MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS
Online ISSN : 1347-5320
Print ISSN : 1345-9678
ISSN-L : 1345-9678
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-27 of 27 articles from this issue
  • G. Kaneyama, H. Koto, Y. Takigawa
    Article ID: MT-M2022025
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 20, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The effect of W and B addition on the superplastic deformation and grain growth of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni alloys with a crystal grain size of approximately 20 nm was investigated with the aim of improving the mechanical properties by maintaining fine grain sizes during superplastic deformation. A maximum elongation of 12% was recorded for electrodeposited Ni–1.8 at% W at a temperature of 350°C and a strain rate of 1.0 × 10−4 s−1. The electrodeposited Ni–W failed to exhibit superplasticity because the segregated W at the grain boundaries increased the energy required for grain boundary sliding. In contrast, the electrodeposited Ni–0.06 at% B exhibited superplasticity with a recorded elongation of 362% at a temperature of 450°C and a strain rate of 1.0 × 10−4 s−1. With the addition of B, the optimal superplastic strain rates of the electrodeposited Ni–B shifted to lower values than that of the electrodeposited Ni. The grain size and hardness of the electrodeposited Ni–B after superplastic deformation were smaller and higher, respectively, than those of the electrodeposited Ni. The addition of B successfully suppressed grain growth and improved the mechanical properties after superplastic deformation.

    Download PDF (2019K)
  • Hirobumi Tobe, Shunsuke Kojima, Eiichi Sato
    Article ID: MT-M2022034
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 20, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    It is desirable to develop high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) with a martensitic transformation start temperature (Ms) above 100°C and a recoverable strain of about 4–6% in the shape memory effect. The latter property is achieved with low variant reorientation stress due to easy detwinning of martensite and high plastic deformation stress due to precipitation strengthening. We previously demonstrated facilitation of detwinning for Ti–Zr–Ni–Pd quaternary alloy systems through controlling the crystal structure of martensite, and proposed that Ti–(15–20)Zr–49.7Pd (at%) and surrounding Ni-containing compositions are candidates of HTSMAs having low variant reorientation stress. On the other hand, the aging condition for precipitation strengthening was not optimized, since the candidate alloys show a complex precipitation behavior of two types of precipitates, Ti2Pd-type and H-phase. Therefore, in this study, the effects of aging on precipitation behavior, martensitic transformation temperatures, and shape memory properties were investigated for one of the candidate alloys, Ti–20Zr–49.7Pd, and an excellent shape memory effect with Ms above 130°C, a low reorientation stress around 200 MPa, a high plastic deformation stress around 1800 MPa, and a large recovery strain of 4.5% was achieved after an optimum aging treatment. On the other hand, short-range ordering of solute atoms occurs just above the reverse transformation temperature and decreases Ms, which would limit the number of shape recovery operations when the alloy is used as a device.

    Download PDF (2387K)
  • Hidechika Karasawa, Hiroki Shibasaki, Go Itohiya, Shinichiro Yamashita ...
    Article ID: MT-Z2022002
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 20, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Sand erosion is a phenomenon in which the collision of solid particles erodes a material surface. The rate of sand erosion is higher in carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) than in metallic materials. Therefore, CFRP requires a light and protective coating material. Herein, to improve the erosion resistance of CFRP, five polyurethane coated CFRPs with different glass transition temperatures were investigated at elevated temperatures, and a prediction formula of the erosion rate at the elevated temperatures was established. Furthermore, computational fluid dynamics was used to predict the surface temperature and erosion rate of fan exit guide vane (FEGV) when polyurethane coating was applied, and the coating thickness for FEGV in the erosion environment was estimated based on these predictions.

     

    This Paper was Originally Published in Japanese in J. Soc. Mater. Sci., Jpn. 70 (2021) 896–903. The caption of Fig. 10 is slightly modified.

