The current status of the three species of cranes in the Asian Continent, Grus japonensis, G. vipio and G. monacha that can also be seen in large numbers in Japan is interpreted in this papar with reference to the new literatures of Soviet Union, Korea and China listed in the bibliography. 1. Grus japonensis (Japanese Crane) The breeding grounds of this species in the Soviet Union are the middle courses of the River Amur and the River Ussuri, and the east shore of the Lake Khanka. The total number of the Japanese Cranes that can be seen in these places during the breeding season is approximately 80. Also, there are few breeding grounds along the bank of the River Sungari but the exact number is not yet reported. These Japanese Cranes are migratory birds and about half of them seem to pass the winter in Korea, and the remaining half in the East China. 2. Grus vipio (White-naped Crane) The breeding grounds of the White-naped Cranes that have been confirmed recently are the marshlands around the central part of the Primorskij Kraj and the middle courses of the River Amur, and also around Jaranton at the northwest of Manchuria. However, the number of this species that come to these breeding grounds is much fewer that those that come to the wintering ground. Therefore, there seem to be several other breeding grounds that are still unknown. Both the Chinese and the Russian ornithologists unanimously presume that there might be breeding grounds somewhere around the east shore of the Lake Baikal, and also around the River Kerulen and the basin of the River Onon in Mongolia. All the White-naped Cranes mentioned above are migratory birds. Approximately 2700 of them first come to the central part of Korea, especially around the lower courses of the Namhangang. Most of these birds stay in the west coast of the Central Korea, but a part of them come to Arasaki in Japan. Recently, the number of White-naped Cranes that come to Arasaki has increased enormously. This seems to be because the mud flats of the West coast of Korea which are the wintering ground of this species have been narrowed by the reclamation work. 3. Grus monacha (Hooded Crane) Few Hooded Cranes seem to breed in the Chinese territory at the right bank of the River Ussuri, but the majority of them breed within the Russian territory, such as the place between the basin of the River Tungska, the tributary of the River Jenisej, and the tributary of the River Lena, and especially around the basin of the River Viljini and the Olekno-Charekoe Plateau. A part of them also breed around the middle courses of the River Amur and the River Ussuri. The breeding areas extend over 2000km from east to west and 1500km from north to south. Nearly 2800 Hooded Cranes that breed in these areas come to such place as Arasaki in Japan through Manchuria and Primorskij Kraj to pass the winter. However, they are very rarely seen or collected in China and Korea, so the course of their migration will be the important subject for the future studies. Since it was made clear that almost all the Hooded Cranes winter in Japan, it must be recognized anew that Japan has a great responsibility in preserving this species.
1) The results of recent observations of the Short-tailed Albatross on Torishima by Takenouchi in the 1973/74 season and by the author from 1976/77 were documented in a little detail. 2) In 1973/74 although at least 40 clutches seemed to have been laid, only 11 chicks fledged. In 1976/77 about 70 birds were sighted frequently and more than 40 pairs could have had their clutches, but only 15 young fledged. Compared with Tickell's observation of 24 fledglings in May 1973, the annual fledgling production was low recently. Breeding success of about one-third in recent seasons might be lower than the average value 43% a decade or so ago. 3) Among possible factors respensible, a change in vegetation characteristics at the nesting site was pointed out to be most probable: the grass Miscanthus sinensis v. condensatus which was tall and dominant at the east area before has become subdominant and replaced by the short herbaceous plant Crysanthemum pacificum; but in the center of the west area vegetation has been removed due to trampling by albatrosses. Most chicks survived were close to the vegetation. 4) Although the Short-tailed nested preferentially on the bare, flat ground in those days when they were abundant, for the present-day population nesting on the restricted site, a steep volcanic ash slope vulnearable to erosion, washout and constant fall-out of ash from the upper-parts of the island, the vegetation cover should without doubt improve success by stabilising the nesting ground and by protecting the broods from strong winds, and increase the nest carrying capacity making no inconvenience to their take-off. 5) From these considerations, some problems for the conservation measures such as transplanting the grass and use of fertilizer at the breeding ground, and the extermination of terrestrial predators are discussed. 6) Some observations on "raft" behaviour of the Short-tailed Albatross and the current breeding status of the Black-footed Albatross were also reported.
