In 1972, the senior author visited several ornithological institutes in USSR and exchange of literature was agreed. As the result, the Yamashina Institute received most of important ornithological books and papers recently published in USSR, in exchange with Japanese literature. Here, 25 books, 28 journals and symposia and 24 private reprints are reviewed.
1. A series of bird censuses was made during Oct., 1967-Oct. 1968 within 191.9km2 of cultivated farmlands in southern Kanto Plain. In total, 29 censuses, 1-5 times per month, covered 197.2km, 19.76km2 (with an observation width of 100m) and 4, 633 minutes, and 2-15km and 60-260 minutes per census. 2. Random census routes were selected so as to cover rather evenly the total study area. 3. Seasonally, 39 species in spring, 22 in summer, 31 in autumn and 27 in winter were recorded, with 39 species spring to summer and 37 species autumn to winter. 4. The avifauna consisted of 14 resident species, 9 summer visitors, 13 winter visitors and 13 transients, which varied by season. 5. The number of individuals recorded was 3, 456 birds in spring, 2, 662 birds in summer (spring to summer 6, 118 birds) as against 5, 600 birds in autumn, 5, 022 birds in winter (autumn to winter 10, 622 birds), thus showing a great increase of number in winter season. Therefore the study area had environmental value of winterquarter type for the bird community 6. In number of individuals, the resident species far outnumbered other groups occupying 93% (89% in summer and 96% in winter seasons) of the total bird community. 7. Among residents, Passer montanus occupied 47% (45% in summer, 49% in winter), and Sturnus cineraceus 28% (23% in summer, 31% in winter) far more outnumbering others, as compared with next ranked Cyanopica cyana 5%, followed by Streptopelia decaocto 4%, Alauda arvensis 3% and Egretta garzetta 1% then Corvus corone, Lanius bucephalus, Streptopelia orientalis, Chloris sinica, Cisticola juncidis, Corvus macrorhynchos, Phasianus colchicus and Bambusicola thoracica. Among birds of other group, only a few species, Hirundo rustica 10% in summer, Turdus eunomus 2% in winter and Sturnus philippensis 0.5% in late summer showed seasonal perceivable dominance among the bird community. 8. The distributional patterns of the above several main species were plotted on 1/50, 000 scale map of the study area, showing the concentration area, or dispersed pattern and the seasonal change.
1. Daytime feeding dispersion, roosting activities and their correlations in Emberiza rustica (a winter visitor) and E. cioides (a resident), wintering in the same area, were comparatively studied in footzone to lowland in central Honshu. 2. During the daytime, E. cioides is found dispersed over alluvial dry area. Its sedentary population shows a strong site attachment living in pairs, while those which come down to winter from mountain slopes form small groups, which may be male groups or mixed flocks. They spend the daytime along the edges of rice paddies. The roosts are formed by small groups in grass patches. The sedentary members form small communal roosts at the edges of rice paddies and those from mountain slopes return to their roosts up in the slopes. 3. E. rustica concentrates in a big flock on rice paddies or gathering at adjoining parts. However, some are dispersed by pairs. The roosts are formed concentrated within a roosting area of a diameter of about 1km in woodland slopes. Thus, they form a definite local population and a local population consisted of about seven hundred birds. They roost in bushy or grassy patches dispersed in small groups. From about an hour before sunset, they return to the roosting area by singles or in small parties from the daytime feeding grounds on paddy fields, taking a fixed course of roosting flights. 4. The daytime dispersal of E. cioides and E. rustica is environmentally segregated and their behavior patterns and flock size are different. In the night dispersal, E. cioides roosts widely scattered over slopes and paddy fields, while E. rustica concentrates in a certain roosting area in the mountain slope. 5. E. spodocephala shows winter dispersal and migration patterns intermadiate between E. cioides and E. rustica. However, although there are specific different patterns in maintenance of pair units, site adherence, flock size and roosting assemblies in their wintering populations, they are of relative and quantitative differences, and rather represent a general common Emberiza pattern, versus flocking and roosting behaviors of finches or other groups of birds.
