Japanese Journal of Applied Sport Sciences
Online ISSN : 2758-0598
Current issue
Displaying 1-5 of 5 articles from this issue
Original articles
  • Koichi Endo, Yusuke Sato, Masashi Fukami, Masaki Takayose, Koichi Mizu ...
    2024 Volume 3 Pages 1-13
    Published: March 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2024

        A challenge with mental training is that the training environment often differs from the competition environment. This challenge can be addressed using virtual reality (VR). The objectives of this study were to construct a VR space, based on an actual stadium, in which the user can move around as well as to obtain biometric data when users view that space. Obtaining biometric data in this way enables the assessment of changes in the minds of users caused by viewing the VR space. A VR environment in which the viewer can move was constructed based on the Ariake Gymnastics Centre. Heart rate variability, psychological sweating, and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured while users viewed this VR space through a head-mounted display. Participants were 10 university gymnasts and 9 university students with no gymnastics experience. While viewing the VR space in a sitting position, participants were allowed to move their head to look around the VR space. Viewing the VR space increased parasympathetic nerve function and skin conductance while increasing beta-band activity and decreasing alpha-band activity on EEG. These biometric data suggest that viewing the constructed VR space evoked a state in which cognitive information processing and arousal level were increased and visual attention was enhanced. In the future, these findings should be applied to construct VR spaces that more strongly evoke nervousness so that mental training can be conducted using that space.

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  • A serial cross-sectional study of August 2020, December 2020, July 2021 and December 2021
    Terue Takashina, Koichi Endo, Gaku Tokita, Yusuke Sato, Masashi Fukami ...
    2024 Volume 3 Pages 15-24
    Published: March 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2024

        The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the amount of physical activity of students, which is mainly associated with the challenges or remaining physically active during the changing student life in the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to clarify the actual situation of studentsʼ physical activity during COVID-19 pandemic from 2020 to 2021. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire survey was conducted during August and December, 2020, August and December, 2021. Participants were students enrolled in a university in Tokyo, Japan. After screening, the data of 662 and 555 students in August and December in 2020 and 348 and 566 students in July and December in 2021, respectively, were included as valid responses in the analysis dataset. The results showed that the amount of physical activity related to walking and total amount of physical activity were the lowest in August in 2020, whereas the sitting time per day was shortest in December in 2021. From these results, we infer that the physical activity-related changes are attributable to studentsʼ becoming accustomed to COVID-19 and to the changes in their environment.

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  • Terue Takashina
    2024 Volume 3 Pages 25-31
    Published: March 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2024

        The purpose of this study was to elucidate the changes in immunity before and after 5 days of consecutive training using saliva samples.
        The subjects were 20 male university students who were members of basketball clubs. Saliva samples were collected before and after 5-day training. The Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was measured it using CUBE Reader. The ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), sleeping state, sleeping time and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms during the period of 5 days training were measured.
        The sIgA significantly decreased before and after the training (pre: 385.5 ± 207.7 μg/mL,post: 191.9 ± 114.7 μg/mL, p<0.01). RPE was 14.9 ± 3.2, sleep state was 2.5 ± 0.8, and sleep period was 406.7 ± 84.2 min. URTI symptoms were observed in 4 athletes during the training period.
        The results of this study showed that training performed continuously for 5 days weakens the immunity of athletes. The resistance to pathogens by mucosal immunity was suppressed by 5 days of training.

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Case Report
  • Jiro Miki, Reira Hara, Koji Ueno
    2024 Volume 3 Pages 33-47
    Published: March 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2024

        Recently, the importance of teamwork in individual competitive sports has been pointed out. Because group cohesiveness, known as team cohesion, not only has a great effect on team performance, but also on individual motivation and psychological stability. For this reason, it is important to improve players' psychological skills, including self-understanding and athletic commitment and to enhance life skills. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine teamwork, psychological ability and life skills of the champion team and whether to differ depending on the competition level, residential status, and training location.
        The participants were 44 swimmers who were members of a team that won the Japan Student Swimming Championships. The teamwork was examined by Sport Psychological Test for Teams (SPTT) and Scale for Teamwork in Sport (STS), the psychological ability were examined by JISS-Psychological Ability Test for Elite Athletes (J-PATEA), and the life skills were examined by Appraisal Scale of Required Life Skill for college Student Athletes (ASRLS) the Life Skills Assessment of university athletes.
        The results showed that “team competence” and “team member relations” were higher than that of previous studies. Further, the upper group showed lower values than the lower group in the “team competence” and “coach confidence” items. In the STS, the university practice group showed lower “facilitation of task execution,” “mutual coordina tion,” “communication during games,” and “communication for team building” than the non-university practice, even though they spent more time to practice together.
        In terms of psychological skills (J-PATEA), the mean values of many factors were high, similar to those of Olympic athletes in previous studies. The mean values of “motivation” and “confidence” were lower than those of the Olympic athletes. In addition, the dormitory group showed lower “self-analysis” than the non-residential group, indicating that the dormitory group had a lower understanding and comprehension of their own condition and characteristics.
         Finally, in the life-skills assessment, they showed higher scores in “appreciating others,” “maintaining etiquette and manners,” and “being humble,” and showed lower scores in “communicating” and “maintaining physical health and wellbeing” than those of previous study.
        These results showed that the university practice group had a lower evaluation of teamwork. Jointing practice with other university teams can make aware of the strength of their own team. It may promote communication within the team, which is seen as an issue for improving teamwork.

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Research data
  • focusing on the occurrence of sports injuries and conditioning attitudes that affect psychological competitive abilities
    Yuto Tajima, Masanori Takahashi
    2024 Volume 3 Pages 49-59
    Published: March 31, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: April 15, 2024

        This study aimed to investigate awareness about conditioning and the occurrence of sports injuries in 31 male university tennis players, aiming to elucidate its impact on psychological competitive abilities (measured by DIPCA.3 and JPATEA).
    (1) In male university tennis players, the most common injuries were wrist injuries, seen in 5 individuals (33.3%), followed by lumbar injuries in 4 individuals (20.0%), and ankle injuries in 2 individuals (13.3%), consistent with previous reports.
    (2) Players with high CD awareness who did not experience sports injuries showed significantly higher values in psychological competitive abilities, including the fighting spirit scale of DIPCA.3, imagery, lifestyle management (J-PATEA), psychological skills, and competitive dedication.
    (3) Players with low CD awareness who experienced sports injuries exhibited significantly higher values in psychological competitive abilities, such as fighting spirit (DIPCA.3), imagery, lifestyle management (J-PATEA), psychological skills, and competitive dedication. This suggests that even with high psychological competitive abilities, those with low CD awareness experienced injuries.
        These results indicate that efforts to prevent sports injuries in male university tennis players with high psychological competitive abilities are crucial. Additionally, there is a potential for improvement in psychological competitive abilities during the reconditioning process, even when awareness of conditioning is low and injuries have occurred.

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