The comparison of batches of IAPSO standard seawater (SSW) is basic to high quality hydrographic studies. There are a lot of works for batch-to-batch differences of SSW and so-called "offset table" has been summarized up to P 140. To apply the "offset table" retrospectively means to accept tacitly the hypothesis that the batch-to-batch difference of SSW was not caused only by the aging effect but also, to a considerable extent, the reflection of the "initial offset". In order to figure out the cause of the "initial offset", we conducted the comparison of the conductivity of the defined KCl solutions made from the different high quality chemicals and found the lot and/or company dependency. This is a potential cause of "initial offset" between SSW batches.
The environmental water temperatures in Ise Bay are characterized by a few degrees higher in the nearshore area than in the offshore area. From the results of the field observation and the numerical experiment, we think that the phenomenon peculiar to Ise Bay can be explained as follows. In the innermost area of Ise Bay, the vertical structure of water temperature is of an overturned stratification, which is caused by the salt maintaining the density stratification against much fresh water supplied even in winter. In consequence, the estuary circulation is developed even in winter. The water of higher temperature and higher salt upwells from the lower layer in the innermost area of the bay and the higher temperature zone is formed. These phenomena are reinforced by the prominent northern or north-westerly wind in winter, and the higher temperature zone spreads in the innermost area of the bay.