In this study, we investigated the genetic basis of seed shattering and dormancy in Hokuriku 193 and bred an NIL improved these traits. Analysis of an F3 population from Hokuriku 193 × Koshihikari revealed a general correspondence between seed shattering and genotypes at the qSH1 locus, suggesting a strong influence of this locus on the seed shattering in Hokuriku 193. An F2 population from [ms-bo] Nekken 2 × Hokuriku 193 was also analyzed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed dormancy as measured by germination rate in the first December and March after seed harvest. The results revealed a concurrence QTLs of on chromosomes 1, 3, and 6 (qSDo1, qSDo3, qSDo6). In particular, qSDo1 and qSDo6 were considered regions worthy of active modification because they were QTL regions that promoted seed dormancy when carrying Hokuriku 193 genome regions around. SSDo_NIL, a near isogenic line (NIL) derived from Hokuriku 193 by introgressing Nekken 2 alleles only at the qSH1 locus and qSDo1, did not shatter, and its germination rate was significantly higher than that of Hokuriku 193. Yield performance was similar between SSDo_NIL and Hokuriku 193, suggesting that improvement of seed shattering and dormancy does not affect yield.
We developed a new method of using seedling trays to evaluate root angle distribution in rice (Oryza sativa. L), and found a wide genetic variation among cultivars. The seedling tray method can be used to evaluate in detail the growth angles of rice crown roots at the seedling stage by allocating nine scores (10° to 90°). Unlike basket methods, it can handle large plant populations over a short growth period (only 14 days). By using the method, we characterized the root angle distributions of 97 accessions into two cluster groups: A and B. The numbers of accessions in group A were limited, and these were categorized as shallow rooting types including soil-surface root. Group B included from shallow to deep rooting types; both included Indica and Japonica Group cultivars, lowland and upland cultivars, and landraces and improved types. No relationship between variation in root vertical angle and total root number was found. The variation in root angle distribution was not related to differentiation between the Japonica and Indica Groups, among ecosystems used for rice cultivation, or among degrees of genetic improvement. The new evaluation method and associated information on genetic variation of rice accessions will be useful in root architecture breeding of rice.
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with eating quality, grain appearance quality and yield-related traits were mapped in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from closely related rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) cultivars, Yukihikari (good eating quality) and Joiku462 (superior eating quality and high grain appearance quality). Apparent amylose content (AAC), protein content (PC), brown grain length (BGL), brown grain width (BGWI), brown grain thickness (BGT), brown grain weight per plant (BGW) and nine yield-related traits were evaluated in 133 RILs grown in four different environments in Hokkaido, near the northernmost limit for rice paddy cultivation. Using 178 molecular markers, a total of 72 QTLs were detected, including three for AAC, eight for PC, two for BGL, four for BGWI, seven for BGT, and six for BGW, on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12. Fifteen intervals were found to harbor multiple QTLs affecting these different traits, with most of these QTL clusters located on chromosomes 4, 6, 8, 9 and 12. These QTL findings should facilitate gene isolation and breeding application for improvement of eating quality, grain appearance quality and yield of rice cultivars.
Peanut seeds are rich in arginine, an amino acid that has several positive effects on human health. Establishing the genetic variability of arginine content in peanut will be useful for breeding programs that have high arginine as one of their goals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of arginine content, pods/plant, seeds/pod, seed weight, and yield in Valencia peanut germplasm. One hundred and thirty peanut genotypes were grown under field condition for two years. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used for this study. Arginine content was analyzed in peanut seeds at harvest using spectrophotometry. Yield and yield components were recorded for each genotype. Significant differences in arginine content and yield components were found in the tested Valencia peanut germplasm. Arginine content ranged from 8.68–23.35 μg/g seed. Kremena was the best overall genotype of high arginine content, number of pods/plant, 100 seed weight and pod yield.
