This study aimed to set a practical indication of avian anesthesia in clinical situation. First, in an experimental study using three domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), all birds were induced anesthesia with isoflurane alone; with atropine (0.05 mg/kg) and isoflurane; and with injectable anesthetics alone: atropine (0.05 mg/kg), diazepam (2.0 mg/kg), and ketamine (50 mg/kg). Intubation of an endotracheal tube was followed and the minimal anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane was determined in each procedure. We confirmed the following key facts: (1) intubation is useful for an appropriate respiratory management; (2) premedication with injectable anesthetics decreases MAC; and (3) each procedure results in no clinically abnormal signs of cardio-respiratory function. Thus, we were sure of the safety and efficacy of our hypotheses for clinical methods in avian anesthesia with intubation, and attempted to apply them to several species of Japanese wild birds. Optimal results were obtained with isoflurane provided at 1.0–2.0 MAC of pigeons, so we conclude that our indications are effective in clinical situation. The indications are: (1) in small birds, premedication should be avoided due to the stress of needle puncture; (2) except in small birds, atropine should be used to prevent the possible cardio-respiratory depressive effects of prolonged exposure to isoflurane; (3) subcutaneous injection of atropine, diazepam and ketamine could be useful for anesthetizing large and powerful birds to which mask induction could not be applied.
A 6-year and 11-month old rabbit manifested severe bleeding from the vulva. Since a uterine neoplasm was suspected based on the radiographic examination, an ovariohysterectomy was performed. A large mass, approximately 35 × 50 mm, was observed in the right uterine horn and bead-shaped nodular lesions, 10–20 mm in size, were found in the left uterine horn. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed papillary adenocarcinoma in the right uterine horn and leiomyoma in the left uterine horn. The rabbit could survive for 3 years and 9 months after the surgery without any specific symptoms, and it died at the age of 10 years and 8 months showing thoracic disorder.
Bony metastases frequently cause severe pain; however, there are few reports of the management of cancer pain in the veterinary field. In this paper, we report the clinical management of cancer pain in a dog with thoracic vertebral metastasis from a malignant trichoepithelioma. Conventional pharmacologic treatment with systemic anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids and a bisphosphonate did not achieve adequate pain control. Placement of an indwelling thoracic epidural catheter subsequently used to administer repeated boluses of local anesthetic successfully treated the pain without complication and improved quality of life. Epidural analgesia should be considered an effective mean of treating intractable cancer pain in dogs.