1. The study was conducted at an adjoining area to Imba Marsh-lake, Chiba Prefecture, during 2-5, January, 1969. 2. The study area could be divided into: 1) the foothills, 2) the paddy fields and 3) the moorlands along Imba Lake. 3. The methods of investigation used are: the line transect on the foothills and paddy fields, and the 'drive-mapping' and 'parallel belt' census on the moorlands. 4. The species studied are Emberiza spodocephala, E. cioides, E. fucata, E. schoeniclus and E. rustica. 5. Emberiza spodocephala lived mainly on the foothills and occurred along the edge of pine woods and ditches of paddy fields. They were mostly in pairs. Emberiza cioides occurred in three types of study area, but they tended to prefer the drier and wasted parts. They were usually in pairs or small flocks. 7. Emberiza fucata, only once encountered, was on the ridge between rice fields. 8. Emberiza rustica was found in three types of the study area, but they selected not so dried grounds. They settled on the rice fields of the foothills, as well as on the ground under fallen cuttail or reed beds in the moorland. They formed large flocks of up to several hundred birds. 9. Emberiza schoeniclus used the moorlands and small patches of moor in the paddy fields. They fed in the grasses above or beside the water and took shelter in reed beds in small parties. The activity range of each party consisted of a feeding ground and 'first' and 'second' sheltering sites. This formed a 'unit range' several of which may be concentrated within the total wintering area. E. rustica, on the other hand, did not have this unit range in their wintering moorland, because it had no need of separation of feeding and sheltering sites. 10. In the moorland, E. schoeniclus and E. rustica are ecologically separated by preference of different feeding grounds and by difference of flock formation. Main feeding sites of E. schoeniclus are paddy-like plants above the water, whereas E. rustica feeds on the ground under grasses. Individual E. schoeniclus moves within a unit range to and from the feeding and sheltering sites, but E. rustica has not such a unit range and moves in small flocks over a single large wintering range. 11. E. schoeniclus is adapted to perch on vertical stem of grasses and therefore can live in grasses above the water. E. rustica has not such an adaptation and feeds on the ground. Thus, the habitat segregation between the two species is not due to interspecific competition, but is based on taxonomic difference.
1. Observations on the breeding behavior of Japanese Wagtail Motacilla grandis was made along Chikuma River in Sakaki-machi, Hanishina-gun, Nagano Pref. in 1967 and 1968. 2. The breeding season was from early March to July and family flock was maintained for about 2.5 months. 3. Most of nests were built on the ground and nest-building was chiefly engaged by the female. 4. Display and copulation were observed usually just before egg-laying. Copulation was stimulated by the female's attitude. 5. The male and female incubated alternately, and the female's share gragually increased (the male's decreasing) with the advance of breeding stages. 6. The female only brooded and the time became shorter as the chicks grow to be finally stopped in the later nestling stage. 7. The rate of feeding of chicks was higher in the male than the female during the brooding period, but was reversed in non-brooding periods. As a whole, the male worked higher rate. 8. The chick's faeces were took away by the parents, but in the early feeding period swallowed. 9. After the young left the nest, the family group remained for 25 days in or near the territory. 10. The parents' share of work was as follows: incubation 72.1% by female and 27.9% by male; feeding of chicks 46.2% by female and 53.8% by male; nest-building (with individual difference) and brooding 100% by female. 11. Pairs were distributed one per 200 meters. A home range was about 5 ha with some overlap with the adjoining one. 12. Corvus corone which had roost in this area caused much damage by eating the chicks. 13. Average clutch size of 8 nests was 5.25, the hatching rate 47.1% and the fledging rates were 52.6% for number hatched and 23.8% for eggs laid. 14. The singing area was mostly included in the fighting area. 15. The activity loci of the male plotted every 2 minutes were concentrated near the nest and riverside during nest-building and incubation periods, since he worked radially from the nest to favored feeding ground at waterside. But in egg-laying, period he moved around more freely and actively. 16. Percentages of male's daily activities were as follows: foraging and walking 43.1%; resting and watching 30.3%; singing 7.2%; fighting 0.4% and maintenance activity 13.0%.