    Fig. 13 Comparison of erosion rate of CFRP and UP2 in FEGV. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (3964K)
  • Li-Bin Niu, Hayato Kubota
    Article ID: MT-C2022000
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 13, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The effect of formic acid (HCOOH) in simulated boiler water containing chloride ions (Cl) on the pitting corrosion behavior of steam turbine blade material (13Cr steel) was investigated using electrochemical corrosion tests in addition to pit morphology analyses. Pit initiation was inhibited by the addition of 25–75 ppm HCOOH into the boiler water containing 100 ppm of Cl ions. Additions of 50 ppm and 75 ppm HCOOH into the boiler water containing 100 ppm of Cl both resulted in the formation of corrosion products as re-passivation films on the inner surfaces of the pits, which suppressed pit growth.

    Download PDF (2693K)
  • Fanhui Meng, Goro Miyamoto, Yoshikazu Todaka, Tadashi Furuhara
    Article ID: MT-H2021002
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In order to clarify the effect of deformation prior to nitriding and alloying elements on nitriding behavior in Fe–M binary alloys, pure iron and Fe–M (M = Al, Cr) binary ferritic alloys, which had been deformed by high pressure torsion (HPT) process, were plasma-nitrided at 843 K for 3.6 ks, then the microstructure and hardness of them were investigated. It was found that the effects of deformation on hardness of nitriding diffusion zone in pure iron and Fe–1Cr alloy were small. In contrast, the hardness of diffusion zone in Fe–1Al alloy was greatly increased by deformation because deformation promoted the precipitation of AlN more extensively than non-deformed specimen. In addition, deformation resulted in more homogeneous growth of the compound layer with the finer grain size of γ′ on the compound layer. This feature was observed most remarkably in Fe–1Al alloy, where needle-like γ′ compound layer was formed in the non-deformed specimens.

     

    This Paper was Originally Published in Japanese in J. Japan Soc. Heat Treatment 60 (2020) 239–246. The captions of Fig. 5, 7 are slightly modified.

    Fig. 7 The α orientation maps and SEM micrographs at 25 um depths from nitriding surface in the regions of γ = 2.6 and γ = 78.5 of (a) Fe–1Al and (b) Fe–1Cr alloys nitrided at 843 K for 3.6 ks. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (8391K)
  • Ryohei Shinno, Makoto Hino, Ryoichi Kuwano, Koji Monden, Masaaki Sato, ...
    Article ID: MT-L2022002
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, A2017-T4 aluminum alloy was plated with electroless Ni–P with different phosphorus content and rotary bending fatigue test was conducted to investigate the effect of hydrogen by plating on fatigue properties. The fatigue strength of the low-phosphorus type Ni–P plated specimen was higher than that of the untreated specimen, while that of the high-phosphorus type plated specimen was much lower. It is clear that the fatigue strength differs greatly depending on the phosphorus content in the plating film. The decrease in fatigue strength of the high phosphorus type plating specimen was attributed to hydrogen induced by plating from hydrogen analysis. Thus, despite the previous report that 2000 series aluminum alloys do not exhibit hydrogen embrittlement in slow strain rate tensile tests under wet condition, it was found that A2017-T4 aluminum alloy undergo hydrogen embrittlement when the alloy is plated with high-phosphorus type electroless Ni–P and fatigue-tested on rotary bending machine.

     

    This Paper was Originally Published in Japanese in J. Jpn. Inst. Light. Met. 71 (2021) 450–454.

    Fig. 4 Relation between stress amplitude (σa) and number of cycles to failure (N) for the un-treated and plated specimens corresponding to Fig. 2(b) and (c). Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (2917K)
  • Maki Ashida, Minami Hanai, Peng Chen, Takao Hanawa
    Article ID: MT-M2021242
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy with and without heat treatment was processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT), and subsequently its microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. Herein, the development of the microstructure by HPT processing significantly depended on the initial microstructures even though their minimum grain size was approximately equal and less than 100 nm. The needle-like structure was fragmented into several grains by HPT processing with a small number of revolutions, and grain refinement was more easily achieved than the equiaxed structure. The Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy with a duplex microstructure comprising equiaxed and needle-like structures was obtained with an adequate balance of tensile strength (1280 MPa) and elongation to fracture (22%). The results show that the combination of the initial duplex microstructure of equiaxed α grain, needle-like structure of the α′ phase, and the resultant inhomogeneous microstructure obtained by HPT processing through a moderate number of revolutions is effective in achieving a better balance of mechanical properties in the Ti–6Al–7Nb alloy.

