I have had a thankful opportunity of paying a visit to Moscow and stayed there between May 29-June, 1972, also to Khabarovsk between June 14-16 of same year. The purpose of my visits to U. S. S. R., was to try my efforts for restoring an amiable friendship between the ornithologists of Soviet Union and Japan, which has long been interrupted in the past and to promote the interexchange of scientific knowledge and research works for the conservation of wildlife, also to push forward the closer cooperation between the bird experts of our two nations. It is my delightful privilege to say that I was able to fulfil all those long cherished desire in full every way, through the warm courtesies of many respectful persons I met at Moscow and Khabarovsk, all of whom cordially greeted me. Especially, I wish to acknowledge special obligation to Mr. L. K. Shaposhnikov, Dr. Y. V. Sapetin, and Dr. A. A. Kistchinski of the Central Laboratory on Conservation of Nature in the Ministry of Agriculture; Dr. Margarita Ivanova Levedeva, Director of the Bird Banding Centre in the Academy of Sience of U. S. S. R. My deep thanks are due also to Dr. Nazarenko, Dr. Firsova, Dr. Litvinenko, Dr. Shibaev and Dr. Shapilo, who has shown me a great kindness during my stay with them. Further, I would like to express my appreciation for the thougtfulness of the Institute of Zoology of Leningrad and the Library of Academy of Science of U. S. S. R., who was so kind as to sending us quite a few valuable literatures, as they promised me while I was in the Soviet Union as to exchange books and documental records each other. Also, the books and scientific papers we received from the U. S. S. R. authorities recently were very informative and up-to-date, most of the descriptions in which plainly explained about the things happened after 1969. All of them would unquestionably contribute a great deal on the studies of ornithology and for the movement of bird preservation in Japan in future. I certainly feel very grateful to all of them.
This is the 8th annual report of monthly census in the Imperial Palace from April 1972 to March 1973. The same route of 4.1km was censused from about 9.40-11.30a.m. as in the previous years. The results are tabulated in the same order of species only to add at the end additional species for the year. Tallies were made in two tables, one for wooded area with small ponds, the other with big moats used as duck resort in winter and heron colony in summer. The monthly species records in total area ranged 14-26 (Av. 20.1) and the number of individuals 185-697 (Av. 404.4). Two species Phylloscopus borealis (passage migrant) and Regulus regulus (rare winter visitor to this low plain) were added to the list, making a total of 52 species for 1972 and 85 species so far recorded. As in the previous year the avifauna of the Palace area was stable, although incidental larger flocks of Sturnus cineraceus, Corvus corone and Egretta garzetta were recorded than in 1971. Some observational reconds of the Great tit, Green Pheasant, fruits of trees eaten by birds, dead birds found, etc. were given in respective tables.
A big bamboo bush surrounding the duck-netting pond at Koshigaya, Saitama Pref., situated at southern central part of Kanto Plain, is used as winter roost by 30, 000-50, 000 Sturnus cineraceus (with annual difference in 1960, 1967, 1968). Its winter status has already been reported (Misc. Rep. Yam. Inst. No. 18, 1962), and here, the monthly fluctuation of the roosting flock in 1967-68 is described. Flocks returning to the roost were counted at a fixed observation point before the roost and were tallied later by 10 minutes intervals, and by directions. 1. The size of roosting flock fluctuated as follows: Oct. 16, 1967: 14, 840 birds, Nov. 23: 19, 510 birds, Dec. 13: 22, 553 birds, Jan. 10, 1968: 29, 398 birds (Feb. 2, 1960: 49, 700 birds), Feb. 14: 24, 150 birds, Mar. 3: 17, 016 birds, Mar. 17: 6, 995 birds, Apr. 6: 850 birds, May 6: 172 birds, June 5: 30 birds, July 10: 1, 183 birds, gathered, but not roosted, and flew to NE (to the summer roost at Omatsu), Aug. 5: Some 140 birds and other overflying flocks flew to NE., Oct. 21: In this year still only 500 birds roosted in this month (owing perhaps to new house construction before the roost), Nov. 11: 41, 959 birds roosted, but 2, 260 birds flew to NE (to summer roost), and other 2, 070 birds to another direction (to NW). The roost in this direction was not confirmed, but this may be a small subsidiary roost used when the main roost became too crowded. 2. Thus, the Koshigaya roost was confirmed to be a winter roost and summer roosts were found, as the result of roosting flight observations at various places of feeding area. 3. There were two summer roost sites, the one at Hirakata village 5km northward and the other at Omatsu 4km northeast. 4. The Hirakata roost consisted of three different bamboo bushes surrounded by trees or small cryptomeria wood (here some Little egrets and Night herons roosted). However, the bamboos were dying (it was dying over extensive area in Kanto plain in this year) and flocks that gathered were observed to move to Omatsu roost, 3km apart, but about 2, 500 birds remained to roost. 5. The Omatsu roost was a big one, formed in the bamboo bush of a temple where about 20, 000 birds gathered from all directions, including Koshigaya area. Thus, Koshigaya roost had in summer no more value than a mere feeding site or a gathering point on the roosting flyway to Omatsu. 6. The populational roost change by summer and winter may depend principally on the change of status of the feeding areas. The Koshigaya area is extensive rice fields which serve as the best winter feeding ground but after the rice has grown in early summer, the area no more fits as feeding ground and although some vegetable fields are mixed, they are dry. In the nerthern area, the vegetable fields are prevailing and are cultivated in well watered conditions. More over, villages are scattered with well wooded surroundings where much tree fruits are available as summer food. Thus, the population moves to this area and censequently the roost is sought in that area. It may seem that the roost has its significance only when the surroundings are fit for feeding grounds. 7. All the roosts were so situated as one side facing to a river with not easily accessible edge of the roost.
