Associations have been reported between periodontal disease and increased cardiovascular disease risk, as well as between healthy self-reported tooth brushing behavior and reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the association between self-reported tooth brushing behavior and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) using a large medical check-up database. A total of 12,548 medical checkup records from a medical screening center in a city in southwest Japan were assessed. Subjects were aged 30 to 59 years. As lifestyle is associated with both tooth brushing and MetS, many lifestyle variables were considered as potential confounders. Logistic regression model were employed with a list of 127 lifestyle variables. Twenty variables associated with both tooth brushing and MetS were selected for both males and females. Furthermore, final confounding variables were selected by principal component analysis to avoid collinearity problems. The association of tooth brushing and MetS was evaluated for males and females separately by calculating adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with selected confounders plus age. The association between daily tooth brushing frequency and MetS risk for both genders was significant after adjusting for confounders, with the risk of MetS decreasing with increased frequency of daily tooth brushing (adjusted OR = 0.57 (95%Cl:0.48-0.81), 0.50 (95%Cl:0.35-0.71), 0.42 (95%Cl: 0.29-0.61) for males and adjusted OR = 0.65 (95%Cl:0.48-0.87), 0.44 (95%Cl:0.32-0.62) for females). Therefore, oral hygiene, including the frequency of tooth brushing as a significant component, may be an important factor in preventing MetS.
Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has gained increasing attention during the past 20 years. Surgeons today are more often confronted with obese patients. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease in obese patients. This study included 65 patients with colorectal disease who underwent laparoscopic surgery, between January 2009 and January 2014, at Kurume University Hospital. We divided the patients in this study into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): <25 kg⁄m2 (non-obese group) and ≥ 25 kg/m2 (obese group). We assessed baseline characteristics and surgical outcomes, and these were compared between the non-obese group and the obese group. There were 53 patients in the non-obese group, and 12 patients in the obese group. There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients with regard to age, sex, co-morbidity, tumor location, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level. The duration of the operation was longer (by about 49 mins) for obese patients than non-obese patients. The conversion rate, amount of blood loss, number of lymph nodes resected, and duration of postoperative hospitalinsertion were each similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the overall incidence of postoperative complications; however, the incidence of incisional hernia tended to be more frequent in obese patients. There was no mortality in the two groups. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is technically feasible and safe for obese patients. However, obesity is associated with longer duration and with higher risk of incisional hernia. Our findings suggest that BMI may not be an accurate estimate of visceral fat, and further studies may be useful for understanding the impact of obesity.
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors to allow us to detect patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy, among Japanese pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75-g OGTT). A total of 118 pregnant women with OAV on a previous 75-g OGTT between 1997 and 2010 were studied. We identified the factors which can predict patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy among Japanese pregnant women with OAV, by comparing severe abnormal glucose tolerance (insulin treatment; n=17) with mild glucose tolerance patients (diet only; n=101). The following factors were examined; plasma level of glucose (PG) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) at fasting, 0.5, 1 and 2 hours after loading glucose, insulinogenic index, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity index-composite (ISI composite), and HbA1c at the time of the 75-g OGTT. Univariate analysis showed a positive correlation between insulin therapy and 2-h PG value, 0.5-h and 1-h IRI values, AUC-IRI and insulinogenic index (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the PG 2-h value and insulinogenic index were independent predictive factors of insulin therapy. A 2-h PG ≥153 mg ⁄ dl and an insulinogenic index of <0.42 had a sensitivity of 81.8%, a specificity of 83.8%, a positive predictive value of 60.0% and a negative predictive value of 93.9% for the prediction of patients who required insulin therapy among pregnant women with OAV. These results suggest that a level of 2-h PG ≥153 mg⁄dl and an insulinogenic index of <0.42 on 75-g OGTT are predictive factors for insulin therapy in Japanese pregnant women with OAV.
Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) is known as a pivotal and specific transcriptional factor of regulatory T cells, and are implicated in various immune diseases including myasthenia gravis (MG). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between FoxP3 expression of lymphocytes in thymoma and clinicopathological characteristics, particularly MG status in thymoma patients. We reviewed 83 thymoma specimens, including 22 from MG patients, and evaluated the FoxP3 expression of lymphocytes in thymoma using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Statistical association was evaluated using chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Thirty-four cases (41.0%) were classified as FoxP3 positive. There were no statistical differences in sex (P=0.289), age (P=0.536), Masaoka stage (P=0.086), WHO histological classification (P=0.097), or Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) Clinical Classification (P=0.117) between FoxP3 positive and negative cases. In contrast, thymoma in cases with MG showed significantly fewer FoxP3 positive lymphocytes than those in cases without MG (P=0.037). Moreover, cases with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody titer equal to or greater than the normal limit also showed significantly fewer FoxP3 positive lymphocytes than cases within the normal limit (P<0.001). Our result indicated the possibility that the decrease of FoxP3 positive lymphocytes in thymoma may lead to the development of MG and to an increase in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies. In addition, FoxP3 positive lymphocytes might be a useful biomarker for evaluation of the risk of MG onset, and could open the way to more effective therapeutic strategies in thymoma patients.
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital anomaly in which the positions of the abdominal and thoracic cavity structures are reversed. The reported incidence of SIT is one in 10,000 to 50,000 live births. There are few reports of gastric cancer in individuals with SIT or of the potential complications of surgical intervention in such cases. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with SIT who underwent surgical treatment for advanced gastric cancer at our hospital and review the pertinent literature. Prior to surgery, abdominal computed topography angiography with 3-dimensional reconstruction was performed to uncover any variations and to verify the exact structures and locations of vessels. Total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and cholecystectomy were performed safely and with careful consideration of the mirror-image anatomy.
Rupture of any two or more parts of the superior shoulder suspensory complex (SSSC) including the distal clavicle, acromion, coracoid process, glenoid cavity of the scapula, acromioclavicular ligament, and coracoclavicular ligament is associated with shoulder girdle instability and is an indication for surgery. Here we report a case of acromioclavicular joint dislocation associated with coracoid process fracture. A 48-year-old man sustained a hard blow to the left shoulder from a fall, and simple radiography detected a coracoid process fracture and acromioclavicular joint dislocation. The injury consisted of a rupture of two parts of the SSSC. For the coracoid process fracture, osteosynthesis was performed using hollow cancellous bone screws. For the acromioclavicular joint dislocation, hook plate fixation and the modified Neviaser's procedure were performed. The bone healed well 5 months after surgery, at which time the screws were removed. At 18 months after initial surgery, the coracoid process fracture had healed with a 10% rate of dislocation on radiography, and the patient currently has no problem performing daily activities, no range of motion limitations, and a Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale score of 93.