1. During August 1966 and August 1968, fluctuation of population size, seasonal and daily changes of habitat use and activity loci of Chloris sinica minor were studied along Chikuma River in Nagano Prefecture, by means of line transects, repeated census and local all-day observation, as well as banding of 1, 114 individuals. 2. Total number of individuals had two seasonal peaks: one the post-breeding increase of June to September (In August 1967, 48 birds, 2.4 times of April number), the other the increase of November to March due to northern migrant immigration (Peaks were 84 birds, 4.4 times of April number in the 1st year, and 125 birds, 7.0 times of April number in the 2nd year). In breeding season, May to June, the number was lowest but stable between 14-18 breeding adults. In the second year, average total number was 1.6 times higher than in the previous year. 3. The annual life cycle could be divided into six periods, which are as follows: a. Scattered spring phase (April-July): The breeding season with lowest number of individuals, scattered by pairs and not gathering into flock. The village is used as nesting and farmlands as feeding areas. Relatively high rates in arboreal and aerial activities. b. Localized summer phase (July-September): Population increases by fledged young birds. Families scatter over river-side and farmlands, gradually forming local compound groups and move to river-side areas. The rate of feeding activity and the time spent on grasses are increased. Locally flocks of young birds are formed. c. Concentrated autumn phase (September-October): The local compound family groups become concentrated to form a big 'molting flock' of up to 150 birds at a certain river-side place where seed production of grasses is at its hight. Thus high rates of time are spent for feeding on grass and for 'molting rests' on trees. d. Scattered autumn phase (October-November): Having completed the molting and food become exhausted in the concentrated area, the flock breaks into small parties to spread outside, some entering villages. In November, grass seeds are fallen on the ground and the rate of ground feeding increases. Part of the population moves southwards. e. Unstable winter phase (November-February): The population increases to the annual maximum by immigrant flocks from the north and is locally unstable. They concentrate on riverside, with high rates of ground activity, 84-87%, and feeding, 91-94%. In February, the activity rates in village and farmlands increase. f. Unstable spring phase (March-April): The population decreases but in March sudden short-period increases are noticed reflecting arrival of passing flocks and birds of the study area return from the south. The rate of activity increases in the villages and farmlands, with decrease in river-side area. February and March are the most severe season. In March, 90.1% of activity is spent on the ground, with 93.1% of feeding activity. But, in April, these rates suddenly decrease and flocking activity changes by time of the day. In the morning they move about by singles, pairs, and small parties in the villages and farmlands, but towards afternoon they would still gather into flocks at river-side or cultivated fields.
In 1969, a pair of Jungle Crow Corvus levaillatii japonensis bred, as in the previous year, in a ginko tree about 70m from the author's home in central Tokyo. They were kept under observation from incubation period through fledging and later periods. In this paper, their post-fledging family behavior is reported. 1. There were two periods for the chicks from their nest-leaving to territory-leaving. These are: a. Nest-site roost period The chicks first left the nest on 24 May, only climbing up to higher branches where they sat still for the day and roosted there during a few days. Later they moved and flew around the nest-tree and roosted in trees below it. This period lasted 19 days. b. Communal roost period One chick remained in the parents' territory and flew to communal flock roost accompanied by parents. In the morning, it returned to the territory usually later than parents, and were fed chiefly by the female, although it could forage by itself. Later, its return to the territory became irregular. This period lasted as long as 75 days. It is to be noted that this young, apparently male, left the nest (probably hatched) one day later than the other two nest-mates which showed faster growth and did not have this period, since they never came back (possibly not by accident) to the territory after they were first led to the communal flock roost by the parents one day earlier! Probably, the problems of maturity, individuality or companionship (whether solitary or with nest-mate) may be involved in this difference. 