L+J)/L=0.76–0.91. The results indicate that the position of the cut between root and leaves could greatly affect the estimated pesticide residue levels when roots and leaves are analyzed separately.
Substituted phenylhydrazone moieties and two carbonate groups were merged in one molecule scaffold to obtain 48 novel compounds. 1H and 13C NMR, MS, elemental analysis, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction were used to confirm their structures. Bioassay results revealed that some of the compounds have strong antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Colletotrichum capsici (especially Rhizoctonia solani). Compound 5H1 is the most promising of the tested compounds against R. solani with an EC50 value of 1.91 mg/L, which is comparable with the positive control fungicide drazoxolon (1.94 mg/L). The structure–activity relationships against R. solani formed three rules: 1) small carbonate groups may improve the antifungal activity of the title compounds; 2) electron-withdrawing groups at the phenyl ring of phenylhydrazone are preferable to their non-substituted counterparts; and 3) halogen at the para position is more beneficial than at the ortho or meta position.
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