1. The ecological distribution of 391 bird and 162 mammal species of Europe is analyzed within seven major biotic formations. 2. Over half of the species of these animals live about equally in forests and waters, thus in relatively natural formations. There is some parallelism between the secular succession of formations and evolution of birds and mammals. 3. Birds are trophically bound in a lesser degree to their main (basic) formation and to one formation only, than are mammals. Generally, these animals show in their topic relations more of conservativism, than in their trophic relations. This last named is rather dynamic. 4. Forests, rocks and tundra are important mainly as habitats for shelter and home, while steppe, meadows and technocenoses are of mainly trophical importance, as feeding grounds. Waters are about equally important to both. 5. Forests and waters are about equally frequented, each of them equally as all the cultivated land (meadows, technocenoses) or as steppe, tundra and rocks together. 6. The movements between the formations, despite a certain trend, depend upon the presence, quality, affinity and mutual distance of the other, alternative formations. Some geographical variation in this is supposed. 7. Of the proportionality of the distribution of birds and mammals conclusions can be drawn from the proportionality of formations (and vice versa), as well as about the relative importance of the particular formations in any actual area. 8. Birds and mammals, as relatively mobile animals, do exchange materials and energy between formations, besides the functional aspect of this phenomenon. 9. The versatility of formations used and the movements between them are of importance for the maintenance, survival, intermingling and forming of new fauna-complexes of birds and mammals. These movements and alterations are of importance also for migration, speciation by adaptive radiation and in preventing ecogenetical isolation. 10. The ecological distribution over formations, versatility and replaceability of formations by and to birds and mammals, as well as their movements are significant to the spatial pattern, interference with animals and formations and, finally, in planning of landscape.
1. During 14-21, June, 1968, the habitat preference, home range and interspecific relations of four species of the genus Emberiza were investigated at Ishikari-Hutomi, Hokkaido. 2. The four species studied and their population densities were: E. schoeniclus, 1.6 bds/ha, E. aureola, 0.6 bds/ha, E. fucata, 0.5 bds/ha and E. spodocephala, 0.2 bds/ha. 3. The habitat had the following five types of vegetation: Sasa, Miscanthus, Phragmites, Myrica and bush. E. schoeniclus had the widest habitat tolerance except for bush-type vegetation, whereas the habitats of E. aureola, E. fucata and E. spodocephala tended to be confined to the areas of Sasa, mixed Sasa-Miscanthus and bush types respectively. 4. E. schoeniclus nested in the mixed Sasa-Miscanthus type and the feeding ground included Phragmites type with a tendency to form an oval-shaped home range extended toward reed bed. The singing area was around the nesting site and the song-post was selected on a stem of tall grass in most cases. Some nests were concentrated to form a loose colony with distances of about 20m. Such a colony was located near a wide reed bed where it used as feeding ground. A pair and also a bird of the same pair tended to have separate, and therefore not common, feeding grounds. 5. The home range of H. aureola was very large and less overlapped. It had two singing areas, the one was the central singing area near or around the nesting site and the other was used as the area for song-duels against the neighboring males. This area was 100 to 200m apart from the nesting site. The nest sites were in short grass areas of Sasa type, but the song-posts were at the top of small bushes. Nests tended to be concentrated but not forming a colony as in E. schoeniclus. At home range boundaries, some chases and actual combats were observed frequently. 6. The home range of E. fucata was selected in short grass areas of mixed Sasa-Miscanthus types, with song posts on the top of small bushes. The nest sites were dispersed at regular distances and never in the form of a colony. The singing area was around the nesting site. The feeding ground was both the short grass areas of Sasa type and bare grounds with scattered short grasses. Any direct relationships between the singing area and feeding ground or between the feeding grounds of female and male were noticed. 7. E. schoeniclus-E. yessoensis type home range related to tall grass area has a possibility to become compressed into a loose colony with wide feeding ground separated from the nesting site. 8. E. fucata-E. cioides type home range related to short grass areas with scattered bushes, has not the possibility to form a colony. Such home ranges are dispersed at regular distances within the habitat. 9. E. aureola and E. fucata selected similar habitat and competition seemed to exist between them, but not with E. schoeniclus. As a consequence, E. aureola and E. fucata tended to avoid the habitat overlap, but no competition was noticed either between E. aureola and E. schoeniclus or between E. fucata and E. schoeniclus.
