Avian taxonomy of 'Linnean species' category had nearly been finished by 1940, 'New systematics' was proposed in 1940 by leadership of J. Huxley, and great contributions have been made by Dobzhansky, '37, Mayr, '42 and many others. The species problem was now attacked genetically and biologically, and therefore the 'biological species' concept arose. In Japan, Yamashina advanced cytogenetic method of classification based on hybrid sterility and chromosome caryotype (by means of special technique devised in Japan) and gave definitions to each category of classification from this basis. The recent concept of taxonomy and species problem developed in two ways: one towards more and more molecular, or biochemical, analysis, such as egg protein (Sibley) and blood serem (Irwin, Mainardi) and the other towards more comprehensive analysis. The latter comprises two categories; first the structural-functional analysis with special consideration on the adaptive radiatiod among related species, the second being eco-sociological analysis in population level, which Mayr calls the 'population systematics', and Tokuda names it the 'dynamic concept' of species. It can be said that the more conservative and inner is the character, the older phylogenetic affinity could be suggested. But, if the more variable and outer characters with direct influence of environment were neglected, we fail to realize the history of adaptive differentiation of a bird as a whole, because such innermost characters as egg proteins, blood serum, or chromosomes, are conservative to such extent that they are invariable even in ontogeny, which reflects some historic pattern of speciation. It was also pointed out that in such cases as sibling or occulto (Yamashina) species, the slight internal or genetic change has not yet influenced the external characters which remain unchanged conservatively. The population level concept sees the birds' society as unit and classify their species-specific types of life in the ecological system taking in consideration every biological characters; therfore it is the most comprehensive concept of species. The ornithology has now become very complex, comprising many fields and data from each field, morphological, physiological, ecological and ethological, can be some contributions to taxonomy, and the species is a 'mozaic whole' of characters. The author is of the opinion that the species concept should be comprehensive and biological. But, data from various fields, which are being accumulated, are still too fragmental for a definite complex definition of species. Everything, living organisms, science, and industry, etc., evolve through the 'complication' and 'intensification' into the final stage of complex totality. As to subspecies, it was added among others, that 'subspecies-group' should be expressed in birds' latin names in parenthesis after the species name, and the need of bio-ecological study of subspecies is commented. This paper is dedicated to Dr. Y. Yamashina, the Director, who has made a great contribution to this problem, for his year of the 60th birthday.
The food habits of the following species of Herons in Saitama Prefecture were analyzed from their stomach contents: Egretta alba modesta, Egretta intermedia intermedia, Egretta garzetta garzetta, Bubulcus ibis coromandus, Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax. Their common feeding grounds were rice fields but specific difference of food items were found, as shown below: E. alba modesta Crustacea 63.5% Pisces 27% E. i. intermedia Insecta 44.4% Pisces 23.2% Amphibia 18, 4% Crustacea 11.4% E. g. garzetta Crustacea 41.8% Piscea 27.0% Insecta 26.5% B. ibis coromandus Insecta 92.2% N. n. nycticorax Pisces 56.0% Insecta 28.4% Amphibia 9.8% Nearly all of their foods were animal matter, except a few crops of rice which were accidentally eaten. They thus have no immediate relation to the rice plants, but are beneficial, feeding on American crawfish, locust, mole-cricket and gadfly, etc, though the Night Heron is rather noxious much eating fishes and amphibia. Difference of food items was found compared with Ikeda's result obtained from a coastal area.
