1. Based on the request made by the Imperial Household to Yamashina Institute, monthly bird censuses were conducted by seven researchers in the Imperial and Akasaka Palaces in Tokyo during April, 1965 and March, 1966. 2. Census by line transect was made usually by two observers about 50m apart, once or twice per month: 15 times in the Imperial Palace (except August and September) and 11 times in the Akasaka Palace (except January to March). 3. In total 56 species (including wintering ducks and colonial herons) were recorded in the Imperial Palace and 46 species in the Akasaka Palace. 4. The number of species and individuals per census day varied 15-24 and 319-923 (2 hours course) in the Imperial and 9-24 and 150-306 (1 hour course) in the Akasaka Palaces respectively. 5. The result of each census day is shown by species in three tables (two for the Imperial and one for Akasaka Palace). 6. A comparative table is given showing the relative abundance of main species in the two palaces with indexes of: occurrence rate, mean number of occurrence, its dominance value in avifauna, recorded season and breeding evidence. 7. Specific accounts are only given briefly for main species. More migrants were recorded in spring and autumn in the Akasaka Palace, probably due to its elevated position.
During 1965-66, 7027 birds of 97 species were ringed at more than 20 localities covering 12 prefectures in Japan. The number of bird species ringed are tabled in Fig. I. 61 recoveries (18 spp.) were reported (of which 25 from abroad). This ringing project was financially supported by the Migratory Animal Pathological Survey, U. S. Army. We wish to express our heartfelt thanks to Lt. Col. C. M. Barnes, the director, and Dr. H. E. McClure of the M. A. P. S. for their support and kindness shown to our work. A special method of catching Pied Wagtail is illustrated on page 13.
The stomach contents of 82 Cuculus canorus telephonus, 56 C. saturatus horsfieldi, 59 C. p. poliocephalus and 22 C. fugax hyperythrus, 213 in total, were analysed. These material had been collected by sinior author (Ishizawa) from 14 prefectures in Japan during more than ten years since about 1925 while he was in Wildlife Bureau. For identication of Lepidoptera larvae most frequently found in the stomachs, he studied them in the field and laboratory during 1931-1950 and published three books on these difficult insects to identify. Most of Lepidoptera larvae could thus been identified correctly by the sinior author, but other insects were identified by specialists. Analysis of stomach contents were made by junior author (Chiba). It was found to be a characteristic food habit of cuckoos that a certain species of larvae was taken in large quantity at a time, only very few of others mixed with. Lepidoptera larvae occupied 91.3% of diet (frequency) in canorus, 90.0-90.3% in saturatus and poliocephalus and 86.3% in fugax which was characterized by prefering ants (Formicidae) with the relative frequency of 73.6%. Insects other than Lepidoptera were 81.8% in fugax, 45.6% in canorus, and 30.0-30.6% in saturatus and poliocephalus. There-fore from the food preference pattern, canorus-type, saturatus-poliocephalus-type and fugax-type may be recognized. Among Lepidoptera, Geometriidae larvae occurred constantly 25-36% in the four species, Notodontidae varvae 23.4-38.0%, except in fugax in which they were only 4.5%; while Limantriidae larvae occurred 22.7% in fugax and 2.0-15.5% in the others. Sphingidae larvae were favoured by saturatus, Arctiidae larvae by canorus; Orthoptera were often eaten by saturatus, Formicidae were especially taken by fugax and relatively by canorus and poliocephalus, which ate also Odonata and Diptera. Cicadidae with 'bad' smell were not rejected, but were not found in poliocephalus. There was a seasonal change of diet and stomachs contained less quantity towards autumn before migration.
1. The breeding biology of the Blue Magpie Cyanopica cyana was studied in Nagano Prefectuae during 1962-1965. 2. The nesting succcss was analysed in regard to the kind of tree, nest-site, height from the ground and nesting distance (There was a tendency of group nesting). 3. Egg dates, incubation and nestling periods were analysed. The breeding season lasts from middle of May to late July, the average egg date was June 6, and no second brood was confirmed. 4. Clutch size ranged from 5 to 8 and the frequent sizes were 6-7. Brood size ranged from 1 to 7, most frequently 6. The flying success was highest from larger broods of 6-7 chicks. 5. Factors affecting the breeding rates during incubation and nestling periods were considered. The hatching rate was 68% and fledging rates were 30.5% from clutch and 66.5% after hatching. 6. Female only incubates and incubation and brooding constancies were calculated by Skutch's method. Male's feeding behavior to the female was described and feeding frequencies are given. 7. Size, shape and volume indexes of eggs were calculated. 8. The growth of chicks was described and growth rates of body weight, wing and tail lengths, tarsus and culmen were measured.
Avifauna of four areas in Shimokita Peninsula, the northern extrimity of Honshû, Japan, was surveyed during 1964-1965. In all 101 species were recorded which comprised 75 species in summer and early autumn 1964, and 69 in winter 1965. The Long-tailed Rose-Finch (Uragus sibiricus), only once found breeding in Shimokita, was recorded in summer for the second time, and the Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens), the rare northern gull only recorded from Miyako Bay, was observed in Mutsu Bay, February 1965. List of the species recorded are given in tables shown by observation area and habitat division, with a diagramic figure of ecological distribution of birds.
