1. Censuses of Japanese tits were made intensively at Tenryu River basin ca. 500m of altitude (102 times, 1957-'60) and Keito Mt. region below 1000m (95 times, 1963-'65), in Nagano Prefecture, Central Honshu. Supplemental censuses were made at: lowland Hokkaido (Sarobetsu, Kawayu, Gojukkoku and Onuma), subalpine Central Honshu (Kamikochi, Shiga), Shikoku (Kurokawa), Kyushu (Mt. Hiko, Ishiwara) and Tsushima (four places). These places had different vegetational environment and species composition of tits, but they were absent in pure evergreen broadleaved woods of southern Japan. 2. The species of tits studied are: Aegithalos caudatus (Aegithalinae), Parus major, P. ater, P. varies, P. montanus and P. palustris (Parinae). 3. At peripheral parts (Tenryu, Kurokawa, Ishiwara) of Paridae habitat of simple woods around human habitation, P. major and Ae. caudatus were main species; and only the former was found at the extreme periphery. P. varius joined them if there was a good amount of broad-leaved desiduous woods; P. ater occurred as a main member only during winter in Central Honshu where there was a mixed forest (Keito region); the main members were replaced in summer by P. ater and P. montanus at wet subalpine mixed forest (Kamikochi, Shiga); while in swampy lowland broadleaved forests of Hokkaido (Kawayu, Onuma, Gojukkoku), Ae. caudatus, P. major and P. palustris formed the main members, the last species becoming dominant in the more swampy part. P. varius and P. montanus occurred always in small numbers, but they may be more plentiful (dominate the others) elsewhere where they are best adapted respectively. 4. The following three types of sympatry and ecological segregation among tits could be concluded: a. Two main species may coexist in similar abundance, but their types of social population fluctuation is different: Ae. caudatus concentrates into a compound family flock after breeding, while in P. major families are become dispersed. Thus, the two abundant species can coexist at peripheral areas. b. Two species may coexist in similar numbers and show parallel seasonal fluctuations, but the degree of fluctuation is different: Fluctuations of P. major and P. ater at Keito area were parallel but the wintering population of the latter species greatly increased, becoming very scarce in breeding season. c. One of the coexisting two species may dominate the other in number: P. montanus and P. varius in studied areas were decidedly few in number, although they coexisted with P. major and fluctuated parallel with it. 5. Ae. caudatus is different from Parus species in the type of social population fluctuation and thus can be sympatric at such a peripheral part where P. major is abundant. Other Parus species may be similar in social fluctuation type, but coexist with each other by their different degrees of abundance in species composition due to different habitat preference or particular seasonal movement. P. montanus and P. varius, for example, are entirely allopatric in habitat, while P. ater is partly and seasonally sympatric with P. major and others.
During 1966-1967, 22, 422 birds of 128 species were ringed at more than 20 localities covering 17 prefectures in Japan. The number of birds ringed is tabled in Table 1. Recoveries of birds ringed by Yamashina Institute for Ornithology and its cooperators (except those recovered at banding places or their vicinities, less than 6 months after having been ringed), in total 15 species, 90 birds (of which 10 species, 35 birds from abroad) are described. Codes used here such as +, X, (X), etc. are same as those being used in England (Rydzewski Ring 22: 293-207, 1960). Recoveries of birds ringed in Japan by two other banding teams, the Migratory Animal Pathological Survey, US Army and the Government Forest Experiment Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, are reported separately. The research has been made possible through the support and sponsorship of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the US Army Research and Development Group (Far East).
1. During August 1962 and December 1965, field observations of the Blue Magpie Cyanopica cyana were made in three localities in Nagano and one place in Tokyo. The daily routine of flock movements, seasonal change of activity and the time spent at various environments along the daily routes, were chiefly studied. 2. The length of daily activity time was average 60% of the day (24 hours) in family flocks and 45% in local area flocks. It also changed with the seasonal day length. 3. The family flock took a simple fixed route of movement, while the local area flocks traced a very complicated course, taking different directions in an irregular way and finally returned to or near the fixed roost. 4. Each family flock never mixed its young birds with each other. The leader of a flock was not recognized, and the flock's route changed when there was predator including men. 5. It was postulated that flock makes an evaluation of environment, changing the staying time and moving speed according to different local conditions. 6. A local flock may move 3.5-5.0km a day, with the speed of 340-520m/h and the difference by morning and afternoon was irregular. 7. A local flock moved 10-17 ha per day, which was 34-60% of the total daily activity range. This range covered 0.65-0.85km east to west and 0.7-0.8km north to south. 8. The dispersion density within a total daily activity range was 0.6-1.9 bird/ha.