This is the result of 11 monthly round voyages across the Pacific Ocean between Japan and North America, 1983-85, by means of car-transport ships, granted by Toyota Foundation. All the seabird species were censused and their distributional patterns were analysed, of which the comparative distributional analysis of two albatrosses, the Laysan Diomedea immutabilis and the Black-footed D. nigripes are presented here. The former species outnumbered the latter in total counts, but showed clumped patterns in some sea areas, particularly in NW Pacific, while the latter species was more evenly distributed in low densities, particularly in the SE Pacific between Hawaii and U. S. coast. Factors responsible for this were not definitely proved, but the need of future research on food preference, or segregation, is suggested.
Food storing behaviour in the Willow Tit Parus montanus restrictus was studied in Sugadaira Hight, Central Japan, 1974 to 1986. In the breeding season, larvae and adult insects occupied 88% of the total diet. Seeds increased in the diet from September to become chief food in autumn to winter, and about 70% of food consumed in winter was those stored in the autumn. During breeding season, food storing occurred only infrequently. The behaviour was most frequent in autumn, and 86.3% of the total food taken in October was stored. Food was mostly (99.3%) stored in trees and 53.9% of which were coniferous trees. Willow Tit preferred trees with exfoliately bark, such as red pine Pinus densiflora, oak Quercus mongolica, birch Betula Ermanii, etc., and avoided smooth barked trees, such as beech Fugus crenata, dogwood Cornus controversa, etc. The 67.9% of stored food was found in the interstice of bark, and others were stored in the crevice of a broken stick, or opened pine cone. In the study area, three families of the Willow Tit formed a compound flock in August. Each member stored food widely in their flock range, without particular concentration. However, strict dominance order occurred in the flock, but with no correlation between order of dominance and frequency of food storing. The duration of store was short, 74% of stored food having been removed within 6 days from the day of storing. Often, however, a stored food was removed and re-stored at different site and the food stored in autumn, was consumed during winter as the main food. Some discussions were given about particularities in the food storing behaviour of the Willow Tit.
From April, 1985 to March, 1986, Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus, Bonaparte's Gull L. philadelphia (a straggler), Herring Gull L. argentatus, Slaty-backed Gull L. schistisagus, Black-tailed Gull L. crassirostris and Mew Gull L. canus were observed at the mouth of Tama-river, which forms the boundary between Tokyo-Metropolitan and Kanagawa Prefectures. The main species were Black-headed and Black-tailed Gulls in this estuary. The Black-headed Gull was dominant in winter whereas the Black-tailed Gull replaced it from July to September. Other four species occurred only in small numbers.
The present study confirms the extreme degenerative effects of epinephrine on the testis of weaver bird (Ploceus philippinus). Further, the recovery of testicular activities following conjoint administration of Duvadilan proves the vasoconstrictor action of the sympathomimetic amine. Similar testicular response was obtained after application of FSH-gonadotrophin with epinephrine.
In the present study we observed the behavioural responses of male pigeon in its home and alien cages. How hormonal interplay governs the above stiuation also constitutes another important facet of our work. The salient features of our findings are as follows: (1) A pigeon defending its territory always wins the fight. (2) Recognition of male and female in pigeon is through various signalling. (3) Both courtship and territorial behaviour of a male are testosterone dependent. (4) Territorial behaviour is absent in female.
From 8th March to 14th May 1980 I travelled extensively throughout the main Japanese archipelago and outlying islands. Through discussion with Dr. Mark A. Brazil it is apparent that the following observations contribute to an understanding of the status and distribution of Japanese birds, either as currently understood, or as detailed in the most recent review of the subject (OSJ 1974), thus meriting documentation and comment. Where observations were made with others, their identities are cited as follows: Clive W. Byers, CWS; Mark S. Chapman, MSC; Takeyoshi Matsuo, TM; Raymond O'Reilly, R'OR; and Craig R. Robson, CRR. Except where a specific locality is given, seabird observations were made from ferries between the localities given.
The homeostasis (Cannon, W. B. 1932) denotes the "dynamic stability" widely applicable in biological phenomena of physiological (originally proposed by Cannon), morphological, ecological, genetic, as well as developmental aspects. Its mechanisms are related with all sorts of intrinsic adaptive inter-relationships among parts and between parts and whole (endoadaptations), under extrinsic influential factors (exoadaptations). The homeostasis comprises mechanisms of "balance" (phenomenal stableness), "equilibrium" (functional stability), "compensation" (adaptive organic relations), and "stability" (constancy under varying external factors), and it involves self-regulatory mechanisms which contribute to the persistence of dynamic stability. It also involves the developmenal "genetic canalyzation or assimilation" of Waddington (1942), and evolutionary "stabilizing selection" or "stasigenesis" (Schmalhausen 1941) as well as "normalizing selection" (Waddington 1942), and functional "rationalization" (Rensch 1960). In this paper, the homeostasis is discussed under the items of: 1. Physiological homeostasis (originally by W. B. Cannon, 1932, "The wisdom of the body") 2. Genetic homeostasis (to be referred to Lerner, 1954, "Genetic homeostasis") 3. Genetic stability (Hardy-Weinberg law, 1908) 4. Homeostasis in population genetics (cf. Mayr 1963) 5. Genetic inertia (Darlington & Mather 1949) 6. Morphological homeostasis (cf. Rensch 1960, Mayr 1963, Kuroda 1954, "character-complex", "habit-forms", "compensatory adaptation" etc.) 7, 8, 9, Ecological homeostasis (various aspects, to be referred to Trojan 1984, "Ecological homeostasis") 10. Homeostasis of coexistence (exemplified by birds vs. mammals) 11. Homeostatic aspects in human society as compared with animal world 12. Climatic homeostasis (dynamic stability of short and long term climatic cycles).