    Download PDF (8196K)
  • Akira Takeuchi, Takeshi Wada, Takeshi Nagase, Kenji Amiya
    Article ID: MT-M2022004
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Non-equiatomic high-entropy alloys (HEAs) for which the mixing (Smix), configuration (Sconfig), and equivalent ideal (Sideal) entropies satisfy Smix > Sconfig = Sideal were reported for Co–Cr–V–Fe–(Al, Ru, or Ni) systems. Three Co20Cr20Fe20V10X30 (X = Al, Ru, or Ni) alloys (referred to as Al30, Ru30, and Ni30 alloys) were studied here using conventional arc melting and subsequent annealing. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that the Al30, Ru30, and Ni30 alloys annealed at 1600 K for 1 h exhibited B2 ordered, hcp, and fcc structures, respectively. A single structure was verified by scanning electron microscopy observations combined with elemental mapping via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thermodynamic calculations of Smix normalized by the gas constant (Smix/R) revealed that Al30, Ru30, and Ni30 alloys at 1600 K had Smix/R = 0.833, 1.640, and 1.618, respectively, where the latter two alloys exceeded Sconfig/R = 1.557. A compositionally optimized Al-containing HEA for Smix with a single bcc structure was computationally predicted and verified experimentally for the Al6Co27Cr34Fe19V14 alloy (Al6 alloy). The non-equiatomic Al6 alloy with Sconfig/R = 1.480 exhibited Smix/R of 1.703 at 1600 K, surpassing Sconfig/R = ln 5 = 1.609 for the exact equiatomic (EE) quinary alloy. The bcc Al6, hcp Ru30, and fcc Ni30 alloys were regarded as ultra-high mixing entropy alloys (UMHEAs) according to Smix > Sconfig. Structure-dependent Smix and the mixing enthalpy of constituent binary EE alloys are useful for future UHMEAs as a subset of HEAs.

    Download PDF (6215K)
  • Ruibin Mei, Li Bao, Xianli Shi, Xiwei Qi, Changsheng Li, Xianghua Liu
    Article ID: MT-M2022012
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Hot rolling combined with inter-pass annealing is an important method for increasing plastic deformation and refining the grain size of magnesium alloys. In this study, we statistically analyzed the influence of the number of annealing treatments and the annealing holding time (5–20 min) between hot rolling passes on the microstructure of AZ31 alloy after four rolling passes and inter-pass annealing. In addition, an exponential model was proposed to predict the functional relationship between the average grain size and the number of annealing treatments and holding time. After a single rolling pass, the average grain size increased exponentially with increasing holding time. However, increasing the annealing holding time to more than 15 min resulted in a nonhomogeneous microstructure owing to grain coarsening and secondary recrystallization. The grain refinement effect weakened with the increasing number of rolling passes, whereas the microstructural uniformity was significantly improved by multi-pass rolling deformation under the same annealing conditions. The higher amount of grain boundary energy accumulated during multi-pass rolling clearly increased the grains size of the dynamic recrystallized in the early stages with increasing holding time in the subsequent annealing processes. The average grain size was determined to be an exponential function of both the number of annealing treatments and holding time. The predicted average grain diameters were in good agreement with the measured results, thus validating the proposed method for establishing the average grain size in hot deformation processes.

    Fig. 5 Grain size after the first rolling pass and annealing treatment with different holding times. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (5692K)
  • Masahiko Hatakeyama, Koichiro Nagae, Masaki Naganawa, Ichiro Yoshino, ...
    Article ID: MT-MA2022004
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In recent years, stainless steel has been used as a separator in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). An electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed as a surface treatment, in which titanium nitride (TiN) is coated on stainless steel to impart conductivity. Using the EPD method, the surface of SUS316L steel was coated with three types of TiN–styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) with different TiN particle diameters and impurity contents to improve the contact resistance. A smaller impurity content in the TiN resulted in a lower contact resistance. Furthermore, when the TiN particle size was between 50 nm and 1.5 µm, a larger particle size provided a lower contact resistance. In the polarization curve measurements, no deterioration of the corrosion resistance was observed for TiN–SBR. At the potential of an actual PEFC environment, low current densities were maintained in both the anodic and cathodic environments. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis before and after the polarization test confirmed that there was no TiN detachment in the PEFC environment. The above results suggest that TiN-coated SUS316L steel is a promising separator for PEFCs.

