The material flow in soy-sauce production process was analyzed for total mass, TOC, T-N,T-P and T-Cl. A main solid emission from the process was lees, a cake after filtration of fermented broth. The various reutilization method of the lees as a resource was studied and the dry distillation was investigated in detail. The conversion of lees by dry distillation increased with temperaturerapidly at low temperature, but moderately at high temperature region. The production of inflammable gases was prominent at high temperature. The liquid products obtained during the condensation of exit gas were composed of aqueous and organic solutions.The solid residue was a char like a fiber containing inorganic phosphorus compounds which was not removed by washing. The reusing method of these products was discussed.
The world population is expected to increases up to 8 billion by 2015. Most of the cities in the world are scattered around the fresh water resource. These cities and villages have their own interests and they constitute a power order. Therefore, we have been trying to harmonize these cities and villages in the usage of fresh water resource and the discharging of wastewater as well, by using an engineering means of water treatment. The water environments science and technology should recognize the limit of fresh water resource for the sustainable development of the society, because the water service industries are the essential infrastructure of the community. In order to implement an appropriate risk management it is necessary to identify the goal of environmental management considering the social, natural and economical conditions. The energy dependent science technology should be reconsidered to be less energy and more resource conservation engineering means. Water supply and sanitation technology is not the sanctuary for the society, therefore more comprehensive water management system should be developed by other sectors, such as food production industry, with concern.
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs are of increasing interest from the viewpoint of health effects and human exposure as well as abnormality in wildlife reproductive systems. A nationwide survey of these EDCs was conducted to collect information on their existence in source and drinking waters in Japan. The analyzed 68 chemicals were as follows; 9 ethyl phthalates and similar compounds, 16 phenols, 8 styrenes, 2 organic tin compounds, 2 hormones, 26 pesticides and 5 other chemicals listed in SPEED '98 announced by the Environment Agency. Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was most frequently detected in 88% of 45 raw watersand 88% of 42 treated waters. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was found both in 26% of raw waters and in 12% of treated waters, as well. The maximum concentration of DEHP in treated water was 0.00026 mg/l, and that of DBP was 0.00018 mg/l. Bisphenol A (32%) and phenol (21%) were also common in raw waters, though they were hardly found in treated waters after chlorination. Among pesticides, pentachlorophenol (PCP) was found in 4 raw waters, with the maximum concentration of 0.00004 mg/l, and one treated water.
Effects of spilled oil stranded on tidal flats on macrobenthic community were studied using a tidal flat ecosystem simulator. Two simulators, C simulator as a control and O simulator with oil spill by fuel oil C (1 lm-2), were compared. Total population density of macrobenthos in the C simulator increased and was kept high throughout the experimental period. In the O simulator, however, the population density of macrobenthos was kept low from the oil spill treatment until day 35 and thereafter recovered significantly. ORP in both the C and Osimulators showed positive values in the top 1 cm layer of sediments before the oil spill treatment. However ORP of the top 1cm of the sediment in the O simulator dropped down to negative values after the oil spill. The volume of seawater infiltration in the O simulator in day 23 decreased to a third by the spill. However, it recovered back to almost the same volume as that before the spill in day 58 when macrobenthic population density also recovered. Also, the concentrations of fuel oil C in top 1 cm of the sediments decreased gradually down to a half. The removal of fuel oil C in sediment by washout through tides and waves are possibly responsible for the recovery of seawater infiltration, consequently resulting in the restoration of macrobenthic community in the O simulator. These results suggest that spilled oil on tidal flats apparently reduces the infiltration volume of seawater and causes the development of reductive zone in sediment layer and such changes in physical environment are mainly responsible for the damages in the macrobenthic community in tidal flats.
On October 1, 1998, Taiheiyo Cement Corporation (Taiheiyo Cement) was formed through the merger of two major Japanese cement manufacturers, Chichibu Onoda Cement Corporation and Nihon Cement Co., Ltd. Both companies have histories of over 100 years. In Japan, Taiheiyo Cement has eight cement plants and five subsidiary cement companies, whose total annual production capacity is over 30 millions ton and total domestic cement market share is about 40%. In overseas, Taiheiyo Cement has eight cement plants - three in China, three in USA, one in Vietnam and one in the Philippines. Taiheiyo Cement also operates several cement grinding plants overseas. And Taiheiyo Cement is now co-managing SsangYong Cement, the biggest cement manufacture in Korea.