In January, 1968, nine bird censuses by random line transects were made through five different habitats on the hills of Mizonokuchi along the west side of Tamagawa River, s. w. of Tokyo. The five habitats were : low rice paddy areas narrowly stretched along the valley, dry cultivated fields on the hill, land for sale in plots on hill bordered by brushy thickets with a few trees, small old villages with some vegetation remaining at the lower slopes of the hill and mixed woods developed at the ends of valleys. The census area covered some 2.5 km along NW-SE of the hill. The census was made 50-105 minutes during morning or afternoon and the time required to pass through each habitat was recorded so that relative bird densities could be expressed by No./per hour. Analyses of relative abundance, habitat preference, "commonness", areal bird density, etc. were made by calculating the following ratios and indices (No. means the number of bird indivduals): A. Occurrence rate in time…Frequency recorded/Total censuses (9 times) % B. Occurrence rate in place…Number of habitats the species was recorded/Total number of habitat (5 habitats) % C. "Commonness index"…3√A×B×Toal No. tallied of the species D. Average number…Mean of numbers recorded in all habitats where the species occurred E. Species dominance…No. tallied of a species /No. tallied of all species (%) F. Relative species dominance…% of mean No. of a species relative to the mean No. ef the most numerous species which is regarded as 100 G. Index of abundance…√A(Occurrence rate in time)×D(Average number) H. Density…No./per hour I. Areal dominance…No. tallied for a habitat/No. tallied for habitats (%) J. Relative areal dominance…% of total No. for a habitat relative to the habitat of the largest total No. which is regarded as 100 K. Areal density…No. per hour of all species in each habitat L. Habitat preference rate… % of No. per hour of a species in a habitat/Total of No.per hour of this species in all habitats M. Carrying rate of the habitat…No. of species recorded/No. of indivduals counted (%) N. Carrying index of the habitat…√Tot. No. of species×Tot. No. of individuals Based on these calculations, shown by Tables 1-9, bird faunae and carrying rates of five habitats were compared and the habitat preference of birds and habitat value as feeding or resting place, or cover, were considered for chief species, also in relation to their flocking or moving rates. In all, 22 species were recorded of which the Tree Sparrow Passer montanus was most numerous in number using all five habitats and gathered on rice paddies with the preference rate of 48%, as a joint feeding place and were found scattered, with the rate 24%, in villages in small numbers, next prefering hill areas and least using wooded valleys. Its flocking rates in these habitats could be compared calculating: flock number, flock size, its range and mean x±δ, flocking rate (√range×x) and relative flocking rate (regarding the highest flocking rate as 100). Next common species was the Grey Starling Sturnus cineraceus with 100% occurrence rate in time but not using the plots of land for sale. Its chief preference as feeding place was wet rice paddics with the preference rate of 60% as compared with 10% for dry cultivated fields on the hill, and occurred 26% in the village using it as resting (and feeding when tree-berries were available) place. The bulbul Hypsipetes amaurotis widely moved except on the rice paddies and used village trees and valley woods with the preference rate of 30-32%, then plots of land for sale 27%, and sometimes used, with the rate 10%, cultivated hill to feed on buds of vegetables.
Field observations and collecting of the Green Pheasant Phasianus colchicus (versicolor) and Copper Pheasant Ph. soemmerringii were made in Sendai, Miyagi Pref. and Tashiro Town, Akita Pref., during November 1965 and January 1966 for the study of habitat prefenence and food habits. Winter ecological distributions of the two species were partly overlapped. In Sendai area, the Green (GP) was widely distributed from village area to forests, but the Copper (CP) inhabited only rather deep in the forests. On the contrary, in Tashiro area, the Copper was found from village area to the deep forests and the Green was mainly distributed along Yoneshiro River. The Green Pheasant seemed to be more abundant in Sendai area than in Tashiro Town area. The Green Pheasants were collected, 12 in Sendai, 2 in Akita and one in Iwate, and the Copper 4 in Sendai and one Akita. Their stomach contents showed: the ratios of vegetable and animal matters to the total food items 99.6% and 0.4% in the Green and 99.8% and 0.2% in the Copper respectively. Species of plants identified from their foods were 37 in the Green and 20 in the Copper Pheasants. In Sendai, both species took many kinds of seeds and fruits, which were: 77.4% (GP) and 75.1% (CP) respectively to the total food items (in dry weights) . In Akita, 91.2% to the total food items were seeds and fruits in the Green Pheasants. The seeds and fruits were classified into those of trees, grasses, and liane, and 42.2% (GP), and 43.1% (CP) were of grass, 10.4% (GP) and 13.40% (CP) were of tree, and 43.3% (GP) and 44.5% (CP) were of liane. Only 5 species of animal matters were found in the food items of the both pheasants.