Currently, cold temperatures are one of the main factors threatening rapeseed production worldwide; thus, it is imperative to identify cold-resistant germplasm and to cultivate cold-resistant rapeseed varieties. In this study, the cold resistance of four Brassica rapa varieties was analyzed. The cold resistance of Longyou6 and Longyou7 was better than that of Tianyou2 and Tianyou4. Thus, an F2 population derived from Longyou6 and Tianyou4 was used to study the correlation of cold resistance and physiological indexes. Our results showed that the degree of frost damage was related to the relative conductivity and MDA content (r1 = 0.558 and r2 = 0.447, respectively). In order to identify the markers related to cold resistance, 504 pairs of SSR (simple sequence repeats) primers were used to screen the two parents and F2 population. Four and five SSR markers had highly significant positive correlation to relative conductivity and MDA, respectively. In addition, three of these SSR markers had a highly significant positive correlation to both of these two indexes. These three SSR markers were subsequently confirmed to be used to distinguish between cold-resistant and non-cold-resistant varieties. The results of this study will lay a solid foundation for the mapping of cold-resistant genes and molecular markers assisted selection for the cold-resistance.
The maturity date of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sensitive to photoperiod, which varies with latitude and growing seasons. The maturity group (MG) system, composed of 13 MGs, is a major approach in characterizing varieties’ ecological properties and adaptable areas. A total of 512 world soybean varieties, including 48 MG checks, were tested at a major site (Nanjing, 32.04°N) with portions tested in supplementary sites (Heihe, 50.22°N; Mudanjiang, 44.60°N; Jining, 35.38°N and Nanning, 22.84°N) in China to explore the worldwide MG distribution. The maturity date of the world soybean varied greatly (75–201 d) in Nanjing. Along with soybeans disseminated to new areas, the MGs further expanded during the last 70 years from MG I–VII to the early MG 0–000 in the north continents and to the late MG VIII–X in the south continents with the growth period structure differentiated into two subgroups in each MG 0–VIII except V. The cluster analysis among MGs and subgroups using genome-wide markers validated the MG sequential emergence order and the subgroup differentiation in eight MGs. For future evaluation, in addition to one major site (Nanjing), one supplementary southern site (Nanning) and one supplementary northern site (Heihe) are sufficient.
To determine the effects of the hours after pollination and the treatment durations on triploid production and reveal the effective stages of embryo sac chromosome doubling by high temperature exposure. At least three catkins were sampled, and 80 ovules were used for the determination of the embryo sac developmental process. Catkins (2–74 h after pollination) were treated to induce embryo sac chromosome doubling. Cytological observations revealed that the embryo sac development was a consecutive and asynchronous process. Fertilization occurred 50 h after pollination. In the offspring seedlings, 167 triploids were detected and the highest efficiency of triploid production was 87.0%. Among all the induced triploids, the most effective treatment period of inducing embryo sac chromosome doubling is from 26 to 50 h after pollination, and 121 triploids were obtained, representing 72.46% of the sum of all triploids. GLM-Univariate analysis indicated significant differences among the hours after pollination (F = 4.516, p = 0.045). However, the differences between the treatment durations (F = 0.077, p = 0.791) were not significant. Correlation analysis between the proportion of each embryo sac’s developmental stage and the percentage of triploid production indicated that the third mitotic division may be the most effective stage for 2n female gamete induction.
Diversity analysis of rapeseed accessions preserved in the Japanese Genebank can provide valuable information for breeding programs. In this study, 582 accessions were genotyped with 30 SSR markers covering all 19 rapeseed chromosomes. These markers amplified 311 alleles (10.37 alleles per marker; range, 3–39). The genetic diversity of Japanese accessions was lower than that of overseas accessions. Analysis of molecular variance indicated significant genetic differentiation between Japanese and overseas accessions. Small but significant differences were found among geographical groups in Japan, and genetic differentiation tended to increase with geographical distance. STRUCTURE analysis indicated the presence of two main genetic clusters in the NARO rapeseed collection. With the membership probabilities threshold, 227 accessions mostly originating from overseas were assigned to one subgroup, and 276 accessions mostly originating from Japan were assigned to the other subgroup. The remaining 79 accessions are assigned to admixed group. The core collection constructed comprises 96 accessions of diverse origin. It represents the whole collection well and thus it may be useful for rapeseed genetic research and breeding programs. The core collection improves the efficiency of management, evaluation, and utilization of genetic resources.
