The purpose of this study is to investigate ideal project-based learning (PBL) methods for the students studying home economics in women's university. To operate an ideal PBL, it is considered that harmonizing educational principle and interests of external organization is crucial, so I designed PBL to achieve competencies of problem-solving and identities of the students, as well as real profits of the external organizations. In this study I show two examples of PBL with food companies, and the result of survey to analyze attitude toward career development, gender, PBL, university education, and the impressions of the future home economics and women's university among students experienced PBL in the courses of food planning and development. Analysis indicates that PBL was effective in enhancing motivation for subjective learning and career development, and in improving communication skills. Finally, ideal PBL methods for the students studying home economics in women's university to develop better career is discussed.
Spinach is normally prepared by boiling and then immersion in cold water. Commercial frozen spinach, however, is labeled “use as-is.” If commercial frozen spinach has a high oxalic acid content, then there is a risk of greater intake of oxalic acid if it is eaten as-is. The aim of this study was to ascertain the amount of oxalic acid in commercial frozen spinach. Frozen spinach were purchased from three companies （A, B and C）. These samples were allowed to natural thawing or thawing in running water. The amount of oxalic acid per 1g of a sample （dry weight） was determined. The amount of oxalic acid when natural thawing in Sample A, B and C were 28.7mg⁄gDW, 32.6mg⁄gDW, 48.2mg⁄gDW, respectively. The amount of oxalic acid when thawed in running water in Sample A, B and C were 17.3mg⁄gDW , 24.6mg⁄gDW, 38.6mg⁄gDW, respectively. All three samples contained more oxalic acid when natural thawing than when thawed in running water, and Sample A and B contained significantly more oxalic acid when natural thawing than when thawed in running water （p<0.01）. In this study, it was confirmed that amount of oxalic acid can be reduced by thawing frozen spinach in running water.