1. This is the second report on the result of monthly census (but lacking a few months) made during April 1966 and March 1967 in the Imperial Palace (4km) and Akasaka Palace (2km) by six research members. 2. The census was made by line transect through the same routes as those of the previous year. In total 64 species, with addition of 6 species to the previous year list, in the Imperial and 56 species, with 11 additions at Akasaka palace, were recorded 3. Comparisons of the census by year at each Palace and between two palaces are discussed. 4. During January to March, a flock of more than 1, 400 Carrion Crows, Corvus corone, concentrated at the Imperial Palace, returning from their morning feeding areas (E-S-W directions) from about 10.00am. Such a concentration has not been seen in the previous year. 5. In general, bird density was higher at Akasaka Palace with smaller area.
Stomach contents of the following 12 species, 202 individuals of hawks collected by the sinior author during 1924-1937 in nothern part of Japan were analysed by the junior author: Falco peregrinus(5), F. columbarius(6), F tinnunculus(13), Buteo buteo(57) Spizaetus nipalensis(6), Circus aeruginosus(5), Accipiter gentilis(14), A. nisus(41), A. virgatus(23), Milvus migrans(15), Pernis apivorus(12), and Butastur iudicus(6), The specimens were collected throughout the year but more in winter except from some buzzards, goshawks, sparrow-hawks, honey buzzards and buzzard-hawks, the last two being summer visitors. The result can be shown by the table below: It is to be noted that although many passerine birds are taken by these hawks, the Tree Sparrow, which is the seasonal pest to rice crops, far more outnumbered other species; for example, it occupied 73% of the diet of Sparrow-hawk, Accipiter nisus.
1. Roosting behavior of the Blue Magpie Cyanopica cyana was studied during March 1962 and April 1964 in Nagano district, Honshiu. 2. Apple orchards and garden trees were used as roosts and factors such as, kind and height of trees, foliage cover, nearby traffic and snow, were analysed. 3. The roosts were seasonally changed according to the annual flocking cycle and roost conditions. 4. Five categories of flock roosting could be classified into: male roost (during incubation period), family roost, compound family roost, small area roost (autumn to winter) and large area roost (winter). 5. These consisted of three types: breeding season roosts, roosts within a home range and roosts outside home range (winter). 6. Factors influencing the roosting behavior: light intensity and food condition, were considered. 7. The evening (entering) and morning (leaving) behavior at roosts in different roost types and seasons were described.
1. First detailed observation on the breeding biology of Phalacrocorax capillatus has been made by the author chiefly in 1962 and 1963. About 1, 000 photographs, taken using 750mm astronomical telescope from a distance of about 100 meters, were analysed. 2. The breeding colonies were on the top of coastal rocky islands, about 60m in height, which could be observed only from a cliff point of mainland of the same height, difficult to access. 3. The arrival to the colony, in April, is irregular and if the former site were found disturbed by man, other place is selected, although the same colony has been used for some years under predation by sea-eagle Haliaeetus albicilla. Thus the shift of colony site by year was not unusual, and the disturbance by man during a breeding season seems to cause the shift in the next year. 4. Nest material is collected from nearby and the amount of nest-pile differed by site. Nest may be completed in about 10 days but material is brought in by male until after laying. 5. Clutch size was unclear, and it might be that eggs are covered by material on leaving, since eggs were shown in no photograph. Change of incubation was made after a short ceremony and is initiated by returned bird, but in other cases, the latter (male ?) fed the sitting bird and remained standing nearby. The female usually has more white neck plumes and the male broader black area around the bare face. 6. Incubation period was estimated as 34 days based on various photograph series of the same pair. The brood size was 3 in all cases observed. 7. Usual feeding method by both parents is described and their ceremonial behaviour was still observed during this period. On one hot day, a parent was observed to disgorge water which was poured on the chicks: two times per chick, the parent returning with water four times with the intervals of 5 minutes. 8. Chicks may move out of the nest by about 40 days. In this period a returned parent pretended to feed the begging chick and flew off, but the chick did not follow. A chick was observed to flap down possibly to the water and after the flying of chicks no family bond was confirmed, each individual acting entirely at their will. 9. The growth of chicks is described by stages, their plumage is totally black first and becomes white below later.