Observations and analysis of nestling foods of the following seven species were made May to July 1968: permanent residents: Dendrocopos major hondoensis, Parus major wladiwostokensis, Streptopelis orientalis orientalis, Emberiza elegans elegans, and summer residents: Eurystomus orientalis abundus, Zoothera dauma toratugumi, Ninox scutulata scutulata. Food samples were collected by placing the collar on nestlings, except for Brown Hawk -Owl which nested in a tree hollow. The results of food analysis were as follows: Dendrocopos major hondoensis: Preferred foods were Noctuidae indet. 37.4% and Cimbicidae indet. 12.5%. The food included, insect larvae 78%, adult insects 9.36%, spiders 3.12%, Mollusca 3.12% and some amount of vegetable matter. Parus major wladiwostokensis: Pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus 84.6% were the most important foods. They consumed insect larvae 97.94%, Lepidoptera 96.96%, Mollasca 1.18% and spider 1.18%. Streptopelia orientalis orientalis: The foods supplied during the nesting period appeared to be vegetable matters only: red pepper seeds 85%, Soybean 11.25 and some grains. Emberiza elegans elegans: Foods of Lepidoptera, Noctuidae indet., Gometridae indet. and Pachyligia dolosa. Eurystomus orientalis abundus: They consumed adult insects only: Potosia aerata 30%, Oxycetonia jucunda 13.9%, Anomala viridana 11%, Dieranocephala adamsi 8.3%, and Platypeura kaempferi 11%. The most common food items were Coleoptera 75%, Potosia aerata 30%. Zoothera dauma toratugumui: They consumed insect larvae 17%, adult insects 33% and and earthworms 50%. Ninox scutulata scutulata: The owls forage mainly at night not far from the nest. The food samples found in their nest were only the Line-backed Field Mice, Apodemus agrarius, and Cicadas, Platypleura kaempferi. Both Mice and Cicadas appeared to be the most important foods.
1. The result of ten-year research of birds at Kashiwazaki, Niigata, on Japan Sea coast of Honshu is reported. 2. Beside observations, the records of beach drifted sea birds and banding results at Akuta marsh area (since 1966) are important part of this report. 3. In all 42 Families, 238 sp. and subsp. (235 species) are listed with annotation, and the following birds, rare or accidental as species or subspecies to Japan, are included: Aethia psittaculus, Fratercula corniculata, Turdus hortulorum, Upupa epops, Dendronanthus indicus, Anthus gustavi, Erythrina erythrina, Emberiza spodocephala spodocephala, Emberiza schoeniclus pallidior, Plectrophenax nivalis vlasowi. 4. Kashiwazaki area is peculiary important as a concentration of migratory birds due to special local meteorological conditions. Sea bird drift on this beach includes such northern alcids as Ae. psittaculus, Fratercula corniculata, etc. not found along other Honshu coasts, and Uria lomvia is more numerous than U. aalge. 5. Among land birds, the heavy migrations of Locustella ochotensis, Emberiza schoeniclus, E. spodocephala, etc. or occasional large wintering flocks of Carduelis flammea, are noticable. Akuta marsh is an important resting place for migrants as well as being the communal roost for Sturnus cineraceus, S. sturnia, Hirundo rustica, H. daurica, Chloris sinica and Passer montanus. The migratory bird flocks are so numerous as many are struck at telephone wires. 6. Data on rare stragglers and the flock movements of Otus scops (recently considered as resident) or Lanius bucephalus, usually a solitary wonderer, etc. are reported. 7. Cyanopica cyana became established and is increasing as breeding species since 1965.
Distributional and breeding records by specimen or photographic evidences, additional to the 1958 edition of the handlist of Japanes birds are given of 69 species and one hybrid Lanius cristatus cristatus ×lucionensis. Many records from Riu Kiu Is. are included. Three notes are added: 1. Subspecies of Passer montanus many be devided into kaibatoi (Sakhalin to Yakushima), saturatus (Amami-Oshima to Ishigaki I.) and taivanensis (Iriomote to Formosa). 2. Iriomote I. should be omitted from the distributional localities of Rallina eurizonoides sepiaria and Gallicrex cinerea.
In July and August of 1968, "Seiyo maru" (the training and research ship belonging to the Tokyo University of Fisheries) had the research cruises near Ogasawara Islands. As a result: a) Almost all flying Brown Boobies Sula leucogaster were observed within the range of about 10 nautical miles from land. Only one individual of this species was seen exceptionally at about 35 nautical miles from land. b) Above mentioned Brown Boobies were mainly aggregated near Haha-shima islands and Muko shima islands. c) When our ship anchored at Haha-shima Island, some Brown Boobies seen were crowded on the ledges of Cape Inui-saki and Minami-saki, which may be one of the breeding areas of this species. d) Only one Sula dactylatra was seen between Chichi- and Haha Shima Retto.
Census data on five species of tits, Parus ater, montanus, major, varius, and Aegithalos caudatus, and Regulus, recorded at five different places of Mt. Fuji in 3 days in November are analysed. Method of showing, 1) the relative abundance among species in each habitat (based on actual number or relative %), and 2) relative abundance of a species in various habitats (based on no./hour) is presented by using circle graphs. The feeding or moving loci of each species and the specific differences are shown by observed forest layers and tree portions divided into 16 items.
A hybrid specimen of L. punctulata × L. atricapilla is described and shown by photo. This was found among 100 birds of L. atricapilla and L. malacca, and it is added that there is variation from white-breast of malacca to chestnut brown of atricapilla. Hence, the two species are treated as one by Ripley (1961).