1. This report series treats the unpublished data in the study of the linetransect census method, which had been studied by the author and reported previously (Yui 1974, '77). This first report treats the diurnal change of the census effectivity, which is the ratio of individuals recorded in one census to the territory density in that area covered. 2. In the breeding season, the diurnal change of recorded numbers in one census (viz, the census effectivity) according to day time is remarkable as shown in Fig. 1 (Asahikawa, Hokkaido, June, 1976) or in the previous papers. However, the relative dominance values of each species calculated by census data showed no significant difference by the time of day for many species inhabitting the study areas (Table 1 and 2). Therefore, it can be said that the pattern of diurnal change of census effectivity is almost the same in every species inhabitting the same study area. 3. The diurnal changing pattern of census effectivity was calculated based on the data of Asahikawa (Fig. 1), and it gave the significant regression curve as follows; Y=139.7-10.67x+0.3816x2 F>P0.005 This formula is standardized at 4:20, 30 minutes after sunrise, where x is time of day, when x is 4:20, Y becomes 100. 4. To compare several changing patterns of census effectivity obtained at Fuji, Takizawa and Asahikawa, the time and value of the lowest census effectivity and the length of time from sunrise to the lowest time are shown in Table 4 for each area. In consequence, their values show a slight difference but not so large. 5. With the investigations of changes micro light intensity at the twilight time and the bird activity at that time, it was appeared that there were no differences in their changes between latitudes or altitudes (partly in Table 3 and Fig. 2). 6. In winter of 1975, the diurnal changing pattern of recorded numbers in one census according to day time was investigated at Takizawa. The pattern was different from that of the breeding season, and was divided into two groups of different changing pattern as in Fig. 3 and 4. First group, which include mainly resident small passerines and woodpeckers, showed no significant differnce by the time of day in the relative dominance values of each species calculated by the census data (Table 5). On the contrary, second group, which include mainly winter visitors and CORVIDAE species, showed significant differences each other in the same analysis, and decreased sharply its number in the course of day.
Bird censuses were conducted approximately once a month in and around Yamato reclaimed land, Yamato Machi, Yamato Gun, Fukuoka Prefecture, i. e. on the north coast of the Sea of Ariake, from July 1974 to December 1976. Birds observed were 25 families including 99 species. The three of these families, Anatidae, Charadriidae and Scolopacidae included 47 species (47. 5% of all). The authors, therefore, decided to study seasonal changes in number of species and individuals of these three representative families. 1. The number of individual ducks (Anatidae) was greatest in winter, the number of species was greatest either in spring or autumn. 2. The highest number of individual plovers (Charadriidae) occurred in the autumn migratory season. The number of species was almost equal in spring and autumn (4 species in spring, while 5 species in autumn). 3. On the other hand, the number of individuals of sandpipers (Scolopacidae) was greater in the spring migratory season than in the autumn. The number of species was almost equal in spring and autumn (16 species vs. 18 species). 4. The record of bird observations on the north coast of the Sea of Ariake was compared with those in Osaka Bay, Tokyo Bay and the Gamou coast, Miyagi Prefecture. Among 35 species of shore birds observed on the north coast of the Sea of Ariake, 17 species were chosen (18 species were eliminated because of the rarity of observed individual), to compare the migratory types with those of the shore birds observed in the three districts above mentioned. 5. Six species (Charadrius mongolus, Pluvialis squatarola, Tringa erythropus, T. nebularia, T. brevipes, Xenus cinereus) on the Ariake Sea cost showed the same migration types as the in other three districts, and the other 11 species (Charadrius alexandrinus, Pluvialis dominica, Arenaria interpres, Calidris ruficollis, C. alpina, C. tenuirostris, Tringa glareola, Limosa limosa, L. lapponica, Numenius madagascariensis, N. phaeopus) on the Ariake Sea cost showed a difierent nigration type from these in the other three districts. As a result of taking the migration types into consideration, we might propose a fourth migratory course to the north, in addition to the three courses described by Kobayashi (1959). That is a route along the south coasts of the Japanese Islands. Two courses are described as the southward migratory route of the shore birds. 6. Whether migrating north or south, several opecies of shore birds seems pass the north coast of the Sea of Ariake migrate via Korean Peninsula, instead of passing through Honshu Island of Japan.