    Fig. 4 Contact resistance between the GDL and SUS316L stainless steels coated with TiN with different impurity contents. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (5609K)
  • Kaede Sarayama, Kenichi Nakano, Yusuke Shimada, Ami Morihiro, Masahiko ...
    Article ID: MT-MA2022023
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Polarization tests of the β-phase (Mg17Al12) in Mg–Al alloys were conducted using a 0.1 M NaCl solution (pH 11); Ecorr of the β-phase was −1.377 V. When Ag or Zn was added to the β-phase, Ecorr increased depending on the standard potential of the additive elements. However, the additive elements showed no significant difference in passive behavior during the test. This suggested that the additive elements did not affect the dissolution of the protective surface film. The same polarization test was conducted on pure Mg, and the results were compared with those of the β-phase. The anodic regions of the two polarization curves had different profiles. It was confirmed that the protective surface films formed on the pure Mg and β-phase had different properties.

    Fig. 7 Polarization curves of single β samples measured in 0.1 M NaCl (pH 11) solution at 298 K. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (5321K)
  • Shinji Koyama, Ikuo Shohji, Takako Muraoka
    Article ID: MT-MC2022007
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The effect of formic acid surface modification process on the bond strength of the solid-state bonded interface of tin and nickel was investigated by SEM observations of fractured surfaces and interfacial microstructures. Tin and nickel surfaces were modified by boiling in formic acid for 600 s. Diffusion bonding was performed at bonding temperatures of 393–493 K under a load of 7 MPa (bonding time for 1.8 ks). The bond strength increased with increasing bonding temperature irrespective of surface modification process. As a result of surface modification process, bonded joints were obtained at a bonding temperature 70 K lower than that required for non-modified surfaces used, and the bond strength was comparable to that of the base metal. When the surface modification process was not applied, the fracture mode was brittle. As the bond strength increased with increasing bonding temperature, the fracture mode changed to ductile. With surface modification process, this tendency was observed at a bonding temperature 70 K lower than without it. The results suggest that these changes in the fractured surface between tin and nickel were accompanied by expansion of the metal-to-metal contact area, which contributed to the increase in bond strength.

    Fig. 3 Effect of surface modification on the relation between strength of joint and bonding temperature. The bonding pressure and time for all joints were 7 MPa and 1.8 ks respectively. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (3645K)
  • Makoto Iioka, Wataru Kawanabe, Ikuo Shohji, Tatsuya Kobayashi
    Article ID: MT-MC2022012
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the conditions of fabrication of cellulose nano-fiber (CNF) composited Ni plating film by electroplating method and clarifying the codeposition mechanism. The electroplating was carried out on SUS304H using Watts bath with CNF suspended. The obtained films were evaluated by surface and cross-sectional observation including elemental mapping analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and Vickers hardness testing. The obtained film had a double layer structure parallel to the plating surface, and the layer on the substrate side contained a large amount of CNF. This layer is considered to be formed by physical trapping of CNF in the pitting corrosion and the delaminated area inside the substrate caused by the effect of chloride ion and hydrogen gas. It was also suggested that the electrostatic repulsion between CNF and the substrate was one of the factors that resulted in little CNF codeposition within the surface side layer. In addition, the Vickers hardness of the surface was improved by approximately 30% compared to electroplated Ni film without CNF.

    Fig. 11 Schematic model of codeposition mechanism of Ni-CNF composite film by electroplating method. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (4932K)
  • Keiko Kikuchi, Yuta Tanifuji, Weiwei Zhou, Naoyuki Nomura, Akira Kawas ...
    Article ID: MT-Y2021005
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The packing density of powder bed is one of the critical parameters affecting the quality of the final parts fabricated via powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. In this study the packing density of the first layer of the powder bed was experimentally estimated from the packing densities of recoated powder with different number of layers. It is found that the packing density of the first layer is much lower than the apparent density of powder and the macro-scale packing density increases as the number of recoated layer increases. Furthermore, recoating simulation using discrete element method (DEM) was conducted to investigate the deposition mechanism of the powder at the particulate-scale. The simulation results showed the packing density of powder bed increases as the number of recoated layer increases, similar to the experimental results. This is caused by the rearrangement of the powder in the powder bed stimulated by the supplied powder. Also, the packing density of the powder bed was not uniform in the thickness direction, and the top surface layer which affects the quality of manufactured parts had almost the same packing density as that of the first recoated layer independently of the number of recoated layers.

