This study examined 19 patients with portosystemic shunt encephalopathy caused by a splenorenal shunt (SRS), which was treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Long-term treatment outcomes were evaluated based on hepatic functional reserve and vital prognosis. Encephalopathy improved in all patients after shunt embolization and closure. Albumin, serum ammonia, and the Child-Pugh score, a measure of liver function, were significantly improved 3 years after B-RTO, and exacerbation of damage to liver function was avoided (p<0.01). During the follow-up period, three patients died from liver failure and two patients from hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients had a poor prognosis if their albumin levels were less than 2.8 mg ⁄ dL before B-RTO (p<0.05). Encephalopathy patients had complete response to B-RTO, but long-term prognosis was affected by hepatic functional reserve before B-RTO and by concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. The results of this study suggest that in patients with SRS, it is important to perform B-RTO at an early stage when the hepatic functional reserve is still satisfactory.
Sufficient colonic dilation is important when using CT colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening. We investigated the effect of antispasmodic agents and the patient body habitus on the degree of colonic dilation in screening CTC. We assessed the effect of clinical characteristics [age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and the presence of diverticula] and the use of antispasmodics on colonic distention in 140 patients who underwent CTC for colorectal cancer screening. The CTC was performed in both the supine- and prone positions. Seventy patients received antispasmodics prior to CT examination and the other 70 did not. Colonic distention was scored using a 5-point scale: 1=collapsed, 2=poorly visualized, 3=visualized but underdistended, 4=acceptable, and 5=excellent. Images scored as 4 or 5 were considered to be of diagnostic quality. The mean visual evaluation score was significantly higher in the supine- than the prone position (4.2±0.5 vs. 4.0±0.5, p<0.01). For the supine position, only the use of antispasmodic was statistically associated with sufficient colonic dilation by univariate logistic analysis (odds ratio=2.365, p=0.03). For the prone position, age, BMI, and the use of antispasmodic were statistically associated with sufficient colonic dilation by multivariate analysis. The odds ratio of these parameters was 0.955 (p=0.02), 0.874 (p=0.03), and 2.391 (p=0.02), respectively. We obtained sufficient colonic dilation with an antispasmodic for CTC in both positions. Younger age and a lower BMI were also associated with better colonic dilation in the prone position.
We report our clinical experience using the modified Cadenat method to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation, and discuss the usefulness of this method. This study examined 6 shoulders in 6 patients (5 males, 1 female) who were diagnosed with acromioclavicular joint dislocation and treated with the modified Cadenat method at our hospital. Average age at onset was 49.3 years (26-78 years), average time interval from injury until surgery was 263.8 days (10 to 1100 days), and the average follow-up period was 21.7 months (12 to 42 months). Post-operative assessment was performed using plain radiographs to determine shoulder joint dislocation rate and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. The average post-operative JOA score was 94.1 points (91 to 100 points). The acromioclavicular joint dislocation rate improved from 148.7% (72 to 236%) before surgery to 28.6% (0 to 60%) after surgery. Conservative treatment has been reported to achieve good outcomes in acromioclavicular joint dislocations. However, many patients also experience chronic pain or a sensation of fatigue upon putting the extremity in an elevated posture, and therefore ensuring the stability of the acromioclavicular joint is crucial for highly active patients. In this study, we treated acromioclavicular joint dislocations by the modified Cadenat method, and were able to achieve favorable outcomes.
Proximal gastrectomy (PG) is a widely accepted, efficient treatment for upper-third early gastric cancer. However, it is associated with reduced quality of life (QOL) following surgery, and cancer recurrence in the remaining stomach. Various reconstruction methods have been proposed, but the optimal method has yet to be determined. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, reconstruction methods, and postoperative complications in 101 cases of PG, and additionally compared 93 cases of early gastric cancer treated by PG, and 38 cases treated by total gastrectomy (TG). We found that esophagogastrostomy was superior in terms of operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay, while no significant differences were observed in postoperative complications compared with jejunal interposition or jejunal pouch interposition. We found more cases of multiple gastric cancers and advanced-stage cancer in the TG group than in the PG group. The TG group also had a significantly higher proportion of cases with large tumor diameters, low degrees of differentiation, many lymph node metastases, and advanced-stage disease. There were no differences in the recurrence rate or survival rate between the PG and TG groups. The PG group also showed significantly better results in operating time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications, with a tendency toward shorter hospital stays. In conclusion, PG is a curative but less invasive treatment for upper-third early gastric cancer, and esophagogastrostomy can be considered the most satisfactory reconstruction method following PG.
Pyogenic knee arthritis caused by group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) is rare. GAS sometimes causes group A β-hemolytic streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. We encountered a case of pyogenic knee arthritis caused by GAS that resolved after appropriate treatment (emergency arthroscopic synovectomy and medication) administered within 48 h of onset. In cases of a history of another infection with acute knee joint pain, the possibility of GAS-induced pyogenic knee arthritis should be considered, and proper treatment should be administered immediately.
We report the case of a 60-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with metastasis from primary lung cancer to the breast. The patient presented with a mass in the right breast. Mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic-resonance imaging each suggested primary breast cancer. A core-needle biopsy of the right breast mass indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. A basic chest X-ray showed a shadow in the left upper lung. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomography revealed a mass with a diameter of 90 mm in the left superior region, the shape of which was indicative of primary lung cancer. A lung biopsy confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. We diagnosed primary lung cancer with metastases to the bone, brain and right breast (cT2N3M1, stage IV) by imaging and histopathology. He was administered carboplatin (area under the curve 6 mg ⁄ ml) and paclitaxel (200 mg ⁄ m2) tri-weekly, and underwent gamma-knife treatment for the brain metastasis. The treatments reduced the primary tumor and the metastases. However, after completion of the fifth treatment cycle, he developed disseminated intravascular coagulation from septic shock, and died on the eleventh day after completing the fifth cycle of treatment. Although metastasis to the mammary gland is uncommon, especially among males, metastasis to the mammary gland should be considered when a mammary mass does not exhibit the typical characteristics of breast cancer. A correct diagnosis of metastasis to the mammary gland from lung cancer makes it possible to select the most appropriate treatment method.