3. During the nestling period, the parents used to fly away to communal flock roost in the evening, but in the first night of nest-site roost period (the first day of chicks' nest-leaving), the parents remained to roost under the nest-tree (to guard the young), the male and female perched some 15m apart. But, afterwards, it was usually the case that the parents did so when the young did not settle in the roost (being still hungry) towards the evening, but flew off to the communal roost when the young roosted early and quietly (having been well fed during the day). 4. Although the above are instinctive parental reactions, some judgment (in the sense of Rensch's "averbal judgment") is certainly involved and sometimes a chain of behaviors are performed in reaction to the action of the young. The following are examples: a. On leaving to the communal roost, the parents do not fly stright away but make one or two stops on some higher buildings to look back the movements of the young. On 4 June, they then flew away, the young having been quiet, but on 6 June, when one young was still unsettled, they came back to the nest-site and roosted with the young. b. On 8 June, the parents and young once gathered together into the nest-site roost, but the young had apparently been not enough fed during the day and one seemed to be particularly hungry. As if to test the reaction of the young, parents flew to the usual buildings, the female to the one some 180m apart and the male 380m away. On seeing still unsettled one young, female came back to the nest-tree and the young at once reacted begging food rather strongly. Then the female flew to nearby building where she had concealed food, a rat, and began to store its meat in the throat. On this, two of the young flew to that building to beg from the female, who then flew away with the rat to the building where the male was watching. There she filled her throat with enough meat and came back to the nest-tree and fed the most hungry young. Then she flew down into the nest-site roost at once followed by the young, and on seeing this, the male also came to the nest-site roost. Now the young were content and settled quietly. This was already 18.47 p. m., 8min, before the sunset, with 900 lux.
1. This sixth report on Cyanopica cyana is based on field observations of December 1963 to April 1968 and on a wide anquête on flock distribution in Nagano Prefecture. Movements of young birds were also studied. 2. Local flock distribution was plotted on a 1/50.000 map of the prefecture, with an area of 19.600km2, sectioned into 49 of 1km2 squares. This plotting was based on data collected from 82 persons and one museum. The distributional pattern was centered in central Nagano-Ueda (particularly Nagano area) plain surrounded by mountain ranges, with scattered flocks to the peripheral foot zones. The interesting fact was that the distribution was restricted to the east (Nagano) side of the geologically important fossa magna. Local changes in distribution have also been noticed. 3. Vertically, the distributional limit was found at 1, 600m on Kirigamine plateau from bottomland of 310m of altitude. 4. No correlation of distribution with annual rainfall nor temperatures was found and it was distributed even in the districts with snowfall of 3m. 5. Habitat environments included human habitation area, orchards and both broad and needleleaved woods, but with special preference to the combinations of human habitation with orchards or woods surrounding houses. 6. The movement area of fledged young birds was limited in the diurnal activity range of the flock they belonged to. They were recorded within 20-570m from the nest. 7. Birds ringed as nestlings were recovered after 0.5-20.5 months and there was no correlation of their dispersal distances and periods elapsed.
1. A hybrid Parus varius × P. atricapillus (montanus) obtained in Yamagata, September, 1966, has been kept alive untill May, 1969. It is intermediate in plumage and had a voice of varius though finer. Five of this hybrid are known in Japanese literature between 1830 and 1937. 2. A male Emberiza spodocephala captured in Tokyo in November, 1964 and kept alive untill December, 1967, was of Japanese personata type but was distinctly greyer above and less yellowish below. It may not be a variant but may have come from some northern population.
A Pitta brachyura nympha was obtained at Taiheizan Miyoshi Shrine, in Akanuma, Akita City in the early morning, 31 May 1969. There were many old and tall trees of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Abies firma and Zelkova serrata, with many houses and rice-fields around the Shrine. The measurements of wing, culmen and tarsus of this specimen are within the range given by various authors. However, Kuroda (1953) states that the wing length of Japanese and Quelpart I. specimens is somewhat longer (125mm-126.5mm) than Formosan birds (117-122mm), but the measurement of this specimen is included in the latter (Table 1).
Stomach contents of one example of each of Parus montanus, Sitta europeae and T. troglodytes obtained in Mt. Hayachine, Iwate Pref. are given with date, time, weather, altitude, forest type and place of feeding when collected. Such data are needed as actual evidence in considering food chain of a particular ecological study area.