This study was conducted on January 3-4, 1970, in an area adjoining to Saga City in Kyushu to investigate the ecological segregation of five species of the Genus Emberiza, wintering in paddy fields. As the result of line transect censuses, all the five species of Emberiza: E. cioides, E. spodocephala, E. fucata, E. schoeniclus and E. rustica, were recorded along creeks running through paddy fields. The daytime dispersal and roosting activity of E. spodocephala was especially studied with 'time-mapping' method (Nakamura, 1969). Along the creeks, all the five species occurred but with the following ecological habitat segregations: E. schoeniclus, E. rustica and E. spodocephala among vegetations in the creek, E. cioides on the bank of the creek, E. fucata beyond the bank on the paddy fields where E. rustica was the only species that gathered in large flocks. During the daytime, E. spodocephala spent principally in pairs and adhered to a home range of an area of about 10, 000m2-20, 000m2. Before sunset, 60-70% of its population wintering in the investigation area (1.8km2) flew to a communal roost in the reed bed of Ariake Bay. However, there were individuals of the population that remained by pairs or in small flocks within or near the daytime home range. Thus, we found two different roosting petterns in one wintering population of E. spodocephala.
1. The ecology of four species of Emberiza wintering along the basin of Chikuma River in Nagano, was studied comparatively with road-side census method during February to April, 1969 (four times) and November, 1969 to April, 1970 (seven times), taking a fixed route of 6km. 2. Analyses of census data were made by dividing the winter season into 4 periods, dividing census route by 500m sections and classifying the habitat into 15 environments. 3. The numerical dominance among four species were: E. rustica 65.1%, E. cioides 31.1% E. schoeniclus 3.4% and E. spodocephala 0.4% 4, E. cioides was widely distributed with no particular concentration with the occurrence rate 83.3-100% (Av. 97.4%) and dominance 5-14%; E. rustica had local concentrations, with occurrence rate 41.7-91.6% (Av. 71.2%) and dominance 0.7-46%; E. schoeniclus was restricted in particular habitat and E. spodocephala was very few in number and was found extremely localized. 5. The flock size of E. cioides ranged 1-20 birds and that of E. rustica 1-300 birds, and the latter was unstable (reflecting its migratory habit) in relation to the grassy area of the habitat, while E. cioides was well dispersed and stable (reflecting its sedentary nature), 6. E. cioides gathered at less grassy elevated spots, while E. rustica formed large flock at lower wet grassy places. E. schoeniclus occurred singly or in small parties selecting the reeds or long grass areas. E. spodocephala was also found by singles or in small groups in reeds or bank sides. 7. In summary, each species requires a set of habitat. E. cioides seeks a patch of dry ground with fallen grass seeds, with some nearby bushes to escape in; E. rustica prefers wetter part with plenty of grass seeds and some dense bushes or trees to escape on; E. schoeniclus restricts itself to reeds, and other tall water vegetations and E. spodocephala is partial to grassy bushes with nearby feeding ground where grass seeds are to be found.
Concentration of PCBs and pesticides in breast muscle and liver were measured in the White Stork Ciconia ciconia boyciana which was shot by hunter in Sizuoka prefecture in November 1972. It was apparently a bird from outside of Japan where it lived a short period before shot. The levels of total BHC and DDT in muscle and liver were 1.3ppm, 0.6ppm and 10.0ppm, 4.3ppm on fat basis respectively, and those of PCBs were 14.5ppm and 11.0ppm. Almost all of BHC isomers in both muscle and liver were present in the form of β-BHC and 60-70% of DDT was pp'-DDE. The levels of PCB and pesticide residues in this sample stork were fairly low compared with usual levels found in fish-eating birds in Japan. The composition of PCBs accumulated in this sample is apparently different from those in the native Little Egret Egretta garzetta: 55-58% of PCBs detected in the tissues of the sample stork were tetrachlorobiphenyls, while in the egret hexachlorobiphenyls are most abundant.