Heat stress is detrimental to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity. In this study, we aimed to select heat-tolerant plants from a multiple synthetic derivatives (MSD) population and evaluate their agronomic and physiological traits. We selected six tolerant plants from the population with the background of the cultivar ‘Norin 61’ (N61) and established six MNH (MSD population of N61 selected as heat stress-tolerant) lines. We grew these lines with N61 in the field and growth chamber. In the field, we used optimum and late sowings to ensure plant exposure to heat. In the growth chamber, in addition to N61, we used the heat-tolerant cultivars ‘Gelenson’ and ‘Bacanora’. We confirmed that MNH2 and MNH5 lines acquired heat tolerance. These lines had higher photosynthesis and stomata conductance and exhibited no reduction in grain yield and biomass under heat stress compared to N61. We noticed that N61 had relatively good adaptability to heat stress. Our results indicate that the MSD population includes the diversity of Aegilops tauschii and is a promising resource to uncover useful quantitative traits derived from this wild species. Selected lines could be useful for heat stress tolerance breeding.
Drought is a major constraint for sunflower (Helianthus annuus) production worldwide. Drought tolerance traits have been identified in the related wild species Helianthus argophyllus. This study was initiated to develop sunflower drought-tolerant genotypes by crossing cultivated sunflower with this species and analyze drought tolerance traits in the H. annuus and H. argophyllus populations, H. annuus intraspecific hybrids, and H. annuus × H. argophyllus interspecific hybrids along with the commercial hybrid Hysun-33 under three stress regimes: exogenous application of ABA, both by foliar spray and irrigation, and 5% PEG-induced osmotic stress. H. argophyllus populations had a significantly lower leaf area and higher water-use efficiency and leaf cuticular wax content under all treatments, and maintained a higher net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance under osmotic stress. Small leaf area and high cuticular waxes content of the wild species were, however, not inherited in interspecific hybrids which suggested for selection in F2 for these traits. Therefore, transgressive plants were selected in the F2 population to establish F3 plant progenies with silver-leafed canopy of H. argophyllus which showed higher achene yield under stress condition. These results are discussed with a view to using H. argophyllus to improve drought tolerance in cultivated sunflower.
Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC1M1 line, that is, progenies of M1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC1M1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC1M1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements.
Soybean (Glycine max) has a paleopolyploid genome, and many re-sequencing experiments to characterize soybean genotypes have been conducted using next-generation sequencing platforms. The accumulation of information about single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the soybean genome has accelerated identification of genomic regions related to agronomically important traits through association studies. However, although many efficient mapping techniques that use next-generation sequencing are available, the number of practical approaches to identify genes/loci is still limited. In this study, we used a combination of restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and bulk segregant analysis (BSA) to identify quantitative trait locus (QTLs) for flowering time in a segregating population derived from a cross between Japanese soybean cultivars. Despite the homogeneous genetic background of the parents, over 7000 SNPs were identified and can be used to detect QTLs by RAD-seq BSA analysis. By comparing genotype frequency between early and late-flowering bulks from the F3 segregating population, we identified a QTL on Gm10, which corresponds to the previously identified E2 locus, and a QTL on Gm04, which is close to the E8 locus. Out of these SNPs, more than 2000 were easily converted to conventional DNA markers. Our approach would improve the efficiency of genetic mapping.