1. Two-season observations (1965, '66) on the breeding biology of Hypsipetes amaurotis in Samizu Village, Nagano Prefecture, are reported. 2. Most of the nests were found in a somewhat isolated tree 4-5m high and were placed at average 2.8m from the ground below the dense canopy mixed with tendrils (thus protected from bird predators) and at about 1m above the low bushes (thus hard to reach for ground predators). 3. Eggs of a clutch were laid daily in the early mornings, and the clutch-size was 4 in 8 nests and 3 in one. 4. Female only incubated and her true incubation started from the night when the third egg of the clutch of four had been laid. Incubation period was 13-14 days and on and off sessions were average 29.9min and 12.81min. respectively. Feeding of female by the male was not observed either on or near the nest, although the latter type might exist. 5. Hatching of a clutch required about 12 hours, but in one exception 24 hours. 6. Female fed the chicks 60% of the total feedings. Chick foods were mainly insects mixed with some fruits of trees. 96.8% of the faeces of chicks were swallowed by the parents at the nest. 7. Female only brooded, and under low temperatures it was continued even until the night before the chicks left the nest. The nestling period was only 10-11 days, and the family group remained about two months in the territory. 8. Territories were average 1, 400m2 and were A-type of Mayr's classification. The male's, 'calling patrol' over the territory, characteristic in this species, was observed in the early morning through the nesting to the fledging periods. 9. Most territorial fightings were intraspecific, but were also directed to shrike, blue magpie, jay or carrion crow. 80% of the territorial defense were made by the male, and the intensity increased markedly toward the fledging period of the chicks.
1. Breeding biology of Alauda arvensis japonica studied at Komoro City, Nagano prefecture, 680-700m of altitude, is reported chiefly based on 1966 observations of a first brood pair supplemented by other data. 2. In eight pairs observed average 2, 25 broods were raised per season, including unsuccessful ones. Un exceptional pair bred 6 times of which 2 broods were successful. 3. The nest was built in less than a week by female only and it was completed in a few days in re-nesting. 4. Egg was laid daily mostly in the early morning. Female only incubated. Her attentiveness gradually increased after her first egg and the true incubation was started when the clutch was completed, but she sat from the night before the final egg. 5. The incubation period was 10 days counting from the final egg. 6. The female shared 64% and the male 36% of the feedings and the food was always given directly to the chicks. 7. The nestling period was as short as 9-10 days and the nesting for the second brood was started average after 19 days. 8. The male spent 14% of the day hours in two kinds of territorial songs, one the well-known aerial and the other the terrestrial song which was more frequent. 9. The intensity of the song was correlated with season, time of the day, as well as territorial defense, with the peaks in the morning and evening. 10. The average clutch-size of 24 nests was 3.6 eggs. The most frequent size was 4 eggs (45.8%), with the range of 2-5, but four out of five nests with 2 eggs were abandoned. The hatching and fledging rates were 75% and 47% respectively.
Results of bird survey, especially of waterfowl, made at Lakes Izu and Uchi in Miyagi Prefecture, N. Honshiu, during January to March, 1965 and November, 1965 to March, 1966, are described. 69 species of 25 families of birds have been recorded. These comprise 28 resident species, 36 winter visitants, 3 wanderers and 3 transients, and 38 species of these were shore birds and waterfowl. The most abundant was Anser albifrons which was counted up to 1, 500 individuals. Among others there were: Cygnus cygnus whose highest number was 460 on February, 1966; Cygnus columbianus recorded up to 109 but decreased to ca. 50 in early February, 1966; Anser fabalis with the usual number about 50; Mergus merganser which reached 200 on January 17, 1965 and Mergus albellus about 20. Rare species included: one Anser caerulescens observed during February 24 and March 17, 1965; one Anser erythropus observed on February 18, 1966; one Circus cyaneus seen on February 24, 1965 and March 22, 1965 and one Anser albifrons gambelli confirmed by photo on February 18, 1966. This last species has previously been only recorded in 1925 from Lake Tega, Chiba Prefecture, and recently observed at Fukuda-machi, Sendai by Mr. Sato (unpublished) in December, 1964. Haliaeetus albicilla was often observed. Wintering periods, local distribution and movements of main species of waterfowl on the two lakes are mentioned.
A pair of C. c. ciconia first bred in 1964 in a flying cage three years after arriving. In this year, the family was transfered into a new cage, 26×29×12(hight)m, together with other birds. This pair, raised chicks successfully also in 1965 and 1966, almost at the same season. Their behavior and growth of chicks are described and shown by photographs.
Various types and degrees of asymmetry of ears in owls have been studied by Pycraft as earlyas in 1898 (also 1910). But, this interesting adaptive feature seems to have not been reexamined, except recently illustrated by Payne (1967) in Tyto. Here, remarkable type of asymmetry in Asiof lammeus is confirmed by photographs. Although the skull is symmetric in basic structure as Pycraftstated, a minor asymmetry could be found in more protruded squamosal wing on the right side, andperhaps compensatory slight reduction of post-orbital process of the same side was noticed. Thefacial discs can be most extensively turned over in Asio among owls. Ninox for example, has nofacial disc opercula and has normal symmetric external ears. It is to be noticed that different typesof asymmetry revealed in owls may be taken as an example of random adaptations established bynatural selection. The sygnificance of ear asymmetry for sound orientation has been discussed byPumphrey (1948), and the comparative development of the facial discs is considered in relation tohabit by Grossman & Hamlet (1965).