Dynamic balance was evaluated using the trajectory length of the center of foot pressure (COP) in the early phase from immediately after landing to the time of pastoral maintenance. Ten young volunteers with an average age of 23.8 years were asked to stand on one foot on a horizontal floor, hop forward half a step and land on one foot 10 times on each of 3 non-consecutive days. The peak of the vertical component of the floor reaction force (Fz), and the initiation time of the maximum value (tz) and COP trajectory length were measured by a force plate (AMTI, Ltd.). None of the subjects complained of any feeling of fear or loss of balance during the 3 days.The interclass correlation coefficient values of Fz and tz over the three days were 0.75 or higher. Single-leg hop for half a step as a motor task enabled safe measurement of COP trajectory length with high reproducibility. Fz reached its peak within 200 ms after landing and the COP trajectory length within 200 ms after landing accounted for approximately 50% of the total COP trajectory length at one second. Although the length differed in each subject, the interclass correlation coefficients for COP up to 100 ms and 200 ms were 0.68 and 0.80, respectively.The COP trajectory length within 200 ms after landing was considered to be useful as an objective criteria for the evaluation of dynamic balance in the early phase after landing.
This study was designed to investigate the clinical predictors of abnormal glucose tolerance 5-7 weeks after delivery. Subjects were 155 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between October 2005 and September 2013 whose pregnancy and delivery were managed at our center. Subjects were divided into a normal glucose tolerance group (NGT; n = 113), or abnormal glucose tolerance group (AGT; n = 42) with borderline or overt diabetes mellitus, based on 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75 gOGTT) results 5-7 weeks after delivery. We extracted profiles by which abnormal glucose tolerance levels 5-7 weeks after delivery were predicted using a classification and regression tree (CART) from parameters measured at the time of GDM diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine prediction accuracy. Subjects with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥92 mg/dL and immuno-reactive insulin level <100 μU/mL 60 min after load (IRI60min) at time of diagnosis showed a significantly higher risk of developing abnormal glucose tolerance 5-7 weeks after delivery than subjects with FPG <92 mg/dL (p < 0.0001). Subjects with FPG ≥92 mg/dL and IRI60min ≥ 100 μU/mL had the same risk as those with FPG of <92 mg/dL. Patients with gestational diabetes who met the criteria specified above at diagnosis were at a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the future. By explaining this issue to patients, we expect to improve the rate of postpartum follow-up. This should facilitate early detection of diabetes, and help prevent associated complications.
Double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendon grafts is a standard procedure for ACL injury. However, its clinical effectiveness is not always satisfactory. One cause of this was problems with the graft-tunnel healing of the posterolateral bundle (PLB) on the femur. To solve this problem, we devised a new anatomic ACL reconstruction technique to improve the graft-tunnel healing of the femoral PLB by using a single-bundle with one bone tunnel on the femoral side and a double-bundle on the tibial side. We have performed 40 procedures with excellent results and no cases of intra- or postoperative complication. This procedure can help improve the graft-tunnel healing around the femoral bone tunnel aperture for the PLB.
Analysis of the structural changes and cell-to-cell interactions occurring during wound healing of burn injuries is essential to elucidate the morphological characteristics of the reconstitution of tissue architecture. However, conventional approaches do not provide sufficient information with respect to cell-to-cell interactions during wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between bone marrow-derived cells and resident stromal cells throughout the wound healing of burn injuries, using immunohistochemistry and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope tomography. We induced third-degree burn injuries on the backs of Wistar rats with a heated cylindrical aluminum block (2.0 cm in diameter). At 7 and 14 days after the burn injuries, the burned skin was immunostained with anti-Iba1 and anti-HSP47 antibodies for visualization of bone marrow-derived cells/macrophages and resident stromal cells/fibroblasts, respectively. Normal skin tissue was used as a control. Double-staining immunohistochemistry revealed frequent contacts between macrophages and fibroblasts and a higher contact ratio in the 3 normal skin compared with burned skin, particularly in the areas of granuloma. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analysis with focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope tomography revealed that macrophages and fibroblasts were located closer together in the normal skin than in the burned skin, confirming the analysis by light microscopic observations and ultrastructural analysis from single sections. These results highlight the importance of contact between macrophages and fibroblasts in the maintenance of skin tissue structure and during wound healing.
If the risk of progression to asthma could be predicted in patients with rhinitis, prevention of asthma might become possible. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the duration of rhinitis symptoms and acute asthma attacks in children with a history of asthma who were not on treatment for asthma. In 94 children with a history of asthma who were asymptomatic after completing asthma treatment, we investigated the onset and duration of nasal discharge and cough related to allergic rhinitis. Then the children were followed up for 2 weeks and were classified into either an asthma attack group (Group A) or non-asthma group(Group B). A total of 78 subjects were evaluated after 16 were excluded. The duration of nasal discharge was significantly shorter in Group A than in Group B (5.5±1.9 days vs. 10.4±3.1 days, P<0.0001). The interval between the onset of cough and nasal discharge was –1.0±3.1 days in Group A and –5.7±4.1 days in Group B (P<0.0001). The risk of progression to asthma attack may be higher when the onset of cough precedes nasal discharge or when nasal discharge has a short duration and cough shows an early onset. These results may provide assistance when selecting patients for early anti-allergy therapy from among those presenting with upper respiratory tract symptoms.
The hybrid training system (HTS) resists the motion of a volitionally contracting agonist muscle using force generated by its electrically stimulated antagonist. We have developed a new training method using the principle of HTS. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of HTS with electrical stimulation on muscle strength and physical function by comparing it against training without electrical stimulation in older adults. 16 subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the squat and single leg lift training (control, CTR) group, and the CTR with HTS training group. Some electrical stimulation was applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in the HTS group. The subjects performed training for 25 min per session 3 times a week for 12 weeks. At points before and after the research maximal isokinetic torque, knee-flexors (KFT) and knee-extensors (KET), a one-leg standing test (OLT), a functional reach test (FRT), a 10-meter maximal gait time (10MGT) and Timed up & go test (TUG) were conducted. None of the subjects had any injuries during the study period. TUG significantly improved after the training period in both the HTS group (7.15 sec to 6.01 sec P = 0.01) and in the CTR.