1. In the sympatric congeneric tits (Paridae and Aegithalidae), some comparative studies of the methods in the use of bills and the structure of the among the bill species were made and the ecological separation, as related with the spaces for each species were discussed. The vegetation of the studied area is a mixed deciduous woods in central Japan, as detailed by T. Nakamura (1970, 1975). 2. The species features in the morphological characters shown by body length, wing length, tail length, tarsus length, toe length, bill length, bill width and bill depth are as follows: Long-tailed Tit (Aegithalos caudatus) has a smaller body but a longer tail, wing, and tarsus in relative length than Parus species. The bill of Long-tailed Tit is shorter and has a more curved shape than Parus species. In Parus, the relative length of tail is smaller than that of the Long-tailed Tit and the relative length of toes is greater than that of Long-tailed Tit. The shape of the bill in Parus is more similar to the simple cone than that of Long-tailed Tit. Great Tit (Parus major) has larger toes and their bill is not specialized as compared with other three species of Parus. Coal Tit (Parus ater) has a smaller body but has a relatively long wing than other Parus species. The shape of the bill of Coal Tit is thin and pointed. Willow Tit (Parus montanus) has the toes with large claws, and the length of the hind and the midde toes is almost the same. The bill of Willow Tit has a larger relative depth (ratio of depth to width or length) than the other three species of Parus. Varried Tit (Parus varius) has a larger body length and a pointed bill. The shape of the bill of this species is flattened at the tip like a flat chisel. 3. The species features as represented the methods of using the bill in attacking the preys and picking seeds are as follows: Long-tailed Tit often takes the hunging posture on a twig of larch and deciduous trees, and quick picking and pecking are the most simple methods of using the bill. However, Parus species have more varied methods in the use of the bill and more varied attacking sites than Long-tailed Tit. Especially, it is characteristic of Parus species that they have methods of processing by their bill on the sites or objects where they suppose available food existed and they often hammer them and remove the food. Great Tit removes a piece of bark on the branch or the trunk or a fallen leaf on the ground. Coal Tits destroy the buds or a lump of dead leaves clung to twigs by bitting or thrusting by their bill. Willow Tit digs up dead parts in trees, often while hunging under the branches or twigs. Varried Tit holds seeds, acorns, insect galls or other ball like matters on perch by their toes and crushes them pecking by the bill. 4. The methods in the use of the bill well correspond with the morphological characteristics of the bill in each species. Due to the large differences in the use of the bill, in the structure of the bill and in the sites for attacking preys between Long-tailed Tit and Parus species, their coexistence will be possible in various locations in Japan. I think that the ecological differences between Long-tailed Tit and Parus species are larger than such interspecific differences within genus Parus, such as the differences in the shape of bills. These congeneric interspecific differences may not allow the coexistance of species within Parus completely but only uncompletely. Therefore, the species compositions of Parus in sympatric ranges vary from site to site. 5. The methods in the use of bills well correspond with the micro-structure in a microhabitas.
