Gizzard weight, small intestine length, and caeca length were measured from specimens of sea ducks collected in coastal Newfoundland during the November to March winter seasons of 1982-88. The diets of Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima) (n=24), King Eiders (S. spectabilis) (n=25), Black Scoters (Melanitta nigra) (n=17), Oldsquaws (Clangula hyemalis) (n=20), and Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) (n=27) were entirely animal matter but differed in diversity and shell component. Common Eiders, King Eiders, and Black Scoters consumed a high proportion of mollusks and sea urchins, whereas, Oldsquaws and Harlequin Ducks consumed relatively high proportions of isopods and amphipods, respectively. Interspecific differences in morphology of digestive organs, not explained by body size, were accounted for by these general differences in diet. The largest gizzards were found in scoters and Common Eiders that had the highest shell component in their diets. The shortest digestive tracts were found in Black Scoters which had the most 'specialized' diet, although there was no significant difference between Black Scoters and Harlequin Ducks. Caeca length was similar between species, except they were exceptionally short in the Black Scoter. We were unable to speculate a functional relationship of the caeca, although it may be correlated to the diversity of the diet. These results confirm other findings that morphological differences in digestive organs in waterfowl reflect dietary differences.
The dispersal of mated Oriental Greenfinches Carduelis sinica from "communal display" area (Nakamura 1982), the process of the establishment of territory and social organization in breeding season were investigated by detailed field observations of colour-banded individuals. Both immigration and disappearance of birds were rare cases throughout winter season and the population size of next breeding season had been determined already in the previous autumn when "communal display" ended. The pairs which did not establish their territory around the "communal display" area in autumn left one after another and established their territory at a distant site from the "communal display" area. They had an inclination to establish their territory around the territories which were established already. Therefore, the territories which were established early arround the "communal display" area formed a group of territories. On the other hand, some territories which were established later at a distance site from the area were single territory with no adjacent ones. From these facts, it was cleared that the loose colonial distribution of territories in breeding season were established through the process of dispersal from the "communal display" area. The pair bond which were established in autumn have been maintained until the next breeding season, except the death of their mate. Nest sites were changed at another sites in each renesting or second brood. In the case of renesting or second brood, new nest site was decided at the first by female and then territory was established around it. The distances were closs in the case of successful fledging and more distant in the case of failing. The changes of the nest site, however, were limited within the area close each "communal display" area. Therefore, the mixture of the members from different "communal display" area were a rare case throughout the breeding season. Each unmated male observed during the breeding season sang actively around the area where a group of territories existing. The area have a high possibility of the appearance of unmated female by the death of her mate. They excluded another unmate dmales out of their singing area. The number of unmated males increased with the progress of breeding season. Some unmated males which established their singing area at adjcent to a single territory increased with the progress. Another type of unmated males with no singing area appeared at the season when the density of unmated males was the highest. These subdominant type's unmated males intruded often into the singing area which was occupied by a dominant unmated male, and sang only when the owner were absence. From these facts, it was concluded that unmated males formed mating territories based on the dominance hierachy in breeding season. The social system of the Oriental Greenfinch and its characters were discussed.
Urban bird communities of the city of Hobart, Australia, were surveyed in the early fall of 1988. Twenty-nine species of birds were observed at nine sites around the city center and its vicinity. Sites ranged from central urban areas where vegetation was virtually absent to eucalypt woodland almost completely dominated by native vegetation. Bird species were classified into 9 types (A-I) according to their preference for certain habitat types. These types were further grouped into "towners", "suburbia", and "woodlanders". The town communities were dominated by 4 introduced species. But introduced species were rare or absent in the woodland communities. In the town communities there were linear correlations between certain bird community attributes (bird density, number of species, and index of diversity) and habitat factors (percentage covers of tree, subtree, shrub and grass layers, total foliage vegetation cover rate, bare ground rate, builling cover rate and number of buildings), but the woodland communities differed sig- nificantly from these correlations. This contrast may result from either a lack of native vegetation in the older developed areas of Hobart City, or the occupation of natives species' niches by introduced bird species.
The breeding center for Japanese Crested Ibises was established in the Beijing Zoo in 1986, and today five Japanese Crested Ibises are managed at that center. They were taken as nestlings from the wild in Yangxian County, Shaanxi Province, China. After careful rearing they are health in 1988. A pair of these birds, a female taken in 1985 and a male in 1986, were put for breeding in the same enclosure. Two eggs were laid on 13 and 15 June 1989, and two nestlings were hatched in July. In the morning of 8 July, a loud chirping was heard from the nest. We immediately went to inspect and found that the nestling was already out of the shell. The nestling was fully developed, but was dead from peck wounds on the head and abdomen. Concurrent with the hatching of the first nestling, the egg that was incubated under a domestic fowl, pipped. It hatched 10 July. Unfortunately this nestling died after 6 days. The incubation period was 25 days instead of 28 to 30 days recorded in the literature. This is the first capttive breeding for this species.
The Shore Lark Eremophila alpestris breeds along the entire northern coast of the U. S. S. R. east to just beyond the mouth of the Kolyma River, and an inland population breeds east to just beyond the Aldan River (Flint et al. 1984). Nowhere does its breeding range reach the Pacific or Okhotsk Sea coasts. Birds breeding in the northeast of the U. S. S. R. migrate south to southen parts of the U. S. S. R. and to China. In China it is both a resident and a migrant with birds of the race flava (the subspecies recorded in Japan), which also breeds in the U. S. S. R. wintering from Hubei Province to eastern Inner Mongolia and breeding as far east as Heilongjiang Province (De Schauensee 1984).
The Little Gull Larus minutes, the world's smallest gull, breeds in thr regions in the U. S. S. R., the easternmost region covering Transbaikal and southern Yakutia east to the Okhotsk Sea (Flint et al. 1984). It is a long distance migrant, and all three populations according to Flint et al. (1984) winter on the shores of western Europe, the Black and Caspian Seas. In China it is a straggler only in winter to Heilungkiang, Kiangsu and west Sinkiang provinces (De Schauensee 1984). De Schauensee (1984) however regarded it as also wintering in the Sea of Japan, as did Harrison (1985) who also indicated a winter range incorporating the Pacific Ocean off Japan. Both statements, however, may have been based on supposition, since there appears to be no actual evidence for east Asian wintering ground. If as suggested by Harrison (1985) and De Schauensee (1984) the Little Gull did winter in the Sea of Japan it would surely have been reported regularly, if not commonly, from South Korea and Japan, but in fact it has not. There are no (?) records from the Korean Peninsula and it had not been reported from Japan prior to 1974 (see Austin & Kuroda 1953, Ornithological Society of Japan) and sinee 1974 only two records have been noted from Japan surprisingly neither of which was from the Sea of Japan (Brazil in press). The paucity of records suggests that both Harrison (1985) and De Schauensee (1984) are incorrect.