     

    This Paper was Originally Published in Japanese in J. Jpn. Soc. Powder Powder Metallurgy 68 (2021) 457–463.

    Download PDF (2588K)
  • Masayuki Takada, Hideaki Matsubara, Tomohiro Tsutsumi, Yoshihiro Mori, ...
    Article ID: MT-Y2022000
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 22, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    WC–Co ultrafine-grained cemented carbide with the combined addition of Ti(C,N) and Cr3C2 was studied for microstructure and mechanical properties. In particular, the strength (transverse rupture strength) of the alloy was examined in detail comparing it with other kinds of cemented carbides. The WC grain size of the alloy with the single addition of Ti(C,N) or Cr3C2 became finer with increasing the amount of the additive. The combined addition of Ti(C,N) and Cr3C2 made the WC grain size further finer and the microstructure more homogeneous. The hardness of Ti(C,N)–Cr3C2 added alloys increased with decreasing the average grain size of WC or the mean free path of the binder phase, but the fracture toughness decreased. The strength of Ti(C,N)–Cr3C2 added alloy varied depending on the amount of the additive. It was noted that the strength of 3 vol%Ti(C,N)–0.5 vol%Cr3C2 alloy was the best and reached 4.6 GPa on average and 5.0 GPa at the maximum. It was observed that such a high strength alloy was shattered after the transverse rupture strength test and so that it was difficult to detect the fracture origin. Based on the limiting strength that is generated in normal-grained cemented carbide, it was considered that a high strength level exceeding the limiting strength of normal-grained alloy was achieved in the ultrafine-grained cemented carbide obtained in this study. The WC–Co ultrafine-grained cemented carbide with Ti(C,N)–Cr3C2 was superior in strength compared to conventional cemented carbide. New applications can be expected to take advantage of these characteristics.

     

    This Paper was Originally Published in Japanese in J. Jpn. Soc. Powder Powder Metallurgy 67 (2020) 10–17.

    Fig. 9 Relative cumulative frequency of T.R.S. (a) WC(1.0 µm)–16.4 vol%Co, (b1) WC(0.4 µm)–1.7 vol%Cr3C2–16.4 vol%Co, (b2) WC(0.4 µm)–1.3 vol%VC–1.9 vol%Cr3C2–16.4 vol%Co, (b3) WC(0.4 µm)–3 vol%Ti(C,N)–0.5 vol%Cr3C2–16.4 vol%Co. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (6236K)
  • Makoto Hino, Takayuki Hashimoto, Yuki Fujino, Ryoichi Kuwano, Teruto K ...
    Article ID: MT-L2022001
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Effects of anodization by using a phosphate solution and via laser irradiation on the adhesive properties of an AZ91D magnesium alloy were evaluated to produce multi-materials for the purpose of fabrication of the lightening materials. AZ91D sheets were anodized, and then post-treatment was carried out by dipping the sheets in nitric acid solution to improve the adhesive property. The anodized film suppressed the reflection of laser beam and improves laser workability. It was possible to obtain a joining strength of more than 10 MPa by drilling the AZ91D sheets treated with anodization by optimal laser irradiation. Furthermore, the anodization in phosphate solution modifies the surface of the magnesium alloy to an inactive state, thus suppressing the deterioration of adhesiveness due to oxidation that occurs in the untreated material.

     

    This Paper was Originally Published in Japanese in J. JILM 71 (2021) 241–245.

