Breeding Science
Online ISSN : 1347-3735
Print ISSN : 1344-7610
ISSN-L : 1344-7610
Current issue
Displaying 1-9 of 9 articles from this issue
Cover
  • 2022 Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages cover
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 23, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    On the cover

    Mint (Mentha spp.) is a commercially important herb. In Southeast Asia, mints are widely used for culinary and medical purposes, and many have been locally maintained (upper left, Tiền Giang, Vietnam). Fresh mints are popular in the markets (upper right, Sơn La, Vietnam) and are served as a garnish in restaurants (lower left, Điện Biên, Vietnam). However, the species of Southeast Asian mints are poorly distinguished. In this issue, we present a collection of Southeast Asian mints, which have been classified using SSR markers and leaf morphology (lower right) (This issue, p. 181–187).

    (N. Kubo: Kyoto Prefectural University, photo by Y. Nakamura and Y. Fukui)

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Research Papers
  • Katsunori Hatakeyama, Shota Yuzawa, Kaoru Tonosaki, Yoshihito Takahata ...
    Article type: Research Paper
    2022 Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 115-123
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 23, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Supplementary material

    Clubroot resistance (CR) is an important trait in Chinese cabbage breeding worldwide. Although Crr1a, the gene responsible for clubroot-resistance, has been cloned and shown to encode the NLR protein, its allelic variation and molecular function remain unknown. Here, we investigated the sequence variation and function of three Crr1a alleles cloned from six CR F1 cultivars of Chinese cabbage. Gain-of-function analysis revealed that Crr1aKinami90_a isolated from the cv. ‘Kinami 90’ conferred clubroot resistance as observed for Crr1aG004. Because two susceptible alleles commonly lacked 172 amino acids in the C-terminal region, we investigated clubroot resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis harboring the chimeric Crr1a, in which 172 amino acids of the functional alleles were fused to the susceptible alleles. The fusion of the C-terminal region to the susceptible alleles restored resistance, indicating that their susceptibility was caused by the lack of the C-terminus. We developed DNA markers to detect the two functional Crr1a alleles, and demonstrated that the functional Crr1a alleles were frequently found in European fodder turnips, whereas they were rarely introduced into Japanese CR cultivars of Chinese cabbage. These results would contribute to CR breeding via marker-assisted selection and help our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying clubroot resistance.

  • Mitsuhiro Obara, Yoshihiro Kaneta, Ikuko Kodama, Sinichi Matsumoto, To ...
    Article type: Research Paper
    2022 Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 124-131
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 23, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 08, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    The development of crop varieties with high nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) is thought to be important in achieving sustainable cereal crop production. The high yield large-grain rice cultivar Oryza sativa L. ‘Akita 63’ (temperate japonica) has high physiological NUE (PNUE) for grain yield (GY). Our previous study revealed that a large-grain allele of GS3 is present in ‘Akita 63’. Here, we verified the influence of GS3 on the yield properties and PNUE for GY in ‘Akita 63’. The frequency distribution of brown rice length in F2 crosses of ‘Iwate 75’ and ‘Akita 63’ showed a continuous distribution that could be explained by GS3. A near-isogenic line was developed to substitute the GS3 segment of ‘Koshihikari’, which harbours a normal-sized grain allele, in the genetic background of ‘Akita 63’ and the line was designated as Akita63NILGS3-Koshihikari. Compared with Akita63NILGS3-Koshihikari, ‘Akita 63’ exhibited a significantly increased grain length, single brown grain weight and GY, although no significant differences were observed in the nitrogen content and above-ground biomass per unit of cultivated area. These results indicate that the GS3 large-grain allele is a contributing factor to high PNUE for GY in ‘Akita 63’. These findings will facilitate the development of nitrogen-efficient rice varieties.

  • Yusuke Imoto, Shoko Yoshikawa, Yuki Horiuchi, Takumi Iida, Taisei Oka, ...
    Article type: Research Paper
    2022 Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 132-140
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 23, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 02, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Adzuki bean is an important legume crop originating in temperate regions, with photoperiod in sensitivity being a key factor in its latitudinal adaptation. The Flowering Date1 (FD1) gene has a large effect on the photoperiodic response of flowering time, but the molecular basis for the effect of this locus is undetermined. The present study delimited the FD1 locus to a 17.1 kb sequence, containing a single gene, an E1 ortholog (VaE1). A comparison between Vigna angularis ‘Shumari’ (photoperiod insensitive) and ‘Acc2265’ (photoperiod sensitive) identified 29 insertions/deletions and 178 SNPs upstream of VaE1 in the FD1 locus. VaE1 expression in ‘Acc2265’ was greater under long-day than short-day conditions, whereas VaE1 expression in ‘Shumari’ was lower regardless of day length. These findings suggested that responsible gene of FD1 is a VaE1, which acts as a floral repressor by being upregulated in response to long-day conditions. The inability to upregulate VaE1 under long-day conditions was linked to its ability to flower under these conditions. These results provide greater understanding of the molecular control of a flowering date and clues enabling the breeding of adzuki bean at higher latitudes.