1. As an expedition member of Yokkaichi Minami High School to the Yaeyama Group, S. Ryu Kyus, the author investigated birds on Iriomote I. and the adjacent Nakano-Kamijima. 2. Thirty eight species of 23 Families including 7 species new to the islands, were recorded of which 32 species were common to Japan and 37 to Formosa. Nineteen species were common to Japan and 21 to Formosa as subspecies. 3. The islands are of special interest as an intergrading area between oriental and palearctic zones and among observed species, the following were interesting zoogeographically and ecologically: Passer montanus (new record), Lanius cristatue lucionensis (on migration), Hirundo tahitica, Sula dactylatra, Thalasseus bergii, Streptopelia orientalis stimpsoni and Sterna sumatrana. The latter two species breed on a small rocky island and Streptopelia were breeding colonially in high density at a grassy place (not on the) and flew over the sea to the feeding place on the oposite coast. 4. On Nakano-Kamijima, there was a mixed sea-bird colony consisting of Anous stolidus, sterna fuscata, Calonectris leucomelas (possibly the southern limit), and Sula leucogaster, with the total of some 20, 000 individuals. There habitat segregation especially between Sterna and Anous was demarcated. 5. On this island sea-bird eggs are being taken in great numbers and the protection from this is considered to be urgently needed.
An ecological survey of birds of Mt. Kurikoma area was made during summer, early autumn and early winter in 1965. Fourteen-five species, 23 Families, of birds were recorded. The difference of avifauna and its vertical distribution in summer and winter were compared: Bush-Warbler (Cettia diphone), Grey Wagtail (Motacilla cinerea), and Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) which had been abundant in summer were replaced by Coal Tits (Parus ater) and Dusky Thrush (Turdus naumanni) in winter. Habitat segregation was noted vertically between Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes) and Jay (Garrulus glandarius) and where their distributions overlapped there was an interspecific competition because violent fightings were observed between them. Correlations of vegetation and species and abundance of birds around Mt. Kurikoma were described and tabled.
In February, 1963, April, 1964 and April, 1965, the "Umitaka Maru" of the Tokyo University of Fisheries, cruised around Kusagaki-jima lying about 65 miles WSW of Sata Misaki, Kagoshima Prefecture. Flying Brown Boobies were seen as far as approximately 60 miles from the islands, and the number increased as the ship approached the islands. In April, 1965, downy chicks were found by powerful binoculars on the ledges of cliffs, some of them with the adults. When the ship approached Sumisu-to Island lying about 30 miles SSE of Bayonnaise Rocks on August 3, 1965 on her cruise southwards, some Brown Boobies were sighted near the island. The individuals of this species were also seen on ledges of the ridge of island. Other tropical or subtropical species, such as Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata, probably Common Noddy Anous stolidus, as well as Bonin Gadfly Petrel Pterodoma hypoleuca, were sometimes in sight in the vicinity. Conclusively, the observations suggest that the Brown Booby ranges as far north as the above islands, forming the northernmost limit of its breeding range in the North-west Pacific Ocean.
1. From November 19th, especially 21-24th, there was a mass inland drift of Calonectris leucomelas over the whole Kanto plain covering nine prefectures. 2. The numbers reported were: Fukushima 9, Ibaragi 166, Tochigi 10, Gumma 1, Saitama 20, Chiba 87, Tokyo 102, Kanagawa 3 and Shizuoka 2, in total 400 birds. 3. They were found alive but weakened and 323 were collected at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo and after being fed most of them were transported to Kagoshima where they were released with leg band. Others were released elsewhere and some died. 4. A disturbed weather with strong winds and heavy fogs during 19-21 November could be correlated with this accidental event. 5. Although such a weather change is not unusual in this season when winter weather becomes prevailed and occasional stragglers are drifted inland as known in Kyoto (Yoshida, 1962) and Japan Sea coast, 1965-event would have been due to an accidental coincidence of a juvenile-bird flock just left the breeding island, Sanganjima, with a sudden weather change. 6. From measurements of 226 wing lengths and 223 culmens and examination of some examples, they were mostly (perhaps at least 75%) young of the year judging from the comparison of measurements of adult breeding birds of Sanganjima. Adult flocks would have gone ahead or had stronger weather resistance and better orientation ability.
1. A total of 5, 789 Tree Sparrow Passer montanus were banded in Japan during 1924-'43 with 157 recoveries (2.71%), of which 121 (77.07%) were those banded during August and October at Kuzutsuka, Niigata, a heavy snow area. 2. In total, 60.5% of recoveries were made within 5km and 80% within 23km from banded places, and out of 110 recoveries within 23km, 91.8% were within 5km. These results represent resident populations. 3. There were no recoveries between 24-100km. But, 45 (29%) recoveries were made again between 100-600km from S-SW directions (except one from E and one N). These data represent emigrating populations and since the birds were banded during August and October and were recovered in winter months, their movements suggest the wintering dispersal. However, whether this is a mere dispersal or a true migration is not clear, and it is suggested that the emigrating population would be young groups of the year. 4. Kuzutsuka population consisted of 67.23% resident (within 23km, of which 90% within 5km) and 39% emigrating populations. The latter dispersed distances of 105-406km, while out of only 23 recoveries from birds banded at Nagaura, only 4km from Kuzutsuka, 6 recoveries were made from Okayama at 600km of distance. These 6 birds had been banded in the same period (October to November 2, 1940) and all were recovered after 4 months at Okayama (only one other bird came from Kuzutsuka). This is an evidence of group movement of a local population. 5. The periods from banding to recoveries were: within 6 months 77.37% (101), 12 months 13.14% (18), 13-17 months 6.57% (9) and 19-35 months 2.9% (one each for 19, 24, 26, and 35 months) (total 137 cases).