    Fig. 5 Cross-sectional macroscopic photographs of each specimen after laser irradiation. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (2926K)
  • Shun Hamashima, Akio Nishimoto
    Article ID: MT-M2021241
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a nitriding method that avoids the edge effects and arcing that occur during conventional direct current plasma nitriding (DCPN). Furthermore, applying voltage to a sample during ASPN allows the nitriding rate to be increased (S-DCPN). While steel is the predominant screen material, there are few reports of non-ferrous material screens. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of a Ni screen on ASPN and S-DCPN. Low carbon steel S15C was treated by ASPN and S-DCPN using a Ni screen. A steel plate cold commercial (SPCC) screen was also prepared for comparison. Plasma nitriding was performed at 773 K for 240 min under an atmosphere of 75% N2 + 25% H2 at a gas pressure of 200 Pa. After the nitriding treatment, X-ray diffraction (XRD), glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES), cross-sectional microstructure observation, surface microstructure observation, Vickers hardness test, and corrosion test were performed. As a result, when the Ni screen was used for S15C steel nitriding, more nitrogen atoms diffused into the sample than that when the SPCC screen was used; furthermore, nickel atoms diffused within the samples treated by both ASPN and S-DCPN using the Ni screen. ASPN-treated samples had less surface hardness and were higher corrosion resistance when prepared using the Ni screen than the SPCC screen. S-DCPN-treated samples had greater surface hardness and were less corrosion resistance when prepared using the Ni screen than the SPCC screen.

     

    This Paper was Originally Published in Japanese in J. Japan Inst. Met. Mater. 85 (2021) 430–438.

    Fig. 7 GD-OES nitrogen profiles of S15C samples treated by (a) ASPN and (b) S-DCPN using Ni and SPCC screen. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (4078K)
  • Li Li, Lijun Liu, Yoji Shibutani
    Article ID: MT-M2022017
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The atomistic interactions between screw dislocations and coherent twin boundaries were investigated in face-centered metals of Al, Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, and Pd using molecular dynamics and nudged elastic band method. The interaction mechanism was affected by stable and unstable stacking fault energies predicted by various potentials. In Al, Cu, and Pd, screw dislocation would be absorbed by the twin boundary. However, transmissions were observed in Ni, Au, Ag, and Pd with another potential. It was found that both the critical interaction stress and energy barrier decreased as the reciprocal of the difference between unstable and stable stacking fault energies increased. Activation volumes and strain rate sensitivities were estimated around 14 b3 to 27 b3, where b is the Burgers vector, and 0.011 to 0.023, respectively. The results for Cu and Ni were further compared with experiments and showed good agreements.

    Download PDF (2686K)
  • Tatsuro Morita, Yohei Oka, Seiichiro Tsutsumi, Shogo Takesue, Norio Hi ...
    Article ID: MT-M2022018
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this study, we systematically investigated the effects of short-time heat treatment on the mechanical properties and fatigue strength of Ti–6Al–4V alloy produced by selective laser melting (hereafter SLM material). The short-time heat treatment was composed of the following two heat treatments: the first treatment was short-time solution treatment (ST treatment) in which the SLM material was heated at 1173–1298 K for 60 s and water-quenched; the second treatment was short-time aging treatment (AG treatment) in which the ST-treated materials were reheated at 823 K for 40 s and air-cooled. Before the heat treatments, the microstructure of the SLM material was composed of the acicular α′ martensite phase and the metastable β phase. When the ST treatment was conducted at 1173 K and 1223 K lower than the β transformation temperature of Ti–6Al–4V alloy (1271 K), the α′ phase was transformed to the stable α phase during heating and the new fine α′ phase was generated in the metastable β phase by water quenching. These microstructural changes reduced the static strength but increased the ductility. When the ST treatment was carried out at 1298 K higher than the β transformation temperature, the microstructure was almost the same as that of the SLM material and the mechanical properties were not greatly altered. AG treatment of the ST-treated materials induced the precipitation of the small α phase and reduced the volume fraction of the metastable β phase. This treatment improved the static strength but reduced the ductility. The fatigue strength of the SLM material was much lower than that of the wrought material (63%) because the molding defects formed inside caused stress concentration and accelerated the initiation of fatigue cracks. However, the ST treatment at 1298 K and its combination with AG treatment effectively suppressed the initiation of fatigue cracks and markedly improved the fatigue strength to the same level as that of the wrought material. To improve the fatigue strength, the ST treatment at 1298 K was more effective than its combination with AG treatment because the volume fraction of the metastable β phase was higher and the compressive residual stress near the surface was higher.