1. Roost-dead Grey Starlings, Sturnus cineraceus, were collected through the winter roosting period at three large roosts, Koshigaya in Saitama, Shinhama in Chiba and Kozukue in Kanagawa Prefectures. 2. The roosts were used from November to middle March. The dead birds were found from January at Koshigaya and from Feburary at Shinhama and Kozukue. 3. Research areas for collection of roost-dead birds were marked, which were 33m2. (total of 3 sections), 116m2. (total of 3 sections) and 466m2. (total of 4 sections) at Koshigaya, Shinhama and Kozukue respectively. But, actual research area for dead-bird collection was much larger at Koshigaya, and these research areas covered 50%, 30% and 90% of entire roosting areas at Koshigaya, Shinhama and Kozukue respectively. In all, the numbers of dead birds collected were 40 at Koshigaya, 10 at Shinhama and 24 at Kozukue, and except only 5 examples, the cause of death was a same kind of disease. Two Dusky Thrushes and one Brown-eared Bulbul, probably of this cause, were found dead. 4. The total number of roosting birds were determined by counts of returning birds to the roost which was: 50, 000 birds at Koshigaya, 8, 000 birds at Shinhama and 6, 000 birds (probably underestimated owing to a windy day count) at Kozukue. 5. The pathological diagnostic symptoms characteristic to the roost-dead birds were: 1) Cranial hemorrhage of various degrees occurring in the brain and skull (between the bony plate) which often accompanied severe orbital hemorrhage and protrusion of eye-balls caused by 'flooding' of the brain into the orbit. 2) Congestion of various degrees in the lung, which is usually heavier on the right side. 3) Often pathologic enlargement of the heart filled with venous blood. 4) Often hemorrhage of jugular vein or along the spinal cord (after Prof. Miyamoto) and the capillaries of various body parts. The gizzard was always, except a single case, empty. The pectoral muscles were normal or slightly, or rarely considerably, weakened, and the fat varied in amount by individual from much to none. 6. Young Sparganum mansoni (Cestoda) were found in 8 birds out of 69 examples examined, parasitizing subcutaneously on the surface of pectoral muscles or inner side of the thigh muscles; probably the first record in wild birds. It was also found in the intestine in 26% examples examined, and other parasite, Acanthocephala (and one Cestoda sp.) was found in 21% examples. Pathological examination made by Prof. Tabe, as well as Dr. Kametani and Miss Kihara, parasitologists, did not prove the presence of cercaria and eggs of Gigantobilhazia sturniae Tabe (1948) known in this starling from other prefectures. Results of anatomical, histological and some bacteriologic and pesticide examinations done by Prof. Miyamoto are also included, but direct factor causing the fatal cranial and lung diseases has not been clarified. 7. Ecologically, it was found that 1) Average 71%, even 80% at Koshigaya, of the roost-dead birds were males, 3) Seasonally, January and February were the peak of the disease. Considerations were given from some ecological point of view. 8. The roost-mortality was estimated from two calculations. The roosting density was estimated conservatively as 15 birds in 1m2. (indirect photographic data, though night flash-photos were not available were considered), and based on the collected dead birds within the measured research areas, the mortality was estimated as 1.01% at Koshigaya, 0.46% at Shinhama and 0.24% at Kozukue. The high % of Koshigaya was apparently due to too small measured area. On the other hand, the mortality was calculated also the other way based on the % of estimated total of dead birds, calculated from the collected dead birds and the % of area covered to entire roost area.
1. In the winter of 1959-1960 the Great Tits which roosted in the nesting boxes were studied. 2. On December, 38 of 80 boxes supplied in the study area of c. 40ha. had been occupied by the birds. A same bird tended to occupy the same box or several ones in a definite area. 3. The number of the box-roosters declined gradually toward the end of March, probably due to heavy mortality among the Great Tits population in the last winter. 4. Although the number of the box-roosters decreased, the sex ratio among the population was nearly constant; the males always outnumbered the females, the percentage of males being on the average 70 per cent. 5. A simple experiment to test the selection of the roosting sites by the Great Tits revealed that the direction of the entrance holes of the boxes is of little importance.
The author has reported in the previous paper on the histology (and the change after food intake), of proventriculus in the Tubinares and added that only in Diomedeidae the wall of proventriculus is different at least macroscopically (Zool. Mag. 66: 27, '57). The present paper makes clear this difference histologically which is very distinct as shown in Pl. 2, the glandular layer being thin and composed of uniform and dense glands This peculiarity in Diodmedea is more evident when compared with other sea birds (cf. Pl. 3 and Matthews, Ibis 91 (3), '49). The only Tubinarine character found however is the circular muscle layer which is distinctly wavy in the empty condition of the proventriculus. Such Diomedean characteristics are not considered to be explained ecologically and from food habit, and possibly be of phylogenetic one. But whether it be a primitive (glandular layer being uniform) or a specialized (glands small but extremely dense) character is undeterminable.