Summary: The objective of this study is to retrospectively assess long-term outcomes and late complications of pancreatic trauma. We studied 14 patients with pancreatic trauma who were treated at the Advanced Emergency Medical Service Center, Kurume University Hospital, between 1981 and 2012 and discharged alive. Relevant data were extracted from patient records and a retrospective patient questionnaire and blood test were completed to evaluate pancreatic function. The median patient age at the time of the survey was 49 years; the median post-injury period was 23 years and 5 months. The comorbidity rates for pancreatic endocrine and exocrine dysfunctions were 35.7% and 33.3%, respectively. No new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) was seen within 3 years of trauma, except in 1 patient who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. DM developed >15 years after trauma in 2 patients each in the pancreatectomy and non-pancreatectomy groups. Diarrhea exacerbated by fat intake was seen in 3 and 1 patient in the pancreatectomy and non-pancreatectomy groups, respectively. Both complications were more common in the pancreatectomy group, but without statistical significance. Although post-surgical pancreatic dysfunction may be absent at discharge, treatment for pancreatic trauma should take into account the possibility that pancreatectomy may accelerate DM onset.
Summary: This study aimed to examine the significance of intervention to improve medication adherence in long-term inpatients by providing psychoeducation and then elucidating the effects of this training in terms of patient knowledge and attitudes. Subjects were patients who had been hospitalized for more than 1 year after being admitted to a psychiatric hospital, had been diagnosed as F2 (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder) according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition, and were capable of verbal communication. Patients suspected of having dementia were excluded. Items surveyed were patient background, prescriptions, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score, Drug Attitude Inventory-10 (DAI-10) score, and Knowledge of Illness and Drugs Inventory (KIDI) score. The amount of medication taken and GAF, DAI-10, and KIDI scores were evaluated within 1 week of starting psychoeducation and within 1 week of completing psychoeducation. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar test was used to compare scores before and after intervention. The mean overall KIDI score increased significantly, and the mean overall DAI-10 score improved significantly after intervention. Furthermore, the mean overall KIDI score of very long-term inpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder increased significantly after intervention. Psychoeducation produced improvement in some areas of knowledge and attitudes towards medication among long-term inpatients. These results demonstrate that psychoeducation has an effect on long-term inpatients that is similar to the effect observed in earlier studies on patients leading community lives, including patients who have just been admitted or discharged and patients attending day care or outpatient visits.
Summary: This study clarified the characteristics of travelers who received hepatitis B vaccinations. Subjects were 233 Japanese travelers who visited our clinic prior to travel. We summarized the characteristics of the clients and performed two comparative studies: first, we compared a hepatitis B-vaccinated group with an unvaccinated group; second, we compared a group that had completed the hepatitis B vaccine series with a group that did not complete the series. The hepatitis B vaccine was administered to 152 clients. Factors positively associated with the hepatitis B vaccination (after adjusting for age and sex) included the following: travel for business or travel as an accompanying family member; travel to Asia; travel for a duration of a month or more; and, inclusion of the vaccine in a company or organization’s payment plan. Meanwhile, factors negatively associated with the vaccination were travel for leisure or education, and travel to North America or Africa. Among 89 record-confirmed cases, only 53 completed 3 doses. The completion rate was negatively associated with the scheduled duration of travel if it was from a month to less than a year (after adjusting for age and sex). The present study provides a basis for promoting vaccination compliance more vigorously among Japanese adults.
Summary: The transsacral approach is not routinely used for treating rectal tumors. We report the case of a 65-year-old man with a large adenoma at the posterior wall of the mid-rectum who was treated via the transsacral approach. The same lesion had been treated using transsacral endoscopic microsurgery 8 years previously. Moreover, 11 years previously he had undergone a laparotomy for bladder cancer, and an Indiana pouch had been constructed. Abdominal computed tomography showed that the pouch was adjacent to the rectum. Therefore, the less-invasive transsacral approach, rather than the transabdominal approach, was chosen for treatment. The lesion was successfully resected, without disturbing the pouch. Histological analysis indicated tubular adenoma, with a small focus of intramucosal adenocarcinoma, and negative margins. Thus, we achieved successful resection of mid-rectal lesions via the transsacral approach, without the morbidity associated with major laparotomy. We suggest that this procedure should be a part of a surgeon’s armamentarium.
Summary: We describe two cases of typical essential tremor with aspartic acidemia and mildly increased concentrations of plasma glutamic acid. Although this is a preliminary report, we emphasize the possibility of using amino acids, including aspartic acid, as biomarkers for the detection of essential tremor.