  • Atsushi Kiyosawa, Jun-ichi Yonemaru, Hiroshi Mizuno, Hiroyuki Kanamori ...
    Article type: Research Paper
    2022 Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 141-149
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 23, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 10, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used to control pollination in the production of commercial F1 hybrid seed in sorghum. So far, 6 major fertility restorer genes, Rf1 to Rf6, have been reported in sorghum. Here, we fine-mapped the Rf5 locus on sorghum chromosome 5 using descendant populations of a ‘Nakei MS-3A’ × ‘JN43’ cross. The Rf5 locus was narrowed to a 140-kb region in BTx623 genome (161-kb in JN43) with 16 predicted genes, including 6 homologous to the rice fertility restorer Rf1 (PPR.1 to PPR.6). These 6 homologs have tandem pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Many Rf genes encode PPR proteins, which bind RNA transcripts and modulate gene expression at the RNA level. No PPR genes were detected at the Rf5 locus on the corresponding homologous chromosome of rice, foxtail millet, or maize, so this gene cluster may have originated by chromosome translocation and duplication after the divergence of sorghum from these species. Comparison of the sequences of these genes between fertile and CMS lines identified PPR.4 as the most plausible candidate gene for Rf5.

  • Dongjin Qing, Guofu Deng, Yinghua Pan, Lijun Gao, Haifu Liang, Weiyong ...
    Article type: Research Paper
    2022 Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 150-168
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 23, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 02, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Low temperature is one of the important environmental factors that affect rice growth and yield. To better understand the japonica rice responses to cold stress, isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling-based quantitative proteomics approach was used to detected changes in protein levels. Two-week-old seedlings of the cold tolerant rice variety Kongyu131 were treated at 8°C for 24, 48 and 72 h, then the total proteins were extracted from tissues and used for quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 5082 proteins were detected for quantitative analysis, of which 289 proteins were significantly regulated, consisting of 169 uniquely up-regulated proteins and 125 uniquely down-regulated proteins in cold stress groups relative to the control group. Functional analysis revealed that most of the regulated proteins are involved in photosynthesis, metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and carbon metabolism. Western blot analysis showed that protein regulation was consistent with the iTRAQ data. The corresponding genes of 25 regulated proteins were used for quantitative real time PCR analysis, and the results showed that the mRNA level was not always parallel to the corresponding protein level. The importance of our study is that it provides new insights into cold stress responses in rice with respect to proteomics and provides candidate genes for cold-tolerance rice breeding.

  • Xiaofang Wang, Ruilian Song, Yue An, Haiyi Pei, Song Gao, Daokun Sun, ...
    Article type: Research Paper
    2022 Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 169-180
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 23, 2022
    Advance online publication: February 02, 2022
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    Supplementary material

    Wheat landraces have abundant genetic variation at the Glu-1 loci, which is desirable germplasms for genetic enhancement of modern wheat varieties, especially for quality improvement. In the current study, we analyzed the allelic variations of the Glu-1 loci of 597 landraces and 926 commercial wheat varieties from the four major wheat-growing regions in China using SDS-PAGE. As results, alleles Null, 7+8, and 2+12 were the dominant HMW-GSs in wheat landraces. Compared to landraces, the commercial varieties contain higher frequencies of high-quality alleles, including 1, 7+9, 14+15 and 5+10. The genetic diversity of the four commercial wheat populations (alleles per locus (A) = 7.33, percent polymorphic loci (P) = 1.00, effective number of alleles per locus (Ae) = 2.347 and expected heterozygosity (He) = 0.563) was significantly higher than that of the landraces population, with the highest genetic diversity found in the Southwestern Winter Wheat Region population. The genetic diversity of HMW-GS is mainly present within the landraces and commercial wheat populations instead of between populations. The landraces were rich in rare subunits or alleles may provide germplasm resources for improving the quality of modern wheat.

Note
  • Yuri Fukui, Moeko Saito, Natsuno Nakamura, Taichi Mizuno, Shuichi Sato ...
    Article type: Note
    2022 Volume 72 Issue 2 Pages 181-187
    Published: 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 23, 2022
    Advance online publication: March 09, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS FULL-TEXT HTML
    Supplementary material

    Mentha is a complex genus encompassing many species as a consequence of their interspecific hybridization and polyploidy. Southeast Asian mints have been poorly distinguished though they are widely used for culinary and medical purposes. In this study, we have analyzed Southeast Asian mints and known varieties as well as a related Lamiaceae species (Nepeta sp.) using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and leaf morphology. Two types of mints were clearly distinguished based on their venation pattern and leaf shape index. We developed 12 SSR markers that allowed good amplification in the Mentha and another Lamiaceae species. In the SSR-based phylogram, the Mentha lines could be delimited into groups I–VI. The Southeast Asian mints divided into groups I and II, and the phylogram separated most of the available species, with groups I and II containing the known species M. × cordifolia and M. arvensis, respectively. The separation of the two groups was supported by a population structure analysis. The SSR markers developed in this study enabled the simultaneous classification of mints and will help improve our understanding of the genetic composition of known mint varieties and as yet unclassified Southeast Asian mints.

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