English has numerous synonyms. Although their semantic similarities have been primarily paid attention to in the previous research, equally interesting is their differences. However, their differences are implicit knowledge so that even native speakers might perceive it wrongly or cannot access it directly. Rather, they occur explicitly as differences in distribution in authentic data.
The present study aims to describe the differences between synonyms, apparently and seemingly, by using data from BYU-BNC. Previous studies on synonyms have focused on their similarities but hardly focused on their differences in use.
The investigation suggests that apparently tends to be used as a sentential adverb to show the speaker's positive commitment to the content the rest of the sentence expresses. In contrast, seemingly almost exclusively modifies adjectives, particularly ones with negative suffixes such as endless and impossible.
Loanwords are like vocabulary “freebies” when studying a new language and can aid in overall acquisition (Nation, 2003). In the case of Japanese, the katakana syllabary system has served to adapt foreign words into a phonetic notation system that everyone in the population is able to recognize and pronounce (Rebuck, 2002). These words of foreign origin, now represented in katakana, are called gairaigo, and as of 2000 the Sanseido dictionary contained over 52,000 foreign loan words entries (MacGregor, 2003). In contrast, waseieigo, also known as “made in Japan English” is a class of language composed of vocabulary that utilize the katakana syllabary/dictation system, thus appearing to look like a foreign loanword, but these words possess a meaning that is slightly or totally different from that of the language of origin (Norman, 2012). This study is an electronic adaptation of a study by Norman (2012) and looked at university student familiarity with waseieigo. Similar to the Norman study, it was found that the student awareness was around 50%.
I have been researching high school English education in Taiwan from a comparative education perspective, i.e. from socio-cultural, politico-economic, and historical aspects. My research has spanned the period from 1945 to 2015, but this particular study focuses only on the period spanning 1983 to 2008. My primary focus was on lesson topics outlined in Taiwanese senior high school English textbooks and I investigated 502 lesson topics that appeared in 42 textbooks that were correspondingly published after MOE guideline revisions had been completed in 1983, 1995, and 2008. The lesson topics were classified according to the Nippon Decimal Classification (NDC), which is used in almost all Japanese libraries.
The specific goals of this study are:
1) To examine the structural and functional features of the recent versions of Taiwanese senior high school English textbooks.
2) To examine socio-cultural, politico-economic, and historical aspect influences on lesson topic contents
I found that textbooks complied with MOE guidelines, so that in terms of structure and functional aspects, both practical English functions as well as broader intellectual concepts were emphasized. Hence, for the former, lesson topics focused on practical conversational English skills, whereas for the latter, lesson topics included literature classics and poetry. I also found that despite huge complications from both residual elements of the civil war struggles and from the pressures imposed by economic development, the postwar Taiwanese governments clearly recognized the need for education as an investment in human capital. Moreover, lesson topic and subject emphasis have been influenced in complex ways by the trend towards “indigenization” or “bentuhua.”
The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors that influence learning outcomes of medical students.
I analyzed the data of 6th year medical students who were at Chiba University in 2012 and 2013. The number of subjects in this study was 188. The method was multiple regression analysis. The independent variables were socio-economic background (length of education of parents) and social attribute (sex) of medical students. The dependent variable was cumulative Grade Point Average.
The result of this analysis clarified that the factors influencing the learning outcomes of medical students were not unchangeable variables like socio-economic background and social attribute but changeable variables like involvements of students at university.
In 1991 the University Establishment Standards were relaxed. Researchers and each institution of higher education in Japan started a debate for improving liberal arts education. The Government of Japan strengthens the study of science in recent years, although many universities in the USA emphasize liberal arts education. In 2015 Japan’s Ministry of Education instructed the national universities to reorganize or reduce their liberal arts and education departments. By this instruction professors who engage in liberal arts education feel a sense of crisis. However, most of these professors are researchers in the humanities and social sciences, not in the natural sciences. Liberal arts education should be made up of not only humanities and social sciences but also natural science. In this paper I try to explain why the Japanese natural scientists don’t have interest in liberal arts education. The reason is, in the first, their method of research (joint research) and teaching (experiments in the laboratory). In the second, curriculum in the department of natural science, in which most subjects are required.