    Fig. 3 Microstructures: (a) results of EBSD analysis and (b) illustrations of microstructural changes. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (8641K)
  • Zenji Horita
    Article ID: MT-M2022021
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This paper introduces the 11 best papers awarded in 2021 by Materials Transactions. Their brief summaries are given to overview current research areas. The best papers were carefully selected from the 6 different research areas such as (1) materials physics, (2) microstructures of materials, (3) mechanics of materials, (4) materials chemistry, (5) materials processing, and (6) engineering materials and their applications. Six out of the 11 best papers are those specially selected for young scientists whose ages are 35 or below. An important trend in the year of 2020 is that four out of the 11 best papers are concerned with high-entropy alloys, reflecting current research based on a national project.

    Download PDF (7092K)
  • Mingjun Li, Takuya Tamura, Koichi Takahashi
    Article ID: F-M2022804
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 08, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In the present study, we solidified JIS A7204 and A6022 (7204 and 6022 in short hereafter) aluminum alloys using an electromagnetic vibration (EMV) technique as a function of vibration frequency. The solidified structures were qualitatively observed, and then average grain size was quantitatively measured using the Image-Pro Plus® software by a centroid method. Similarly to our previous observations of other alloy systems, the average grain size versus vibration frequency in both alloys exhibits a “V-shaped” relation; it reaches minimum of approximately 50 µm at the frequency of f = 1000 Hz in 7204 alloys and around 61 µm from the frequency of f = 500 Hz to f = 750 Hz in 6022 alloys. The microstructure formation was discussed when considering the substantial difference in electrical resistivity between the primary aluminum solid solution and the remaining liquid, which resulted in an uncoupled movement between the primary mobile solid and remaining sluggish liquid. Possible influences of different solute elements on solidification structures were briefly presented.

    Download PDF (3754K)
  • Masaki Moriuchi, Yoshiharu Kariya, Mao Kondo, Yoshihiko Kanda
    Article ID: MT-MC2022015
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 08, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The creep deformation mechanism of Sn–Ag–Cu alloy doped with Bi and Sb (SACBiSb) alloys is theoretically and experimentally analyzed in order to clarify the effect of solid solution additives in Sn–Ag–Cu alloys. The theoretical prediction results and test results are found to mostly agree with each other. The breakaway stress which is the stress at the transition from Class II to Class I in particular is finely reproduced in the theoretical prediction, with a stress of 25 MPa found both by the prediction and test results. In the stress range where the stress is higher than the breakaway stress, the creep strength of SACBiSb is higher than that of Sn–Ag–Cu, while it was predicted that the creep strength of Sn–Ag–Cu would be superior to that of SACBiSb in the range of stress lower than the breakaway stress. The thermal fatigue life of SACBiSb was predicted to be longer than that of Sn–Ag–Cu in the temperature profile mainly used above the breakaway stress. However, in the temperature profile mainly used in the low-stress range, a reversal of the creep strength between SACBiSb and Sn–Ag–Cu was predicted to occur and the loss of the superiority of SACBiSb in the thermal fatigue life was also predicted.

    Download PDF (3634K)
  • Tatsuya Kobayashi, Akifumi Kubo, Ikuo Shohji
    Article ID: MT-MC2022002
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 28, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In the present study, plating films with three-dimensional structures were formed by using a plating bath mixed with Cu sulfate and Ni amidosulfate. Furthermore, the effect of the shape of plating films, which was changed by plating at different potentials, on the adhesive force with epoxy resin was investigated. The results show that when the ratio of the concentration of Ni amidosulfate to that of Cu sulfate was 150:15 (g/L) and the potential was set to −1.0 V to −2.0 V, dendritic plating films were formed. The average peak shear force of the specimen joined with epoxy resin between two Cu plates with the dendritic plating films formed at the potential of −1.5 V, was 180.1 N. The dendritic plating films had higher adhesive force than the smooth plating film through the anchoring effect.

