Animals with tumors are recently treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, similarly to human medicine. To select optimal treatment for each tumor, many studies have been reported in veterinary medicine. Response rate and survival rate are generally used to evaluate each treatment. Prospective cohort study and experimental study, which have comparable internal control and few biases, are ideal, but take much time and cost. Realistically, most clinical studies are categorized to case report, case series study and retrospective study with external control. Our veterinary clinicians should create an environment to design ideal clinical study with statisticians.
Parmacoepidemiological studies that use medical information databases are powerful tools for post-marketing drug safety assessment. Recently, some medical information databases including claims data and electronic medical records data have become available in Japan. To conduct optimum drug safety assessment, researchers should comprehend the strengths and limitations of such databases. This paper deals with two important methodological topics in the field of pharmacoepidemiological ; causal inference and self-controlled methods. Also, pharmacoepidemiological studies may be important to find out rare serious adverse events of drugs, although few studies have focused on drug safety assessment in small animal medicine.
The domestic dog and cat have become integral to modern human family life. The Japanese dog and cat populations are estimated to be 10.35 and 9.96 million, with 15.1% and 10.1% of Japanese households being estimated to own at least one dog or cat respectively. With the integration of companion animals into human life, the number of owners who want to have their pets to receive proper veterinary medical care increased.
Knowing the pattern of disease occurrence of a defined animal population and the risk factors that may affect it, is important to maintain the health and prevent diseases in companion animals. It provides useful information that can be utilized by veterinary practitioners to guide diagnostic decision making, by breeders when planning breeding programs and by owner when acquiring a new pet. Despite substantial medical advances at the clinical level on diagnosis and treatment of diseases in individual animals, there is a shortage of epidemiological information in companion animals at population level.
In recent years, epidemiological analysis of dog diseases have been conducted using data from referral hospitals, and data from veterinary primary-care practices and veterinary practices. The data from referral hospitals are accurate in regard to diagnosis but they have no information about the total population at risk and the possible selection bias when only cases are referred to them. The data from primary-care practices and veterinary practices are more representative of the national dog population than those from referral hospitals, but they have a selection bias when a large proportion of dogs are not registered with practices or when the practices participating in the study are not representative of the overall veterinary practice structure. Pet insurance data have been used for research purposes since the 1970’s with increasing frequency during the last 15 years. Researchers have shown interest in pet insurance data because, although diagnostic information on insured animals may be inaccurate, they contain sound information relating to breed, sex and age of both diseased and healthy animals in the background population with less selection bias compared with data from referral hospitals and veterinary primary-care practices, and the insured population can be followed from enrolment to termination of coverage. Recently, epidemiological analysis by breed sex, age, and habitat has been conducted using data of insured dogs on mortality; mammary tumors, atopic dermatitis, lymphoma and bone tumors.
Although advances in veterinary medicine have led to a decrease in morbidity and have extended the life of pets, an evaluation of practice by a client not only depends on objective outcomes but it also involves subjective recognition. Thus, a veterinarian should also consider the psychosocial aspects of clients.
Grief derived from the loss of a pet is a well-known problem in this field. Therefore, there is a need for scales to quantify grief for the purpose of epidemiological research. Additionally, longitudinal assessments should be planned because short-term symptoms might be a part of the normal mourning. In that way, our study revealed that about half of the bereaved clients suffered from psychological symptoms two and four months after the death of their pet, indicating the need for psychiatric intervention for major depression.
Epidemiological studies on grief related to the loss of a pet would help develop preventive measures. However, we need to remember that the symptoms of a bereaved client may worsen owing to the stigma attached to psychiatric illnesses. is attached the stigma, it would aggravate the symptoms.
The objective of the study was to assess the risk of campylobacteriosis due to consumption of cross-contaminated nyama-choma (roast beef) sold in beer bars in Arusha Municipality, Tanzania.
In 2010, thirty butchers and thirty beer bars serving roast beef, selected using stratified random sampling, were visited to estimate the prevalence and the most probable number (MPN) of thermophilic Campylobacter in raw and roast beef. Ten purposively selected bars serving roast chicken were also surveyed, to assess cross-contamination after cooking, as Campylobacter spp. are generally more prevalent in poultry. One meat sample was collected in each butcher and each bar, and sales and hygiene were assessed through questionnaires and direct observation. A risk model was developed in statistical software R, and Monte Carlo simulation was performed to estimate disease incidence among customers and the adult male population in Arusha.
In the field survey, Campylobacter coli was recovered only from one chicken sample, of which bacterial concentration was 0.37 MPN/g (95% CI : 0.12-1.08). The daily incidence of campylobacteriosis among customers in Arusha was estimated to be 0.15 (95% CI : 0.02-0.95). Annual incidence rates among customers and in the adult male population in Arusha were 12.4 (95% CI : 1.2-83.6) per 1,000 and 0.6 (95% CI : 0.06-4.0) per 1,000, respectively. The most influential factor was the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in roast beef, followed by MPN. Most (26/40, 65%) bar owners sold meat from different species of animals, and cross-contamination could easily occur between poultry and beef. Nearly half (18/39, 46%) the bar owners used the same knife for raw and roast meat. Although half (20/40, 50%) had received hygiene training there was no statistical association between training and separate use of knives for raw and roast meats, considered to be the major source of contamination (x2＝0.22, df＝1, p＝0.64).
The study concluded campylobacteriosis from roast beef was a low public health issue in Arusha. However, considering the risks from other types of bacteria, improvement of cooking hygiene training was recommended to further reduce the risk of food-borne diseases from food consumed in beer bars.
FSCJ conducted assessments on human health risk associated with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in relation to the proposed revision of the domestic measures, in response to requests from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). Using the findings obtained from published documents and reference materials /documents submitted by the MHWL, FSCJ first completed the risk assessment of the limit of cattle age for BSE testing, and subsequently will conduct the assessment of definition of Specified Risk Materials (SRMs).
For the age limit, FSCJ thoroughly assessed the possible risk of development of human prion diseases including vCJD linked with BSE prions through consumption of cattle meat and offal in association with the proposed cease of BSE testing of healthy slaughtered cattle for human consumption.
As the result, regarding the limit of cattle age for BSE testing, a difference between the following two measures would be extremely small in their influences on the risk to human health. One is to test continuously healthy slaughtered cattle over 48 months of age for human consumption, and the other is to cease BSE testing of healthy slaughtered cattle for human consumption. Therefore, FSCJ considers that the risk to human health arisen from the change of the measure on BSE testing from the former to the latter is negligible.
In recent years, the wild animal issues became serious, and many related laws and regulations have been revised. In particular, as the number of deer and wild boars population increased, it became uncontrollable, so in 2014 the birds and animal protection law was revised and private enterprises and others were able to enter the capture project. However, it seems that these revisions will be effective for the time being.