Activities of migratory caged Reed Bunting, Emberiza schoeniclus in both light and darkness exposed to three different artificial temperature have been measured during the periods from March through December in 1975. Each bird was confined in a bamboo cage equipped with a microswitch on one side of the purching bar, for counting the activities of the bird in the cage. Our 15 birds were assigned to three chanbers whose temperature was maintained at 23°C, 15°C, and 8°C, respectively. The body weight of experimental groups exposed to 23°C, 15°C and 8°C increased in the spring migratory period; and the body weight of the group in the temperature in 23°C decreased in all other seasons, whereas, the body weight of the groups in 15°C and 8°C increased slightly in the fall migratory season. Activities in the dark period, or Zugunruhe exposed to 23°C increased both in the spring and fall migratory periods, and the group in 15°C increased Zugunruhe only in spring period, whereas, the group exposed to 8°C showed no Zugunruhe in either spring or fall season. It can be said that the favorable temperature such as 23°C induced the onset of Zugunruhe in both spring and fall, and 15°C induced Zugunruhe only in spring; whereas low temperature such as 8°C inhibited the onset of Zugunruhe in both spring and fall seasons.
1. The present field research and behavioral study of Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martius were carried out in the natural Fagus crenata forest from April to mid-December 1977. The study area is located at Mt. Moriyoshi, Akita Prefecture in northern Honshiu Japan, as shown in the previous report (Ogasawara 1977). The field research of the trees used by Black Woodpecker were carried by four investigators during October and November 1977. 2. We observed five trees of Fagus crenata in Which Black woodpecker would nest in future. The several situations of these five nesting trees were similar to those of Hokkaido (Arisawa 1976). 3. We found that the six roosting trees of Fagus crenata, and that one of them was used by the female (No. 7 in Table 2), but it is not clear whether these five roosting trees, except No. 7, were used or not by Black Woodpeckers at present. However, these roosting trees were in a very similar situation to those of Hokkaido (Arisawa 1976). 4. The situations of the nesting and roosting trees were very similar; namely, trees of Fagus crenata standing straightly on the ground, 0.5-1.0m in diameter at the breast height of tree, the nesting and roosting holes excavated at 8-12m in height above the ground, the undermost branches being above these holes, and the surface of the tree trunk being smooth. But the difference is that a nesting tree has one hole, whereas a roosting tree has usually more than one hole. 5.The dead and half-dead trees for feeding by Black Woodpecker were distributed widely. in the present study area within 300ha of our investigated forest. We recognized 471 dead trees of Fagus crenata (96.3%), three living trees of Fagus crenata (0.6%), eight dead trees of Pterocarves rhoifolta (1.6%), four living trees of Pteroearva rhoifolia (0.8%), and other three trees (0.6%), with feeding holes. It is very important that the density of these feeding trees is almost the same as that recognized in Hokkaido (1.6 per ha) as the investigation by Arisawa (1976) indicates. 6. The time when the female of this species went roosting, as in the present study from October to November, was almost 16:00. But it is very interesting that this female came into the roosting hole at 10:28 on 25th October 1977. 7. In Fagus crenata forest which is at its climax, one or two Black Woodpeckers (male and female) have fed gently or sometimes with loud sounds on dead trees, standing or lying on the ground. 8. We tried to show schematically how Black Woodpeckers use, for example, Fagus oreuata tree in a natural forest. We have many cases in which Black Woodpeckers used a big tree as a feeding tree as if it were partially dead. In another case, woodpeckers have selected a favorable nesting tree on which they excavated a hole at a proper height, and used it a relatively long time, year after year. If the nesting tree was older, woodperckers would used it as a feeding tree. Furthermore, we speculate that the nesting tree will be used as a roosting tree if the woodpecker excavates several holes, as shown in Fig. 8.