1. During February, 1964 and July, 1972, roosts and roosting hehavior of Blue Magpie Cyanopica cyana were investigated at four different places: Kawanakajima and Karuizawa in Nagano, and Shibuya and Kurume city in Tokyo. 2. In autumn to winter, roost trees were chiefly evergreen plants, such as red pine, bamboo and auk, although 'konara' and reed were used early in autumn. 3. The heights of roosting trees differed from 2 to 20m, but as already reported, the height did not influence the roosting behavior. 4. Dense group of trees was usually selected as roost but in some cases, a single tree near a house was also used, showing a wide roost selection. 5. Thus, a roost may be taken in a tree close to house, or along a road with busy traffic, and therefore, the relation with a ditch (for safety) reported in earlier paper may have been a local case. 6. Roosts of non-breeding period are continuously used (as reported). 7. Earlier and present observations show that the roosting behavior advances as follows: 1) Feeding around 2) Gathering in a tree 3) Flight to roost site 4) Some preroosting celemonial behavior 5) Entering into roost and perch site selection 6) Fall in sleep. 8. Behavior in the roost tree advances from selection of sleeping branch, preroosting rest and then to actual sleeping, thus some resting time precedes the sleeping. 9. These rather celemonial behaviors were similar between free living birds and those kept in a flying-cage. 10. Some factors, such as light intensity, distance from roost, weather and food intake, that may influence roosting behavior were discussed. The lowering light intensity was influential to flock movements directed to the roost and then to actual sleep, but the effect of light intensity rather differed by flocks observed. Within three km from the roost, the distance did not influence the starting time for roosting flight, the strong wind, snow fall, both through coldness, caused earlier roosting time, while the effect of the rate of food intake for the day before roosting was not clear.
1. Through the year 1968, size, structure and seasonal change of home range of Passer montanus were studied at Bundo village in Iiyama City, Nagano. 2. Bundo is an isolated small village of only 12 houses situated 800m above the sea level, with maximum snowfall of over 2m. 3. The annual life cycle could be divided into: 1) snow season 2) breeding season and 3) flocking season. 4. The home range in snow season measured 11, 500m2, with activity concentration to resting and feeding places, which were in the center of village. The main food in early snow season was the seed of percimon. 5. The home range in breeding season was the smallest measuring 9, 600m2, but gradually increased as the advance of breeding stage. The center of activity is directed to the nest and the vicinity. 6. Entering the flocking season, the home range increased to 37, 200m2, expanding over rice fields The 96.6% of food consisted of the rice. The flock concentrates to a particular rice field. 7. The lack of food during snow season urges them to spend 27.8% of the day in foraging and rest under the eaves and roofs. 8. As the rice ripes, they get in the flocking season and spend only 11.9% of the day for eating, They rest 88.1% of the day gathering around Aralia cordata bush and reeds near the rice fields. 9. The feeding places during snow and breeding seasons are almost all in the village (89.9% and 85.6% respectively), while in flocking season they feed 98.3% in the rice field. 10. The home range consists of central and outer ranges. The central range is used through the year, with 3-8 times thicker concentration rate of activity loci than in the outer range. It is in the village and contains nest sites. 11. In severe snow season, 65.8% of the home range is used, decreasing to 50.0% in breeding season. In flocking season, although the range increses, only 36.6% of the area is actually used, with 93.4% of the area left unused. 12. Adult birds once settled lives within the selected home range throughout the year, strongly dependent on human houses.
1. The breeding behavior particularly of the male Cisticola juncidis was studied in 1967 at Chikuma River basin, Nagano prefecture. 2. The observation data were obtained by '2-hour observation' between 8-10 a. m. 3. The chief behaviors of the male are singing and nest-building. 4. The male sings two kinds of song, the air and perch songs, and both the frequency and length of the songs are greater in the air song. 5. The male sings through the breeding season from early April to middle September, and the frequency and the length of the songs per hour were 12.9 times and 12 minutes 37 seconds in average respectively. 6. The male constructs the outer wall of the nest and the female works for inside lining. One male constructed 20 nests during a breeding season, of which 8 were used by different females. 7. The nesting behavior was recorded on 66 days (84.6%) of the 78 days observation between April 25 and September 11. Average 6.6 days were required for construction of one nest. 8. The male abandoned the nests which were not used by females and may take their material for construction of a new nest. 9. The above two sustained behaviors of the male, the continuous singing and nesting, have definitive rôles in functioning its polygomous breeding system, for accepting the females successfully.
1. Since the last ten years, author collected data of observations (9 cases) and dead birds (10 cases) of Aquila chrysaetos, a Natural Monument species, in Niigata prefecture. 2. Apparently, the reports on dead birds of this species are much more frequent compared with other prefectures. 3. The living range of this species in this prefecture on the snowy Japan Sea side, is over lowlands rather than high mountains, as generally believed. 4. Its greater abundance in this prefecture is correlated with high population of its prey, the hare Lepus timidus, as can be judged from hunting statistics. 5. The cause of its death was either illegally shot, found dead, or death by electric wire, etc. and local people are interested to have it staffed. 6. Various measures necessay for protection of this declining species are proposed, based on the data of observation and dead birds.