    Fig. 6 Peak shear force of adhesive joint specimens with Cu–Ni alloy plating films obtained by constant potential electroplating. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (3016K)
  • Soichi Homma, Yuusuke Takano, Takeshi Watanabe, Kazuhiro Murakami, Mas ...
    Article ID: MT-MC2022001
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 18, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The number of radio systems used for global communications or advanced features is increasing in electronic devices such as smart phones. As mobile information and telecommunications terminals are miniaturized and advanced features are added by manufacturers, measures to prevent electromagnetic interference among electronic components on high-density mounting boards are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, it is crucial to develop methods for forming electromagnetic wave shield films in semiconductor devices. Stable sputtering processes are increasingly used for the deposition of shield films. Although metal is often used as a shield film, the mechanism of the adhesion of the sputtered film to the mold resin in semiconductor devices has not been discussed. In this work, sputtering was used to deposit a stainless steel film as a ground film for a copper wave shield film and the factors that affected the adhesion of the stainless steel film to the mold resin were investigated. For the copper film with no ground film, adhesion decreased as the resin filler content decreased. For the copper/stainless steel film, adhesion remained high as the filler content of the mold resin decreased. The argon and nitrogen plasma etching formed carbides and nitrides at the interface of the mold resin and a stainless steel film, whereas argon etching formed carbides. Based on the experimental results, we proposed that the adhesion between the stainless steel film and the mold resin mainly arose from the carbides and nitrides reacting with iron and chromium in the stainless steel film.

    Adhesion mechanism of mold resin and stainless steel formed by the sputtering method. Fullsize Image
    Download PDF (4015K)
  • Hiroki Kanai, Yoshiharu Kariya, Hiroshige Sugimoto, Yoshiki Abe, Yoshi ...
    Article ID: MT-MC2022006
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 11, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    A method for predicting the lifetime of fatigue crack network formation in die-attach joints is considered through experiments on high-speed thermal cycling using a Si/solder/Si joint specimen and the mechanism is identified. Equibiaxial stresses are generated in the solder layer because thermal deformation of the solder is constrained by the Si, which causes continuous initiation and propagation of crisscross-shaped cracks. When the crack density is sufficiently high, crack growth is arrested by collisions between cracks, and the formation of the fatigue crack network is completed. Based on these results, development of the damaged area and arrest of the development by collisions between the cracks is expressed in terms of extended volume theory incorporating crack initiation and propagation functions for solder as well as considering the damage rate equation. The experimental result for the relationship between the damage ratio in the die-attach joint and the number of cycles under each thermal condition are reproduced by the damage rate equation.

    Download PDF (3075K)
  • Yuka Yamada, Shinji Fukumoto, Kozo Fujimoto
    Article ID: MT-MC2022003
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The bonding between copper and epoxy resin is investigated using a C–H–Si thin film to achieve highly adhesive and reliable bonding between the resin mold and the copper substrate in power modules. In this study, high-temperature (473 K) testing is performed to improve the reliability of this junction after high-temperature operation. The bond strength decreases and delamination occurs at the film–copper interface after high-temperature testing. The decrease in bond strength may be due to the decrease in the film–copper interfacial strength because of the decrease in the binding force between copper and oxygen upon heating. When Fe and Cr, which have high oxygen bond disassociation energies, are intercalated at the film–copper interface, the bond strength improves after high-temperature testing and a bond strength above 30 MPa was retained after 1000 h.

    This study is a novel method of dissimilar bonding based on chemical and physical effects of C–H–Si film existing between copper and resin. Further, it is an effective method of bonding to achieve high-temperature operation of a resin-molded power module, which can contribute to future advancements in power electronics products.

    Download PDF (2446K)
  • Masaaki Nakai, Mitsuo Niinomi, Takahiro Oneda
    Article ID: L-M2010824
    Published: February 01, 2011
    Advance online publication: January 13, 2011
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Announcement Concerning Article Retraction
    The following paper has been withdrawn from the database of Mater. Trans., because a description based on a misinterpretation of the experimental results was found by the authors in advance of publication after acceptance.
    Mater.Trans. 52(2011) Advance view.
    Improvement in Fatigue Strength of Biomedical β-Type Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr Alloy while Maintaining Low Young’s Modulus through Optimizing ω-Phase Precipitation
    Download PDF (33K)
feedback
Top