Otayama Bird-Observatory (35°58'N, 136°01'E), Fukui Prefecture is situated in the mountain range, with some peaks of 400-700m alt., which stretches along Echizen coast. This Bird-Obser-vatory is 1.5km south-east of Mt. Rokusho (698m alt.) and 4km east of the nearest coast. The netting site of this Bird-Observatory on a small and narrow ridge, 460m alt., is 150m in maximum length, 40m in maximum width, and approximately 4000m2. There are scattered coniferous plantations in the vicinity, and in the netting site deciduous broadleaved trees are dominant and these trees are cut down evenly up to 4 or 5m height. Some fifty mist-nets lined up were set an interval of 4-7m in the area. Song and call-notes of several species from 1 or 4 tape-recorders were utilized instead of a live decoy birds. In a five-year autumn ringings from 1973 through 1977, 3553 birds of 38 species in 1973, 4710 birds of 49 species in 1974, 3537 birds of 48 species in 1975, 5368 birds of 44 species in 1976, and 5391 birds of 50 species in 1977 were ringed, and 22559 birds of 65 species were ringed in the accumulated total. The number of birds ringed of each species is shown in Table 1, and of which regular and abundant eleven species are listed, again, in Table 2. At Otayama Bird-Observatory, Emberiza rustica, winter visitor, was the most abundant. Ringing number of this species comprised 31, 40, 44, 60, and 51% of the grand totals in 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, and 1977, respectively. Ringing totals of the first ten species in each year amounted to 91, 93, 85, 95, and 91% of the grand totals in 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, and 1977, respectively. Especially, the song-tapes of Emberiza rustica, E. spodocephala, resident or short distance migrant, and Zosterops japonica, resident or short distance migrant, were good effects to induce these birds on autumn movement and to gather them in the netting site. From the relation between the weather conditions at Otayama and the days when there were a large capturings, phenomenally it was a clear tendency that 1) after 20 October, if autumn mild days without wind last several days, a large migration occures, 2) a large migration may occur in the latter half of the period, 3) when this period of mild days breaks and rainy or strong windy days intervene, the movement of birds clearly declines, 4) this bad weather is subdued and if mild days last several days, a large migration occures again. In one case when the barrier was strong wind without rain, it occures at the first day, and in another case when the barrier was rain with strong wind, it occures at the second or the third day. From a five-year ringing, seasonal differences of autumn passage of a main 24 species, including resident or short distance migrant, winter visitor, summer visitor and autumn passage migrant, were shown in Figures 2-8, and discussed under considering their habitat prefferences and migratory characteristics.
The Laysan Albatross was confirmed to breed on Torishima (27°40'30"N, 142°07'20"), immediate offshore of Mukojima, the Mukojima Retto, the Ogasawara Islands. One chick fledged in the 1976/77 season and three eggs hatched in 1977/78. This breeding record is the first from the Ogasawara Islands, and the third to the former recorded on Minami-torishima and on Torishima of the Izu Shotôin the western North Pacific Ocean.
Reported here are the systems and activities of "die Vogelwarten" in West Germany, visited by the author in May-June 1977. These ornithological institutes are in Helgoland, Wilhelmshaven, and Radolfzell. Bird-ringing began in Germany from 1903, using the rings of Vogelwarte Rossitten. Now, two kinds of rings are used in West Germany. One is for the northen regions and the other is for the southern. Annually, more than 370.000 (individuals of) birds are ringed by about 770 amateur ringers. At the Vogelwarte Helgoland, using the well-known Helgoland-traps and several other traps (for Doves, Crows and Sparrows), elaborate research is being carried out throughout the year. The Institute for Ornithology of Wilhelmshaven acts as one of the two bird-ringing centers in West Germany. At this institute are studied behavior of gulls and discriminating ability of Oystercatcher in laboratory. Also I visited to Vogelwarte Radolfzell, the other birdringing center. Near the Vogelwarte, thare is the Mettnau bird ringing station, which belongs to a long-term bird ringing and research program (Mettnau-Reit-Illmitz program). The aim of this program is to study not only migration but also many other items; population dynamics, biorhythmic, research for ecosystems and methodology. I would like to thank heartily Dr. G. Vauk, Dr. D. Moritz and Mr. E. Sohonart of Helgoland, Dr. W. Winkel and Mr. H. Rogall of Wilhelmshaven, Dr. G. Zink, Dr. P. Becker, Dr. J. Hölzinger and Mr. F. Bairlein of Radolfzell, and also all the others at the three Vogelwarten, for their very kind hospitality given to us during our stay.