Shoot K+ concentration (SKC) is an important physiological parameter used to evaluate salt tolerance at the seedling stage in rice (Oryza sativa L.). qSKC-1, a major quantitative trait locus for SKC in rice under salt stress, was detected on chromosome 1 using three F2 populations constructed by crossing ‘Nipponbare’ and its two salt-sensitive mutants (rss2 and rss4) with an indica cultivar ‘Zhaiyeqing8’ (‘ZYQ8’). In this study, the chromosomal location of qSKC-1 was determined precisely by fine mapping. First, the presence of qSKC-1 was confirmed by QTL analysis of a re-constructed ‘Nipponbare’ × ‘ZYQ8’ F2 population. Then, F2 plants in which recombination events had occurred near qSKC-1 were identified from the ‘Nipponbare’ × ‘ZYQ8’ and rss4 × ‘ZYQ8’ F2 populations, and their phenotypic values were confirmed by progeny tests. Eventually, by analyzing recombination events in these recombinants, the qSKC-1 locus was mapped precisely to 445 kb between markers RM578 and IM8854. These results will facilitate map-based cloning of the qSKC-1 locus.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops almost all over the world. Seed-related traits, including oil content (OC), silique length (SL), seeds per silique (SS), and seed weight (SW), are primary targets for oil yield improvement. To dissect the genetic basis of these traits, 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were derived from two parents with distinct oil content and silique length. High-density linkage map with a total length of 1610.4 cM were constructed using 1,329 double-digestion restriction site associated DNA (ddRAD) markers, 107 insertion/deletions (INDELs), and 90 well-distributed simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers. A total of 37 consensus quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for the four traits, with individual QTL explained 3.1–12.8% of the phenotypic variations. Interestingly, one OC consensus QTL (cqOCA10b) on chromosome A10 was consistently detected in all three environments, and explained 9.8% to 12.8% of the OC variation. The locus was further delimited into an approximately 614 kb genomic region, in which the flanking markers could be further evaluated for marker-assisted selection in rapeseed OC improvement and the candidate genes targeted for map-based cloning and genetic manipulation.
Seedling vigor is an important agricultural trait as direct-seeded rice technology becomes widely applied. In order to investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling vigor in rice, seeds of 132 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from 93-11 and PA64s, harvested from Lingshui and Hangzhou were cultivated in the nutrient solution, and four indices for seedling vigor were measured including seedling shoot length (SSL), seedling root length (SRL), seedling wet weight (SWW) and seedling dry weight (SDW). Significant correlations were observed among the indices, and also between 1000-seed weight (TSW) and SWW or SDW. Combined with a high-resolution genetic map generated from sequencing of the RILs, 65 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected on all chromosomes with interval of 1.93 Mb on average. Among 57 QTLs for seedling vigor, 28 were detected from seeds harvested in both sites and 33 were first identified. With BC3F2 derived from 93-11 and a CSSL harboring segments from PA64s in 93-11 background, a major QTL for SSL, qSSL1b was fine mapped within 80.5 kb between two InDel markers. Our study provides a platform for further cloning of the QTL and dissecting the molecular basis for seedling vigor at early seedling stage in rice.
Leaf color is an important indicator when evaluating plant growth and responses to biotic/abiotic stress. Acquisition of images by digital cameras allows analysis and long-term storage of the acquired images. However, under field conditions, where light intensity can fluctuate and other factors (shade, reflection, and background, etc.) vary, stable and reproducible measurement and quantification of leaf color are hard to achieve. Digital scanners provide fixed conditions for obtaining image data, allowing stable and reliable comparison among samples, but require detached plant materials to capture images, and the destructive processes involved often induce deformation of plant materials (curled leaves and faded colors, etc.). In this study, by using a lightweight digital scanner connected to a mobile computer, we obtained digital image data from intact plant leaves grown in natural-light greenhouses without detaching the targets. We took images of soybean leaves infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines, and distinctively quantified two disease symptoms (brown lesions and yellow halos) using freely available image processing software. The image data were amenable to quantitative and statistical analyses, allowing precise and objective evaluation of disease resistance.
‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is a new potato variety bred from a cross between ‘Saikai 35’ as a female parent and ‘Saikai 33’ as a male. ‘Saikai 35’ is resistant to bacterial wilt, contains the H1 and Rychc genes for resistance to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) and potato virus Y (PVY), respectively, and has high carotenoid content, while ‘Saikai 33’ has large and high-yielding tubers and is resistant to both bacterial wilt and PCN. The carotenoid content of ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is higher than that of ‘Dejima’, a common double cropping variety. The taste quality of steamed ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is comparable to that of ‘Inca-no-mezame’ tubers, which has high levels of carotenoid, and superior to ‘Nishiyutaka’, another popular double cropping variety. ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ is suitable for French fries, because its tuber has high starch content. The marketable yield of ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ was higher than that of ‘Inca-no-mezame’ in spring cropping, although it was lower than that of ‘Nishiyutaka’ in double cropping regions. ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ tubers are larger on average than ‘Inca-no-mezame’ tubers in spring cropping. Moreover, the ‘Nagasaki Kogane’ variety is resistant to PCN and PVY, and exhibits a high level of resistance to bacterial wilt.
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